We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

The construction of a garage, like any other construction, begins with the creation of the foundation – foundation. Reliable foundation will provide “home” for your car as long as possible.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Varieties

In construction, several basic types of foundation are distributed. They differ in the following parameters:

  • according to the method of working on the soil and configuration;
  • According to the materials of which the foundation is laid.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Consider the four main categories of foundations.

Columnar

The design of this base is a poles of stone, boot (broomstone) or bricks. Supports are constructed in increment from about 1.2 to 2.5 meters under the most important points of the concentration of loads of the future structure (intersection of walls, angles, in places of installation of heavyweight boiler equipment and t. D. ). To connect individually to connect to a durable structure, the beams that bind the headings of the racks are put on top of them, as a result it turns out the finished base.

Separately, I must say about the columnar foundation made using tees technology. Its principle consists in drilling wells at the points of installation of supports, the subsequent strengthening of their reinforcement and filling with concrete solution. Another name of this base is columnar monolithic. The lower segment of the pillar (sole) has an extension.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Distinctive features of the foundation:

  • You can use on light soils that are not prone to moves (displacement) and a strong increase in volume (bent). Perfectly showed himself in deeply frozen bunched soils.
  • Excellent solution for building low-rise buildings (brusade, shield, frame houses).
  • Acceptable price, minimum working hours (compared to other types of foundations).
  • Does not require a waterproofing device.
  • Used for structures without basement.
  • Durable, cheap foundation, intensively practiced in private construction.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Tape

The name of the foundation entirely corresponds to the visual representation of its structure. It is a ribbon of reinforced concrete, stretched under all the supporting external and inner walls of the construction.

The manufacture of such a basis requires the implementation of large scale of earthworks and the cost of building materials, compared to the above-described analog.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Distinguish:

  • Fine breeding ribbon foundation – It is suitable for light buildings from blocks, logs, frame structures. The depth of the location is not more than 70 cm, that is, not lower than the border of the soil freezing. Suitable for constant soils or bunched (dispersed), freeing deep soil.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

  • Outflowed foundations – are suitable below the depths of the freezing. Able to withstand the baud (increase in volume) and soil movement. Are suitable for heavy brick, stone and other buildings. If the construction is built from lightweight materials and has a small mass, then such a reason is better not to do, because the weight of the structure will be very small for the sustainability of the base during the period of the powder and movement of the soil.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

  • Monolithic ribbon – finished formwork, reinforced by reinforcement, is poured with a solution of concrete. The prefabricated tape is the basis of large foundation blocks from reinforced concrete. Weak place: when the foundation of a complex configuration may be referred to as some inconveniences.The main advantages of such foundations are operational flexibility (suitable for almost all types of soils and types of buildings), as well as the possibility of building cellars, garages and basement.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Pile

This type of base is optimal for weak soils when it is required to shift the load from the construction to more hard layers. In addition, the pile base is intensively practiced for the construction of houses on construction sites that have a slope, large irregularities. Of course, you can pass the land and align the construction site. Nevertheless, the use of piles will rise cheaper.

The structure of the foundation is a conclusion located piles associated with painter (beam).

Upaying every pile on the calculated depth, you can easily get a flat horizontal surface beam surface for the construction of walls.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Types of piles:

  • Scoring. For the construction of low-rise buildings are not practiced due to economic unpaidness. Need special equipment for immersion piles to ground. As a rule, it is used in the construction of industrial and civilian structures.
  • Buried. A well bundled in the ground, which is filled with concrete solution. The upper support parts of the piles are set at a certain height and are associated with painting. Piles are reinforced and unarmed.
  • Screw. Piles are made of metal, on the end, immersed in the ground, special screw blades are provided. Pretty widely practiced when erecting low-rise structures, because it is possible to quickly prepare the basis.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Slab (Swedish plate)

Powerful and heavy base for building structures from blocks, logs, bricks. This type of foundation is still referred to as floating, and it is possible to use it almost on any soils (including clay, peat and high levels). The slab foundation is cast on a sandy-gravel pillow under the size of the structure or a little more.

With soil moves, the base “floats”, which saves the structure from destruction.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

  • Finely breeded slab base is constructed on the surface of the soil (only a pillow is prepared). There is no possibility of the construction of the basement.
  • Bloomed slab base. For its construction, droves, on the basis of which concrete is poured to obtain a plate. Suitable for buildings with basement, cellar, garage. Separately, I must say about the modern slab base – Swedish plate or UCP (insulated Swedish plate).

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Its feature – warmed by extruded polystyrethic lateral edges and bottom, communications inside the platform, as well as “warm sex”. USP is a heated base for sexual coating, foundation, first floor overlap.

On this plate you can immediately build the walls, and at the end of construction, put the finish flooring.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Which to choose?

