During the construction and repair of baths, attention is paid primarily on structural materials, furnaces, insulation and waterproofing. It is assumed that the natural circulation of air will be sufficient for high-quality ventilation of rooms in the bath. But it is completely wrong, and if you go to the case superficially, you can encounter serious problems.
Ventilation in the bath can be performed in various ways.
It depends on its presence:
- distribution of heat flows inside;
- Comfort and safety of washable;
- The period of operation of the building.
There continuously concentrates water and steam, the tree actively absorbs them. Even if drying the building periodically, not by setting up a constant movement of air, the effect will be not strong enough. So that there are no dampness, you need to create a pair of ventilation windows – one is used to enter clean air outside, and the other helps to exit a preheated, enhanced a lot of water. Selecting the location of the openings, change areas that are particularly intensively ventilated. Using in the steam room and the pre-training pair of outlet openings sometimes improve air flow orientation in the required direction.
Of course, the magnitude of each window is of great importance, and the ability to adjust the lumen. They put valves open in whole or in part. The calculation of the volume of the ventilation holes is repelled, first of all, from the square of the bathroom. If you make them too large, on the floor and in the sink, the mold will never appear, but the pair will heat up for a very long time, consultation will be extraordinarily a lot of fuel or electrical energy. Too narrow windows will not allow air inside cool or become land.
All deviations from normal parameters are categorically unacceptable, which eliminate the occurrence of powerful temperature differences – this not only creates discomfort, but also can provoke health problems. To completely exclude the difference in flow temperature is impossible, it is only required to limit their magnitude. Normal ventilation systems are formed during the construction of the bath, while the channels make and prepare openings. The windows are mounted only after a decorative building of the building is performed. And therefore you have to enter the Bani project information about the device of ventilation channels.
In most cases, ventilation openings do strictly identical. The outlet can be made larger input, but according to the safety rules, it cannot be less than the first. For the same reasons sometimes resort to pair outlet windows. Not doors should be used as control elements, but valves, when closing which it is impossible to save the slots. When the steam room warms up for the first time, the valves are locked 100% until the air reaches the desired temperature.
The use of elements with a managed position is useful and because the air inflow value needs to be adjusted in accordance with the season. When there are negative temperatures on the street, even a very small stream of air brings a lot of cold. Because open ventilation windows should not be completely. Cross sections of such windows on average should be 24 kV. See for 1 cubic. m internal volume. But these are only preliminary figures, and if doubt in the resulting result, it is worth contacting qualified heat engineers for calculations.
It is categorically impossible to put the ventilation windows at one height or even directly opposite each other, as it will not allow to warm the entire air in the bath sufficiently. In addition, such a design will not give evenly mix air masses, and therefore it will be necessary to thoroughly calculate the accuracy of the location of the ventilation elements. Exhaust windows are recommended to place just below the ceiling, because the air after heating immediately rushes upstairs.
Types of ventilation systems
The ventilation device in the bath varies according to the design of the room and its total volume. Natural ventilation is based on differences in temperatures and pressures inside and outside. So that it works efficiently, the air input is organized near the oven, at the level of 25-35 cm from the floor. The outlet is made on opposite walls of about 15-25 cm below the ceiling. But it is important to consider that such a scheme is not good enough for pairs, because at the bottom there is relatively cold, and at the top is always hot.
Natural air movement in such a situation is too difficult to organize, We will have to very carefully and carefully position the composite parts of the ventilation system. Forced circuit does not always require the use of electronic control systems, with complex panels and so on. There are simpler options when the ventilation windows placed in a special way are complemented by the exhaust fan. The combination of such components is especially effective when the bath is located inside the house, the windows are not placed inside the outer wall, but are associated with the exit long box for ventilation. Channel fans need to be selected very carefully, because the conditions for their operation in the baths differ from the usual parameters.
The peculiarity of such devices is in high waterproofing of electrical circuits and basic mechanical parts, in the device to operation at high temperature without consequences for technology. The condition of the supply ventilation and the device of it in each room is adapted to individual features and under the type of bath. It follows that the time spent on the calculations and thinking of the project is not spent in vain – it will save a lot of money and time, get the optimal result rather.
As already known, the majority of projects implies the location of the introductory windows near the furnaces of 0.25-0.35 m from the floor. With this execution, the stove transmits heat from the outside, and a stream moving in the extractor direction occurs. Overcoming all distance, hot and street streams ultimately cover the entire volume of steam room, and the strongest is heated by the site where the upper shelf is located.
In the second version, due to the installation of the exhaust fan, you can mount the introductory and outdoor opening on one wall. Air flow asked first in the direction of the heating device. Having received a thermal impulse, he begins to rise to the ceiling and moves along a wide arc that covers the entire room. This approach will be effective if the bath is built into the house and has only one outer wall, and there is no need to improve the ventilation box.
