Despite the record prevalence of various types of fasteners, the relevance of the answer to the question is, what hardware is, and what they happen. Similar products for many decades are widely used in everyday life, as well as many areas and sectors. In the relevant market segment, more than a wide range of hardware hardware.
What it is?
Responding to this question, it should be initially determined to determine the meaning of the term itself, which, by the way, does not have foreign analogues and does not apply to metallurgy. The appearance of the word “hardware” was the result of the desire to replace the long name on the shortened. As a result, the most “hardware” turned out from “metal products”.
With the most diverse representatives of hardware products have to be encountered constantly. Fasteners are an integral component of repair, construction and fitting works. It should be borne in mind that The nomenclature of metal products is not limited to fastener.
To categories of hardware, taking into account their characteristics include products not only for household, but also industrial purposes. Based on the determination to it, any products made from metal can be found, as well as the products of the 4th redistribution in metallurgy. In practice, most often we are talking about small to the size of the devices used in the installation of various designs.
On the household level under the term under consideration implies Metric fasteners. Foreign and domestic manufacturers offer a large selection of similar products. At the same time, the list of the most common hardware includes:
- nails and glues;
- bolts, nuts, washers and screws;
- ordinary screws and screws;
- rivets of various types;
- dowels and anchors;
- electrode and wire;
- loops and various fasteners in the form of brackets.
All listed products find application almost everywhere and have no alternatives. They are relevant in situations when high-quality and most reliable connection of different elements are required. It is worth noting that About 4.5 thousand are involved in the automotive. Fasteners.
Empathy of hardware and furniture production when creating cabinet models. However, the main consumer of the products described today is the construction industry. In everyday life it is presented in the form of inventory, consumables for small repair work, as well as stationery. In this case, one of the basic characteristics of most samples is the possibility of repeated use.
Properties and performance indicators of all fasteners are clearly governed by the relevant standards. It also concerns labeling. So, the general purpose fastener is customary to denote “GZ”, and this category includes the following varieties:
- GZ1 – all types of bolts;
- GZ2 – screws and studs;
- GZ3 – nuts of all configurations;
- GZ4 – rivets (exhaust and threaded);
- GZ6 – Slingles and washers;
- GZ7 – pins.
To the eighth grade (GZ8) include all other metal products mainly industrial purposes.
First of all it is worth noting that currently available mounting hardware can be divided into 2 main groups. One of them includes models with threads of certain sizes (up to inch or more), which are referred to as metric fasteners. Speech in this case goes about bolts, nuts, washers and studs.
The second category of fastening metal products includes devices of different appearance and configuration. The list of products includes screws, including samples with countersunk heads, self-tapping screws, nails and many other hardware. In this case, it is important to take into account that each product group is developed under the implementation of certain tasks.
Taking into account a number of nuances and technical characteristics, they are recommended to use only for direct intended.
Given the fairly broad nomenclature in the domestic market, a wide selection of hardware, which differ from each other with its purpose. Depending on the size and operational qualities, the fasteners can be divided into 2 large categories.
- For use in living conditions. Despite its relatively small sizes, such hardware is widely used in almost all spheres of modern life. They are indispensable when performing repair work, in small construction and a whole list of other everyday situations. And we are talking about a variety of stationery related to the described metal products.
- Intended for industrial sphere. Representatives of this group of fasteners are widely used in mechanical engineering and many other industries. Their list includes, for example, rivets, pins, plintes, railway crutches, various wire products and much more.
Taking into account the foregoing, it can be concluded that not only the most common and well-known and well-known for all such fasteners, like bolts, nuts, screws and screws. We are talking about more than a wide range of high-strength products capable of withstanding various loads.
The unique performance properties of hardware determine the wide scope of their application.
Initially, it should be noted that the metals in their pure form for the production of products are extremely rare. Most often, various alloys are in the role of raw materials, which include several elements. The most common option is steel, that is, an alloy of iron and carbon. There are quite a lot of such compounds, but in this case only materials from which methies do, namely, are worthy of attention
- structural carbon steel;
- Spring steel;
- Dake cast iron;
- stainless steel;
- Aluminum alloys.
