Crop crops directly depends on weather conditions, in particular, on temperature in the greenhouse. In regions with a harsh climate for timely harvesting, special designs are built, heating greenhouses. Their size and quantity depends on the area of the greenhouse. Since heating devices will be operated for a long time, essential material costs of equipment are required. Therefore, the cost of crop will grow.
Types of heating and types of furnaces
Greenhouses are heated with several methods:
Chimney heating is the most economical option of heating, which allows the use of most types of fuel. They can work on firewood, coal, gas, and even on granules.
The furnace heating has one significant disadvantage – air cuts due to rapid heating equipment.
- Chimney heating on sawdust, which are waste woodworking enterprises. Therefore, the purchase of this fuel does not need high costs. For the construction of the stove on sawdust, you need to buy a barrel from tin, better a couple of barrels, a gas cylinder and cut pipe.
- The stove on the exhaust oil – the economical version of heating with long-term burning. Purpose oils are utilized from any car park, so fleet workers will gladly share oil.
- For heating, greenhouses in the cold season apply bourgeitakes, which provide good heating.
- Brick heating furnace Kuznetsova causes special interest in gardeners due to high efficiency (80%). However, the housing of the brick stoves must be insulated with basalt material.
- Miracle oven on diesel – an excellent solution for greenhouse, where there is no connection to the central heating system. The stove is used and as an additional, and as the main source of heat.
There are many types of ovens for heat heating, which differ from each other:
- principle of heat transfer;
- main and additional details;
- Fuel combustion chamber;
- Air Pipes.
The scheme and installation of a certain furnace can only be carried out after studying all parts of the heating process. It is necessary to know that the furnaces for large greenhouses and small are different.
Greenhouse heating provides for the use of a variety of fuel type. The most affordable fuel are firewood. The design of wood equipment does not constitute anything complicated. Firing can be drowned and long burning stoves. For a small greenhouse will be enough to load fuel once a day.
For better heating can be used coal, The main advantage of it is high calorieness, and disadvantages – a lot of waste: ash, dust. And during the burning of coal to the atmosphere, harmful and toxic gases are distinguished into the atmosphere, and some types of coal are even capable of self-turn, if not to comply with storage conditions.
Recently, sawdust began to be used for heating as fuel. Furnaces in which they highlight heat belong to the structures of long burning. High-quality heating is accompanied by a small smoke. Such an oven is easy to perform yourself. The stove has a rather high efficiency.
Greenhouse structures can also be heated by the furnaces in which fuel briquettes are used as fuel. Such fuel compared to coal or firewood has better characteristics, for example, less smoke, rapid cooling and absence of harmful effects on the air. The use of fuel briquettes allows you to avoid sparking, and long burning is to maintain the required temperature. The stove with such a type of fuel has a high efficiency, environmental friendliness and efficiency.
Some daches use liquid as fuel. However, this is not entirely suitable for heating due to toxicity and high cost.
The optimal option for heating the greenhouse is the installation of a burzhuyki furnace, which is considered the most economical and easy to operate. The heater consists of a barrel with a door for firebox, chimney, pipes for heat outdoor, jumpers at the top.
Heating occurs due to the movement of smoke:
- The pipe moves the hot smoke, the pipe is installed either on the sides of the greenhouse, or in the center.
- The surface of the oven radiates warmth.
- Warm air is formed above the jumper and exits the tube.
Waste sawn timber, coal or firewood can be used as fuel. From the type of fuel and penetration of air in the furnace, the quality of combustion depends on the furnace. This method of heating is suitable for those who often can control the combustion process. This is the only lack of burzhuyki.
Long burning furnaces, this minus is an advantage: In them, the fuel can be put so much less. They also consume less fuel and reduce the heating of the stove walls without reducing heat transfer. They are very similar in characteristics with infrared heaters.
Long burning furnace has two chambers, one of which completely burns the residual fuel, and the other only burns the main part. Access of oxygen into the chamber is limited, as a result of which the fuel does not burn immediately, and long tweaks with highlighting a large amount of heat.
Different household waste can be used as fuel for long burning furnaces, but without harm to plants. The constancy of the temperature in the greenhouse provides the necessary conditions for the growth of cultures.
However, there must be many factors before installing such a furnace.
Central wood structure: pros and cons
Central wood design is made of metal or brick materials. At the same time, the more greenhouse, the greater the oven design. It was called the central due to the need of the installation in the middle of the greenhouse, which makes it possible to optimally distribute heat all over the area of the greenhouse.
This design works on firewood, so no special devices are required for operation.
The central wood-burning furnace has a considerable amount of deficiencies.
- Frequent watering of plants and constant humidification of air in the greenhouse. Due to the rapid heating, the air is quickly dried, and hence the soil. Some agricultural crops do not tolerate such a greenhouse climate. Installation of barrels with water next to the furnace to allow a little compensate for this minus.
- Another important point is the uneven distribution of hot air throughout the area of the greenhouse. The highest temperature will be supported next to the oven, and the further plants, the air will be colder. As a result, some of the plants around the perimeter will freeze. This must be considered if the greenhouse is large and high ceiling.
