Each dacket dreams not only to increase the yield of plants, but also to grow highly thermal-loving varieties. Then you need to decide what is more profitable and more efficient to use, a greenhouse or a greenhouse, and what a significant difference between them.
Features of greenhouses and greenhouses
If we speak simple, then the greenhouses are a simplified version of the greenhouse. The height of the first designs covered with glass or film is only about half a meter. In the greenhouses, warm air inside is formed not only from the Sun, but also from the altitude of manure and other organic fertilizers, since seedlings are planted with their use.
The first greenhouses were organized by type of greenhouses and were intended exclusively for growing rare species of exotic plants. It is known that Glass Oranges existed in France in the XVI century. In modern versions, greenhouses for the coating are increasingly used not only the usual polyethylene film, but also innovative materials such as cellular polycarbonate. Therefore, modern designs have become more easy, but it remains no less durable.
The main similarity of greenhouses and greenhouses consists in the principle of the action of the structure when it is necessary to protect agricultural crops from negative external influences and provide them with optimal temperature regime. At the same time, according to the method of growing the greenhouses can be hydroponic systems (suitable for salad, green onions, parsley, dill) or soil systems that are used for cabbage and tomato.
There are main differences and nuances of greenhouses and greenhouses.
- The greenhouse is a compact design, and the optimal height of the greenhouse is 2-2.5 meters.
- Simplified greenhouse design allows you to plan a bed exclusively on the ground. While in the greenhouse you can show fantasy and using various elements to use such techniques like beds on racks or hydroponics.
- The greenhouse will serve only one season, and the next year will have to re-build this temporary design. The greenhouse is more monumental and durable, will have only time from time to time to correct the shortcomings of its design, for example, to change the coating.
- In greenhouses, heating plants occurs exclusively at the expense of the Sun, as well as the use of humus and manure, and in advanced greenhouses such options such as artificial heating and a system controlling the humidity of soil and air, a complex ventilation and air conditioning system and many other nuances that will help Get a maximum of a crop.
- There is no doors in the greenhouse. To make manipulations with plants, it is enough to open it upper or side. There are doors in the greenhouse, and windows (vents) for additional ventilation.
- Greenhouses can be transported or moved on the site, as they are portable, the greenhouse is a stationary design.
- As a rule, greenhouses are used for seedlings in spring and for temporary shelter of some crops during frosts, and in the greenhouse you can cultivate plants all year round due to the possibility of placing heating.
- In the design of the greenhouse can be located at any time of the year and in any weather. Working with a greenhouse, it will be necessary to be on the street, and therefore, work in the rain is unlikely to succeed.
- In the greenhouse you can only grow seedlings or unpretentious plants, such as onions, salad or radishes. And in the greenhouse you can provide the necessary microclimate for almost any, even a very thermal-loving plant.
To build such a sustainable and strong structure as a greenhouse, steel, aluminum, glass, cellular (cellular) polycarbonate, polyethylene film. At the same time, for a large greenhouse, a strong foundation may be needed. As a carcass, greenhouses are usually used aluminum or galvanized profile, And if there is a desire to build a wooden foundation, then it is necessary to treat special antiseptics against the impact of external factors.
When choosing a greenhouse cover, it is necessary to understand that the film is popular, but, unfortunately, a very short-lived version from the “Cheap and angrito” series. Yes, and thermal insulation in such a greenhouse leaves much to be desired. If finances allow, it is better to stop the choice on glass, which perfectly misses the light and does not give warm. At the same time, glass is suitable only for single-sided and duplex types of greenhouses.
The most reliable coating material is a cellular polycarbonate. It is a multi-layer, durable, perfectly holds heat and at the same time passes quite a lot of light. Thanks to the air in the space between “honeycombs”, heat is delayed inside. It is often used by dacnis because of its available cost and good frost resistance (can withstand frost to -50 degrees Celsius). In addition, it is slightly in the processing and perfectly nervous, and also durable (warranty period of use of such material – 20 years). This is a great option for those who live in the northern regions. For classic types of greenhouses worth choosing polycarbonate 4 or 6 mm thick.