If a bath is created with the flowing floor, the introductory window put in the same place where in the first case, directly next to the oven. When the heated air gives it warm in the upper share of the steam, it is cooled and lowered to the floor, leaving through the holes in the flooring. This technique improves the evaporation of the accumulating water at thenime and allows you to delay the outlet of the wooden floor. Extract placed either in the next room, or in isolated channels that do not allow air to return to the steam room. The complexity of the trajectory of the flow makes the use of the fan required. This option is used very rarely, because it is not easy to calculate the details rightly.
Another type includes a continuously active furnace, which replaces the exhaust. For the tributary, make a window under the shelf opposite to the oven itself and at the same level. Cold air displaces the heated mass upwards, and when the heat of the flow fell down, they go into a confusion canal. There are even more complex systems when there is a pair of supply and a pair of weekend ventilation windows (mandatory with a forced circulation type). Adjust complicated complexes are quite difficult, but their effectiveness is higher than in the simplest cases.
BAST system is the placement of the supply holes (with adjustable valves) behind the oven or under it. The organization of the beads under the furnace is not obligatory, although it is very desirable. Through these holes in the room penetrate the air from the underground part of the bath, which is connected by the foundation with an external atmosphere. When the bath is done in the ready-made room, you need to choose a room with a pair of external walls; When preparing the basement, choose an angle corresponding to the same requirements. The size of the input and outlet is calculated by the general rules.
How to do it?
Installation of ventilation implies that when the pipe is output, it is protected from the penetration of snow, dirt, rain and melt water. When it does not work, you can organize a ventilating box or send the pipe to the top, conducting it through the overlap and roof. In the latter case, the channel is covered with an umbrella to eliminate penetration into the same precipitation and falling leaves. High level ventilation means to venture and dry out all the rooms, structural parts of walls, floors, attics and underpants.
Step-by-step guide for the installation of ventilation in the bath is not difficult, However, the easiest option is to use asbestos-cement pipes and lattices that are selected according to the diameter of the channel. If we talk about the technical performance, the most efficient and convenient execution in the walls of the frame type recognized the use of the supply valves. First, the valve is disassembled and driven around the circle marker on the wall, where future ventilation channels will be held. To produce holes in the trim, drill use, and they take the drill of a large diameter, which will calmly passes the jigsaw knife.
- With the help of the jigsaw itself, the circle is cut;
- remove wooden parts;
- remove the insulating and vapor insulation material;
- With the help of a long drill pierce the external trim (so you need to do so as to prevent errors when placing the outdoor share of the valve);
- Place the appropriate opening outside and make it using long drills;
- scold tubes valves in the thickness of the wall.
Then you need to mount the tube in the hole and consolidate the inner segment of the valve with self-draws, only after which the outer part of the product can be put. Installation of valves is recommended in the wedroom compartment and in the pre-tribbon.
When preparing a new structure, it is necessary to calculate both the magnitude of the holes and the required power of the fans. You can establish ventilation even when it was originally not done. Common Error – Refer to Slosovaya Road and Applying Header for Drainage. In principle, such a scheme works, but she has serious shortcomings. So, when opening windows and doors instead of a decrease in temperature, steam emissions are released into adjacent rooms.
He does not go outside, but turns into condensate. Air heating decreases only for a short time, and very soon in the bath again becomes uncomfortable. To use the oven effect for venting, the holes are needed, but they should be done only at the bottom. This will ensure the influx of air from the neighboring rooms, where fresh portions will come from the outside. To adjust the ventilation helps the Sewber and the door of the oven itself, to enhance the tributary, they are opened to the limit, and it is partially covered for weakening (in order to avoid carbon monoxide receipts).
A simple calculation can be made only with regard to forced ventilation, And the natural flow of air is much more difficult and obeys a number of different factors. Among them, special attention should be paid to the strength and direction of the wind, which blowing on a particular site. If the outlet turns out to be on the other side with which strong winds are directed, this can lead to a flowing inwards of the supply mass (the so-called reverse thrust effect or its tipping).
Prevention of such a negative phenomenon seems simple – this is the elongation of channels derived in the desired direction or the use of turns in them. But each turn makes it difficult and reduces the rate of output or air intake. The solution will be the orientation of the input of the influx to the side, with which the wind is mainly blowing, when placing the outlet on the opposite side or on the roof (with a high pipe).
Use the ventilation channel in the block wall, In such cases, it is mounted on the inner wall and partition. According to experts, the best air duct is the one that is built of galvanized pipes. Plastic structures can be mounted with caution, carefully estimating the range is permissible for them. The interval from the pipe to the walls of the hole is filled with mineral wool or more modern insulation. Eliminate the gaps at the entrance and outlet helps assembly foam.
The method of fastening the ventilation grids is selected by the material that serves as the basis. Checking the quality of ventilation work is very easy – fire or smoking item is made to the hole. This will further find out how fast air is moving. In the pre-banker placed most often only an exhaust, complemented by a fan.
When the furnace firebox is displayed in the pre-banker, it is necessary to make a special ventilating channel based on galvanized steel, passed under the finishing floors and the liner air directly to the furnace door. Create channel needed before the finishing floor will be laid. One edge of the pipe is injected into the hole and fixes in it by mounting foam, clogged with a grid. On the edge suitable for the furnace, set the adjustable plug.