The choice of a suitable foundation is the task even more responsible and important than the construction of the garage itself (except for the type of penalty type). Since the duration of the service life of the entire structure will depend on the reliability, stability and fortress of the base.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

So what kind of foundation to choose for the garage? Here is an approximate set of simple rules:

  • If the soil is swampy and the level of groundwater is high, then the basement and observation pit is better not to construct, but the foundation is arranged either slab or on piles.
  • You live in the eternal marrow zone? Then build slab or pile foundation.
  • If you do not need a basement and observation pit, you can arrange either fine-breeding belt foundation, or a slab base.
  • If the site has a complex relief, then the pile base with a framework from reinforced concrete is perfect.
  • If the basement is required – only the ribbon foundation.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

How to calculate?

Due to the fact that the capital garage can be built from the slag block, brick, plaster block, foam block, from the blocks of aerated concrete, gas-silicate blocks, foam blocks, ceramzite blocks, and, as a rule, has small dimensions, it is possible to build it on hand-drawn schemes without thorough calculations. But the foundation for the placement of the garage must certainly calculate, since the depth of the investment causes its wear resistance and carrying capacity when exploiting.

This value depends on:

  • the weight of the facilities;
  • groundwater level;
  • maximum depth to which the soil freezes in winter.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

These indicators are constantly taken into account when calculating the foundation. The main factor is the depth of freezing, as it reflects the level of expansion (bunch) of the soil. Because the depth of the foundation (D) is determined by the simple formula: D = the depth of the soil freezing in the region + 20% (m).

With an elevated groundwater level, the stock can not be calculated, but to pay close attention to the waterproofing of the foundation parts.

Be sure to take into account an additional distance for the manufacture of sand or gravel pillows – 20-30 cm.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Gabarits

To calculate the width, you need to know from which the walls of the garage will be built. The thickness of the beam or the foundation tape should be greater than the wall thickness by 20-30% (for a wall of 300-millimeter blocks along the length of all sides of the foundation, a beam width 360-390 mm is made).

To calculate the required height of the tape, you need to know which soils are based on, what is the weight of the future buildings and cars. The base for the garage, the depth of the bookmarks of which is detected by the level of freezing, is considered height + 20-30 cm to the resulting value. For solid soils, approximately 60-80 cm (cumulative height from the bottom plane of the foundation to the top excluding the pillow), for bubbling – 1-1.5 meters.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

The length of the piles is calculated on the principle: the level of soil freezing + 1.5 meters, approximately need 2.5-4 meter products.

Perimeter must be thought out in advance: The minimum allowable length of the walls is 3-6 meters. The optimal version of the garage is 4×7 meters – This is enough space for the free dislocation of the car and movement of a person.

You can install personal dimensions: add to the length and width of the car 1-1.5 m (or other than the magnitude of the most optimal for you).

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

How to make stages do it yourself?

The most common type of foundation under the garage – tape. In his example, we will analyze the step-by-step process of the foundation.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Marking

The marking of the belt foundation involves creating an angle of 90 degrees. It is done like this:

  • According to the plan of the future garage, we determine the location of the right front corner. We score the first peg. It will be the front corner of the garage.
  • From him, measure the right distance to the second auxiliary knife and drive it.
  • Between the folding stakes stretch the line (rope).
  • Now from both pegs pull the rope at right angles perpendicular to the first line. And we put the third and fourth tags (drive stakes).

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

As a result, it turned out a rectangle. To check the accuracy of markup, you can use two methods:

  • Diagonal rectangle. They must be equal in length.
  • From the corner to measure the distance of 3 meters in one direction and 4 meters in another. Upon normal marking, the distance between the points will be 5 meters. Exactly the same check must be done on each of the corners.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

If you find everything right, you will not have to make a permutation from place to place the pegs, and it will be possible to start the next stage.

ROOM trench. Canva you can dig up with your own hands via shovel. Bottom ditch should be flawlessly smooth. Because in the process of work, use a water level.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Opal

To create a formwork, use plywood sheets, boards or chipboard, more than 2 cm thick. Cold shields and lower them into a ditch on both sides. Lock with wooden bars. Between the shields set the same strut length. So you will form around the entire perimeter the same formwork width.

From the outdoor side of the formwork, put the backups. Bottom of ditch and side sections of formworks are offered by waterproofing, To prevent the flow of liquid from the concrete solution.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

How to pour concrete?

For the foundation under the garage, concrete M 200-M 300. Concrete can be made independently either use the factory material. A more reliable base will be out of the factory mortar, because the construction site is quite difficult to comply with the technology of its manufacturing.

Works can be carried out by two methods:

  • continuous;
  • layer.

Continuous technique provides high quality fill design. If the paper requires a small break, the pouring of the concrete solution is carried out by a layer-by-layer way.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Remember! The upper layer can not spill, for a stronger clutch with subsequent layers, it must be uneven.

When ordering the factory solution, the work process should not cause problems. The solution in the formwork is supplied from the concrete mixer, through specialized sleeves, it is stacked, it is rambling and resurrected by vibrating.

If possible, the pouring of the concrete solution should be carried out at a temperature of +15 to + 25 ° C. If the foundation is filling in the cold, use special additives and heat the construction site.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Waterproofing

After removing the shields of the formwork of the concrete surface are processed by waterproofing materials.