Polyethylene films have many differences:
- For snowy winter it is worth choosing a reinforced film.
- The highest light transpusual ability of the usual film, but it is fragile, so it will be suitable for the designs “For one season”.
- The stabilized film with antiphog is ideal for seedlings, and condensate is not formed under it.
- The light scattering film reflects intense ultraviolet and infrared rays, thereby protecting the plants from exposure to unnecessarily bright sun.
The strongest of the films is copolymer, since it can withstand any gusts of the wind and is a frost-resistant, as it does not even crack up to -80ºС, so it is chosen for the harsh climate. The foamed film is perfectly retaining heat, but has a low light transpusual ability. This option is suitable for southern regions, where many sunny days a year.
Semi-automated greenhouses are equipped with drip irrigation system and automated moisture maintenance. And in non-automated designs everything is done in the old manner, but with the soul. But physical forces will have to spend a lot. Among the additional functions there is also a system of air conditioning, temperature regime and ventilation adjustment. At the same time, the role of the “controller” can perform a computer in which all modes are programmed. And for additional heating it is worth purchasing electric, water or steam heaters.
Types of designs
Making a greenhouse can be quickly. For this you do not need special construction skills. Need a buggy frame with a removable roof. To cover the greenhouse, quite ordinary polyethylene film, because this is the design “for one season”. Glass and polycarbonate are less likely due to their higher cost.
Varieties in greenhouse designs and greenhouses set. It is worth paying attention to the most popular options from Russian manufacturers. The dimensions of all greenhouses are usually small, their height does not exceed 1.5 meters. The main types of greenhouse designs – observer and “butterfly”. The advantage of the first option is mobility, and the second feature is the possibility of mounting from window frames.
Greenhouse is quite able to make each of the primary materials available in the country. And you can cover it as an ordinary polyethylene film and glass of old frames. In greenhouses there are no doors and heating, as in greenhouses. Heating here is carried out exclusively by sunlight, as well as organic fertilizers such as manure or compost.
In the absence of free time and the availability of financial opportunities, you can order an advanced advanced design of the greenhouse “Excellent”.
Its advantage is convenient dimensions (width is 1.15 m, height – 1.15 m, length – from 4.2 to 5.6 m) and affordable price from 1400 to 1700 rubles (as of 2018). Modern technologies for the production of such greenhouses make it possible to significantly increase their durability, practicality, strength and functionality.
The “Excellent” model is a frame of plastic arcs with engined with roofing material and stretched to arcs with ribbons that helps not to sag. Another convenient part is the door of zipper from both ends, so that from time to time it was possible to air seedlings. At the same time, the “doors” is enough to throw on arcs – and no difficulties in contrast to ordinary structures when you have to lift all the material.
As an observer material, the “Excellent” model is used by Rifehenhouse SSS 60, whose strength and durability at height. And if the bad weather happens with a lot of precipitation or strong wind gusts, you can be sure that such a greenhouse will pass this test. And all thanks to the “sleeve” channels in the arcs of the frame. They do not wear out for a long time, since they are made of durable material, which increases the service life of this design.
If we talk about greenhouses, they provide even more opportunities to choose a design that can be stationary or collapsible. At the same time, as a rule, the customer determines which form or configuration will be a greenhouse.
To find the perfect and durable option for a certain area and for those plants that there is a desire to cultivate, it is worth considering not only the form, material and the degree of light design of the design, but also many other subtleties and nuances.
Forms in greenhouses may be as follows:
- Single and double;
- with vertical or inclined walls;
The most popular type is Arched form, Since the layer of snow can not harm this coating. Such greenhouses are resistant to winds, and the installation as simple as possible, and you can always extend them in length.