Good ventilation is the one that avoids the occurrence of condensate on the ceiling surface. As for the sample, work on it begins with the preparation of a cement screed, which is tilted towards the sewer. The foundation is equipped with a pair of holes (in opposite walls, but not directly opposite each other). Air flows should go under the floor to the most intricate trajectories. The holes are cleaned with valves, which will allow you to adjust the tempo of the jet movement according to the current season.
In the bath that was originally built without floor ventilation, it is required to drill a concrete base right up to the soil. This will be a decent replacement for a full-fledged drainage, when there is no desire to work on the installation of drain pipes. The ventilated floor must be made by jumpers, which uses pipes or a wooden timing with a cross section of 11×6 or 15×8 cm. Lagges are covered with processed and well-grinded oak boards.
How to choose?
In the Russian bath, in contrast to the usual washer, It is necessary to ensure such conditions using ventilation:
- The temperature in the steam room is from 50 to 60 degrees;
- relative humidity – not lower than 70 and not higher than 90%;
- Very fast drying of any wooden surface after the end of washing;
- operational decrease in humidity in the exclusion of drafts and door disclosures;
- the same air quality in the steam room, as well as in the rest room, regardless of the season;
- Preservation of all traditional properties of the Russian bath.
No ventilation devices will help escape from carbon monoxide, If it is his constant influx. We will have to continuously monitor the full combustion of firewood, and only after the attenuation of all coals to block the chimney. Organization of air inflows in a chopped log bath occurs through the wints of the walls.
This approach for obvious reasons is not suitable for brick buildings. When the walls are trimmed with boards or clapboard, it will be necessary to use ventilation holes, otherwise the negative effect of damp will be excessively strong. For the output of pipes into the street in most cases there will be enough holes 200х200 mm. The choice of plastic or metal should be made in accordance with a specific project and operating conditions of the ventilation system.
Bath of foam blocks must be ventilated and inside the walls. Layers of waterproofing and trim are separated by a ventilation gap, for external cladding it is 40-50 mm, and inside the bath – 30-40 mm. A typical design implies the use of a crate, which already helps keep wall cladding. In addition to intrauterine ventilation, all rooms are equipped with an air intake at the bottom (most often behind the furnaces) and the outlet (at the ceiling itself). The advantage of the active air refreshment system is that it can be placed anywhere.
In most cases, the baths from foam blocks are carried out by a volleary way, that is, at the same time opening the front door and the velocity removed from it. Only professional calculation is guaranteed to find out whether artificial ventilation is needed or enough of the natural circulation of air masses.
Accessories and materials
Fan heater for a bath must have a certain level of thermal protection (not lower than IP44), its body is always made from the materials resistant to the warming. Modern devices have very high power and work almost silently, the volume is no more than 35 dB.
In the role of ventilation holes in attics, you can use:
- Special windows;
Usually, natural air circulation is applied from sip panels. But if in the houses you can still reconcile with constant treatment of heat outward, it is categorically unacceptable for bath. Therefore, the wide distribution was obtained schemes with reference heat, or, in other words, heat installations of utilization type. The use of metal pipes is contraindicated because they create strong noise and worsen insulation indoors. Natural air circulation can be used only for single-storey buildings, if two floors or square are very large, auxiliary devices are needed.
Mechanical valves put in case of construction or finishing works should be created from plastic or asbotic pipe. As for the lattice for bath ventilation, they need to be clearly divided into external and installed inside. In the first case, only aluminum structures equipped with a grid (for clogging prevention) and heating facilities are allowed.
The use of sewage pipes for drawing only seems strange and unnatural. Among all the available options it is recommended to pay attention primarily on solutions from polypropylene, PVC and polyethylene. Easy installation (due to rubber sealing seals) and high resistance to destructive substances – undoubted advantages of such structures. Also when purchasing components for ventilation, you need to pay attention to the properties of the plugs and the characteristics of the chimney.
In winter, it is better to abandon the use of inflow fans, because they contribute to tightening inside too cold air. If the air is very dirty outside, special filters are required. When calculating the required power of ventilation devices, it is worth navigating the requirement to update all air in the bath maximum in 15 minutes. In the steam room, the supplied and exhaust devices are fit perfectly, but in the pre-tribbon and rest room you can safely limit ourselves to the natural circulation regime. When choosing the location of the production outside the building, it is necessary to pay attention to the aesthetic qualities of the structure, the same requirement includes to the outward outwards of pipes, to the fungi of aerators and valves.
If the pool is equipped in the bath, the air in this part should be 2-3 degrees warmer, than in other parts of the room, and its humidity should not exceed 55-60%. The use of flexible air ducts is considered to be much better than the use of pipes of hard design. Taking into account all these recommendations, you can easily create a ventilation system with your own hands or monitor specialists.
About how to make ventilation in the bath with your own hands, see the following video.