The market presents the range of galvanized products, as well as made of stainless steel. At the same time, the hardware produced from spring steel deserve separate attention. These include washers, split pins, rings of various diameters and configurations, other fasteners. In their manufacture, a structural alloy with increased carbon concentration is used as raw materials (0.5-07%).
As a rule, the composition of such compounds includes silicon and manganese.
Taking into account the more than a wide scope of use of metal fasteners Manufacturers offer in their market segment samples of products, made not only of steel. Whole niche is occupied by aluminum products. In addition, non-work can be found and non-ferrous metals. For example, made of copper models are presented:
- rivets (traction and scoring);
- rings sealing;
- nuts corresponding to the DIN 934 standard;
- Small wallpaper and decorative nails;
Among other things, hardware from brass are available on the market in the form of bolts, screws, screws, plintes, washers, as well as individual structural elements of anchors.
Manufacturers did not go around their attention and bronze, from which they are now manufactured, for example, rivets and spring washers.
By class of strength
All major technical equipment for fasteners are enshrined in the relevant official standards. So, for example, Norms concerning threaded hardware are set out in GOST 1759.0-87. This in this case is about the mechanical properties of materials, including coatings, labels, symbols and even packaging. At the same time, one of the key points is strength.
In accordance with current standards and requirements for screws, hairpins and bolts made of alloyed and unallociated carbon steels, there are 11 strength classes. Each of them is indicated by two numbers through the point. The first at the same time will be multiplied by 100, and the result will be the minimum strength limit measured in N / kV. mm. At the same time, the product of these two numbers, increased 10 times, gives a material flow rate. For example, for class 4.8 are characterized by the strength and fluidity of the material 400 and 320 N / kV. mm, respectively.
Tips for choosing
Many characteristics of mounted structures and aggregates are directly dependent on the proper selection of hardware. By the way, it does not matter whether fasteners are required for metal, drywall or wood or plastic work. Based on this, it is strongly recommended to pay special attention to a number of key points.
- Each group of products under consideration has Its concrete destination, and use them accordingly.
- All operational performance Directly depend on the type and quality of materials. All modern manufacturers produce products that must fully comply with the current standards. Certificates will help make sure.
- Each metal product has Specific dimensions and characteristics. Similar classification helps to exclude a possible confusion when choosing. All key parameters of the fasteners are determined taking into account the features of the parts connected and the requirements for designs.
- No less important criterion is potential service life of hardware.
- For many, the manufacturer plays a key role, as well as the financial side of the issue. The latter is relevant when carrying out large volumes of work related to the purchase of the corresponding number of products.
In addition to the listed, attention is often paid to appearance.
In parallel, the surface of hardware for the presence of chips, cracks and other defects is checked.
Features of operation
All nuances of using metal products are determined by the scope of their application. Analyze the technical features of the installation processes worth considering the characteristics of a particular type of hardware.
- Nails – one of the most common options for fasteners. Most often they apply when performing work with soft materials.
- Bolts represent one of the easiest of use of types of fixtures. For their installation, it does not need to cut a thread, and just drill a hole, because they fix the parts in the tandem with nuts.
- Screws differ primarily by the presence of cylindrical threads, as well as the possibility of reliable connection of different materials.
- Selfless today are one of the most popular groups of contemporary hardware. Their main advantages include versatility. Due to the cutting of threads in fixed materials, the maximum rigid and high-quality connection is obtained.
- Screws – these are fasteners who are often confused with self-draws. At the same time, the main difference is that the first during installation does not cut the threads in the fastened details themselves. Quite often, screws are used when working with plastic.
- For reliable twisting and fixation are installed washers and rings. These hardware are placed under the heads of the bolts or nuts to prevent the compounds in the process of exploitation of structures and aggregates.
- Studes have bilateral threads and relevant in relevant situations. One of the bright examples of application can be called car hubs and fastening wheels.
- Plates anchor Very often used when installing window structures, which with their help are fixed in the openings.
Naturally, this is not a complete list of existing hardware and features of their operation. And it is also worth considering that some of them are part of larger fasteners. We are talking, for example, on anchors consisting of a dowel, washers, as well as a bolt or screw.