Another traditional and universal shape of the greenhouse in the form of “house” is Double. At the same time, the walls can be both at right angles to the ground and under stupid.
The advantages of the design of the “Domik” set as:
- ease of installation;
- the ability to use for the frame “Prudial Material”, which is available on each dacha, for example, wooden bars;
- the ability to use the roofing material of any type;
- You can choose the angle of the skates and the height of the skate;
- Do not need snowstand, since the sediments naturally descend from the roof.
It should be borne in mind that in this design there are many connections in the framework and the trim. So that the roof is as sealed as possible, it is worth using a cellular polycarbonate with a thickness of more than 6 mm.
A very original form is Dome, A reminder of a semifection where many segments of various geometric shape are used, which ensures uniform distribution of the load on the frame and, accordingly, its maximum strength. That is why even heavy glass will be suitable for the sheath. These designs are neither wind nor numerous precipitation. Due to the high stability of the design, they are offered to use for seismic zones.
Single-car Greenhouses, in fact, are attacking, because they can be placed next to any construction, such as a warehouse or summer kitchen. Unfortunately, only one-sided illumination is available here. Therefore, such a type of greenhouses will suit the brass-level plants.
Frames of greenhouses are most often made of steel or aluminum. When choosing a material for a frame, you need to pay attention, is there a protective coating from steel frames. It is it that prolongs the life of the country’s design and protects it from rust. Some greenhouses are additionally covered with powder paints. In addition, the design for the cottage from steel will cost almost two times cheaper than aluminum.
For aluminum base, an important rule is that the material is anodized – this means that there should be a special moisture resistant film on the metal surface. The only minus of a light carcass from aluminum is the inability to use heavy types of coating, as well as the likelihood that snow, wind and other atmospheric sediments can deform aluminum racks.
What to choose?
Given the similarities, features, as well as the differences in various designs, the choice can be implemented only after evaluating personal requirements for crop and, of course, financial capabilities. Not the last amount in the choice of construction for growing vegetables and colors and weather conditions of concrete locality have.
To determine the need for expensive and complicated greenhouse design or simple greenhouse for one season, It is important to know what it will be erected:
- For seedlings or shelter shoots from bad weather, a mobile greenhouse is suitable or easy to operate the design “Butterfly” from window frames.
- If you want to get a rich harvest of such thermo-loving crops like peppers or tomatoes, you need to bet on a stationary greenhouse with a reliable frame and concrete foundation. It must be equipped with a heating system and other additional features.
Soviets of specialists will help to give the greenhouse of durability and excellent wear resistance, therefore The following valuable recommendations should be followed:
- In order to inside the greenhouse, condensate was not formed, it is necessary to reliably sew the design seams;
- If plans to create a design with a height of more than 2 meters, then it is necessary to provide it with additional support with reinforcing beams;
- The most important criterion in the construction of its own greenhouse is to make it the most convenient and functional to minimize labor costs. To do this, it is recommended to use “smart” systems of watering, ventilation and heating;
- The type of frame and the design of the greenhouse should be chosen based on the climatic features of the area (more durable and persistent options from steel are suitable for snow regions, and light aluminum structures – where little snow);
- If the greenhouse is needed exclusively in the warm season, that is, it makes sense to make her design collapsible;
- If the homemade frame will be made of wooden bars, they need to be coated with special moisture and bioprotective solution;
- If the greenhouse is small, the foundation will not need – you can install the structure to the ground.
The price depends not only on the quality of materials, but also on the type of coating and frame, as well as additional features such as the availability of windows and doors for airborne. The highest quality is the greenhouses of polycarbonate, and the least practical and short-lived – with polyethylene coating. Cheap option is small greenhouses with steel frame and polyethylene coating. The most expensive are glass greenhouses, but they are far from the most practical. And affordable and at the same time reliable and durable can be called options made of steel and polycarbonate.
What a frame for the greenhouse to choose, told in video.