To base the belt type, 3 methods of protection against excess moisture are required:

  • vertical;
  • horizontal;
  • Otzhetka.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

The vertical method is made by means of the reserved or coating materials on the outer surface of the illuminated area of ​​the foundation. Horizontal is performed from the weaponable materials on the surface of the concrete tape.

Skosting (concrete band) warns the penetration of rainwater to the design. After complete all the work below zero mark, Make a backflow of sand either soil.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Base bookmark from other materials

There are alternative options for the foundation device:

  • From the tires – You can use tires for cargo and passenger cars, tractors, buses, aircraft (suitable only for light designs);
  • from sleepers – An excellent solution for the foundation device when it is required to do without the use of traditional materials;

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

  • From FBS – has considerable advantages, including excellent quality, as well as a relatively low price;
  • From road plates – You can use almost any types of soils and in all climatic zones.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Docking features with home

All my life, a person tries to form around himself comfortable and concise space. One of the best solutions in this case is the extension of the garage to the house. An extension can also be located on the left, and on the right side of the house. It is important to choose the shortest distance from entering the courtyard to the garage. Actually, the location of the gate and sets the placement of an extension.

Ideally, the extension will be built yet when building a house, Then the house and the garage room will stand on one foundation. If you build a garage after building a house, do not neglect the base device. Strong foundation as an increase in strength does not prevent. Then the house and an extension will give shrink at the same time.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

The smallest distance of doors and windows in the house from the technical structure – 2.5 meters, and the smallest distance from the balcony to the skate of the garage roof – 2 meters. Since the extension refers to fire-hazardous technical buildings, with its construction, necessarily strict adherence to all necessary conditions regarding fire safety.

If between the house and the garage is planned to install open doors, then compliance with the “blind zone” or the free space for the movement of the canvases.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Prostensions:

  • The need for a separate water supply, heating, electrical wiring is eliminated.
  • Savings of building materials.
  • Simplified room service.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

An extension allows you to equip the room with everything necessary:

  • garage with a pit;
  • basement;
  • cellar;
  • workshop;
  • Electric lift.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Garage construction nuances on a slope

When developing a garage project, it is necessary to take into account the level of steepness of the site. With its increase, the construction of the project becomes more complex. Sometimes, the high steepness of the slope does not give the opportunities to perform the construction of the garage or at home. To create an underground part of the garage or house, we need painted pile, columnar, ribbon step or multi-level slab foundation.

Set the level of liner during construction with the difference of the heights of the lower and upper points of the construction site, sprocyted on line, parallel plane of the horizon. This parameter is measured in percent. For example, if the horizontal distance is 100 meters, and the rise of the points is 15-meters, this means that the slope of this area is 15%.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

In this regard, the territory can conditionally be:

  • Stranna. When the surface bias is less than 3%. This is the most prosperous area with the smallest costs when building buildings.
  • With a slight bias from 3% to 8%. Such territories are suitable for the construction of facilities without basement. In order to expand the pad from the subgroup, the soil will be needed.
  • With an average inclination from 9% to 20%. In such a situation, you can build a ground floor. The terrace does not need to align, and the bottom floor is built by removing the piece of the slope. This is a very good option for the construction of an underground garage in the basement, with the availability of arrival in it from the direction of the slope.
  • With a strong inclination, more than 20%. Such an option needs to be thoroughly developing a project of the structure for the possibility of limiting exploitation of the slope. The cost of such a project is quite high.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

Useful Tip: With any tilt site, the building must be placed in its upper point to create conditions for natural water drain. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account: if there are still sections above the inclined plane, it means that it is necessary to arrange a drain of water from these places not by the Roms, but on specially provided pipelines, which minimizes soil erosion.

When building a building, the choice must be made in favor of the site, on which the bias are directed to the West or South, this will affect the speed of soil heating, especially in the spring. The larger the inclined plane to the sunshine, the more it will take heat. It is very visible when melting snow in spring.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

In addition, at low temperatures and at night, the air when cooling lowers down the slopes down and fog begins to be collected. As a result, under the location of the site for the construction of a structure near the lower point of the depressions, it will arise a night or seasonal temperature difference that form upper and lower points.

When building a structure at the highest point point:

  1. The foundation is minimally exposed to surface and groundwater.
  2. In this situation, from the upper point it is easier to remove surface water and use them for irrigation to watering the subsidence.
  3. Construction at the highest point makes it possible to optimally solve the problem of water lead.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

It is necessary to realize that on such a difficult relief of the construction favorable in the financial plan will not work. Costs for zero cycle, digging pit, drainage and monolithic works, construction of retaining walls and so on can block the price of the garage itself.

Remember: No matter what the garage is not a responsible structure, it should be built on a reliable basis in compliance with all rules and regulations. Only so “housing” for your car will be perfectly protected from negative impacts of nature.

We make a foundation for a garage do it yourself

About how to dig a trench for a ribbon foundation, you can learn looking video a little below.

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