It is possible to align the temperature using induction lamps of long burning. They are located in the most remote parts of the greenhouse. And also heated by infrared heater will allow to preserve cultures. Such an option for greenhouses with low ceilings does not fit: it is necessary to make a choice in favor of a wood-burning furnace or induction lamp. If the oven is selected, then you need to install small fans to overclock the heat.
Bursuyki furnaces have a small efficiency and the need for frequent fuel logo. Skillman Bunch came up with a self-made design, which is characterized by the principle of fuel combustion.
Features and device
The main difference in the bubfony furnace is the upper air intake, which led to such positive properties as:
- longer combustion of fuel;
- no need for frequent loading of firebox;
- Best heat conservation;
- Efficiency, because such a furnace can be made of girlfriend: barrels of iron or metal; As a fuel, you can use not only firewood, but also boards, chips, cardboard or chips. And the bunch of bunch works autonomously, that is, without the use of electrical energy.
There are also disadvantages of such a design:
- Outwardly, it looks unprovenable;
- average heat transfer;
- Nagar formation on the walls of the furnace;
- condensate is formed, which in winter freezes and overlaps the main pipe;
- During air intake, there is sometimes fire from the duct;
- With the installation of such a stove, you must take care of ventilation in the greenhouse.
To independently make a bunch, you need to know the device and the principle of operation of the furnace. Air comes through the top pipe, and the fuel starts to burn. Burning, the ash will accumulate on the fuel surface and interfere with it. Because of this, you need to take care of the installation of the press in the form of a metal pancake, the diameter of which is a little less barrel. In the middle of the pancake drills a hole for a pipe with oxygen.
Fuel burns, and the press is lowered, releasing the ash between the pancake and the wall. Such aslats cools and goes through the chimney with the rest of the combustion.
After studying the drawings and furnace schemes, which realized the principle of work, you can make a bunch with your own hands. An important point is the choice of capacity. It can use a large diameter tube, barrel, an empty gas cylinder.
Anything, we will have to finish the design:
- get rid of the lid;
- To obtain a capacity with an open top, it is necessary to boil the bottom;
- Preparation of the press: This is suitable for a metallic sheet circle;
- In the center, drill a hole for the pipe and attach the pipe with welding;
- A pipe with a large diameter is also welded onto the lid so that the first pipe can slide freely;
- To create a gap so that the air passes between the surface and fuel, to fix the profile from the metal to the pipe;
- For the firebox, make the door from the iron sheet and attach;
- on top of the tank should be done for the chimney and attach the pipe;
- make legs for the stove if the bottom is not “worth”.
In the manufacture of chimney, it is necessary to consider the need to create resistance, which will allow a longer heat delay.
Before installing the furnace, it is necessary to make a foundation from bricks and a zinc substrate under it. This will help to avoid heating the bottom of the stove, which leads to the death of close growing crops. The foundation also preserves and distributes heat.
After installing the furnace, it is necessary to set up bricks to improve heat transfer.
Buleryan: Distinctive features
Buleryan – Long burning stove, very similar to the burzhuyk. Here, air is also heated with hot smoke from pipes around the perimeter of the greenhouse, becoming hot. Unlike the burzhuyka, the air is heated differently in the buleryan: cool air enters the lower hole of the pipe and begins to heat the housing of the foil space where the pipes are adjacent. As a result, the cool air heats up to 60 degrees and goes through the top hole. Fuel for furnace: Firewood, Coals, Pellets, Waste Lumber.
Buleryan, unlike bourgeities, has some benefits.
- Large efficiency as a result of smoke burning. As a result, the fuel is consumed less, and the heat turns out more.
- Full combustion of fuel.
- Once by flooding a buleryan, she can work for three days, which makes it much easier for the gardener. For people who cannot every day to lay fuel, it is a great option.
Often, the buleries are called the design without flaws, but still there is one minus that is not associated with the design of the furnace, performance and efficiency: allocation of caustic components that are not subjected to disposal.
Initially, the buleryan was used by the loggers of Canada, who often had to conduct a nomadic lifestyle. Therefore, the furnace was supposed to ensure safety and heat the room as quickly as possible.
For rapid heating, greenhouses need to maintain a constant burning process, However, the buleryan works mainly in mode. With constant intense burning, the metal surface of the oven is very soon.
For the ignition of the furnace apply dry sins, cardboard, paper. The main thing is that they were dry and quickly burned. Behind the combustion process is monitored through a glass door or choke. When the fuel turns into coals, repent the fuel again. Cannot be used as a fuel coal, as the buleryan – wood stove. For heating, even a big greenhouse does not need a lot of time.
It is strictly forbidden to increase the temperature in the furnace until ultrahigh temperatures. First, the metal surface will be prohibiting, secondly, it will be excessive heat out into the street, since the thermal conductivity of pipes is limited, as a result of which the excess of heat is not transmitted by air. And also as fuel it is not recommended to use coke – this will drive the device.
When installing a buleryan, you need to adhere to the rules of fire protection. A stove on the non-combustible surface is installed, for example, on bricks, laid by plafhmy, or metal stand.
In the manufacture of your own hands, the oven is an important element is the chimney to which the requirements are presented:
- Chimney material: brick, concrete, metal;
- The parameters of chimney.
In the installation of the stove of Boryllyan there is no difficulty, it is enough to prepare a place, competently make the chimney and you can start heating.
About the types and features of ovens for greenhouses, see the following video.