The boards are used everywhere to cover the walls, installation of floor coverings, crates, roofs, as well as for the construction of fences. However, not all types of boards are equally suitable for the arrangement of the roof and for joinery. Therefore it is very important to know what the main characteristics of these sawn timber than they differ, and how to determine their quality.
What it is?
People use wood when conducting construction and finishing works from ancient times. Today, with the advent of the wide range of modern building materials, the tree still keeps leading positions. Such a demand is explained by the durability of products, as well as the environmental safety of wooden products. All-selling products made of natural wood – Boards. They are indispensable when performing both major and auxiliary works. Boards are needed to perform pure and rough finishes, for the construction of frame structures and installation of the crate.
Estimated gtales, the board is defined as a sawn timber, the thickness of which does not exceed 100 mm, while the width of the product can not be greater than the thickness of the workpiece by more than 2 times.
Boards get from the broken in the process of cutting. There are several basic techniques.
- Sawing spat. In this case, the log is cut in a ribbon saw, less often use a multi-step machine or sawmill. As a result, two and more unedged boards required thickness.
- Cooked with Bruske. Works are carried out on similar equipment. At the same time, the timber saws on the unedged and edged boards, that is, those that could get into the ray of the edge.
- From umbered material. In this technique on the circular over, as well as a cross-stock single or multi-power equipment perform the spillation of the edges. This processing allows you to get edged cutter.
- Cut with milling – work performed on milling and saw installation. In this way, you can get a high-quality cutting blank for one pass.
Boards may be massive or fucked. The first cut out of one piece of wood, the second with the help of four-sided milling is made of short segments. By strength, they significantly exceed one piece, devoid of internal stresses, and they do not lead them due to shrinkage.
Depending on the propylene of edges
Depending on the degree of propylene, the edges allocate three types of boards.
- Unedged – Timber, the edges of which are not propylene. In essence, they are a log fragment. Such materials are commonly used to cover the roof, the execution of flooring and labels. Of these, you can build a barn, bath and other business buildings, as well as similar materials are optimal for the construction of the fence.
- Cutting boards with obtance (semi-cut) – In such a timber, one of the edges is completely the side fragment of the log, and the second edge is smooth.
These materials are used in the same way as the unedged.
- Edged boards – products that have both sides smoothly. Such blanks are most in demand in construction and furniture industry, are used in various fields since creating furniture and ending with the construction of all kinds of objects.
Depending on the propylene of the outer plates
The boards are also classified for several varieties, given the appearance of the outdoor side:
- Obapol – in such a board, the inner cry of propylene is completely, and the outer only is partially either propylene at all;
- The hill obapol is the material in which the value of the separation of the outer plate does not exceed half of the total length;
- Moody Obapol is a board, in which the value of the separation of the outer plates exceeds half of the total length;
- Gorny – one-sided cut, the upper part of the reverse side looks a little rounded;
- Hardgown is such a hill, in which the magnitude of the outer surface is more than half of the total length.
Depending on the log
Depending on the location inside the source log, all boards may be core, side or central. Cores differ in their density and shade, when drying, they often crumble, so they usually have low varieties. Lumber from lateral fragments may have defects – this is due to the fact that such sites are often subjected to penetration of insects.
The most high-quality building materials are obtained from the central sections of the divine.
Depending on the processing of planing
There is another classification of boards on which the planing is affected:
- Fugged or folded – planed sawn timber, in which both edges either one of the plastics are processed by planing;
- one-sidedly planed – billet, subjected to planing only on one side;
- Two-sided planed – board, sharply for both plasters;
- Unstable – rough, untreated material, used in rough work.
A separate species of such boards are regimental. They are gladkostrogany and have rounded edges, enjoy popular when cladding baths.
Depending on the quality, any boards are divided into varieties. For coniferous wood, there are 5 varieties, timber of hardwood wood can only be 3 varieties. The variety is determined by the total number of defects and shortcomings on the sawn timber. The higher the variety, the better the quality of the product.
- Selecting boards – These materials are also called business. In this case, some minor defects are allowed that are subject to strict rationing. Such serious defects like rotes, the presence of traces of mold and annular cracks are not allowed.
- First grade – may differ in standards for coniferous and hardwood trees. In this case, the proportion, blue and coughing is either not allowed, or are normalized by gostami. Small cracks are possible on the surface.
- Second grade – Some small defects are allowed here, most of them are subject to rationing.
- Third grade – On such boards you can see stains, as well as minor damage to fungus.
- Fourth and fifth grade Woods are exclusively in coniferous materials – these are chalks with non-thendition. Most of these defects are not subject to normalization.
Tip: When choosing a lumber, you should not rely on the specification of the variety declared by the manufacturer.
The fact is that Even the selected sawn timber may be attended by a minor length. When drying, they can go inside and destroy the structure of wood. That is why each board from the party needs to be visually visited. Separate attention should also be given to the presence of mold and rot – they often appear on the surface in the process of transporting and storing timber.
For lumber from coniferous varieties of wood, the following dimensions are installed:
- Thickness – 16, 19, 22, 25, 32, 40, 44, 50, 60, 75 mm;
- Width – 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250, 275 mm;
- Length – in the range from 1 to 6.5 m with a pitch of 0.25 m, for the production of packaging containers – from 0.5 m in increments of 0.1 m.
For lumber from hardwood trees, other regulations are provided.
Thickness – 19, 22, 25, 32, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 mm.
- for edged materials – 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 130, 150, 180, 200 mm;
- For unedged and unilateral edged – 50 mm and more with 10 mm increments.
- for solid wood – from 0.5 to 6.5 m with a pitch of 0.1 m;
- For soft wood – from 0.5 to 2.0 m with increments of 0.1 m and from 2.0 to 6.5 m with increments of 0.25 m.
To choose the right board correctly, first of all it is necessary to pay attention to its appearance, as well as require the seller certificates of conformity. It should be designated in advance the functions that are set in front of the building material. For instance, For inner lining of residential premises, use edged products. Unedged lumber soaked in antiseptic solutions are suitable for mounting the facade. It is extremely important to decide in advance with the size and shapes of the workpiece.
If you do not have experience with a sawn timber, and you cannot understand the selection on yourself, it is better to consult before going to the store with that person who is responsible for the main job – he will be able to say exactly which boards you need, and what to focus on Attention. Do not choose the cheapest products. Tree is a fairly expensive building material, but at the same time quite high quality. If you intend to build a reliable housing, be prepared for essential spending.
One of the key selection factors of the board is humidity. Critical factor in this case is the scope of use of the material. It’s one thing, if you are going to build a fence, and a completely different – residential building that should be unproduced. Accordingly, it is important for construction to minimize the risk of cracks, especially where door boxes and window structures will be mounted. It is important to understand how these cracks appear if all the main details during construction are accurately customized.
The reason is that wood is “alive” timber, Therefore, even in the finished design, changes are constantly occurring, they become a consequence of the destruction material. The greater the level of humidity of the tree used, the more unpredictable shrinkage will be. Any plant is permeated with vessels, on them mineral components dissolved in water, come from roots to branches and sheet plates. If the board is made of freshly seruous sawn timber and immediately went on sale, the level of humidity in it will be natural.
If drying was dried in industrial conditions, such boards were called dry.
In boards with natural humidity, it usually exceeds 22%. Their use in construction and finishing implies some risk, because it is shrinking as drying. In this case, preference is better to give to timber produced from wood, harvested in the cold season. In the frost, the sloping in the trunks is suspended, because the level of natural moisture of the tree is repeatedly reduced. Thus, winter wood contains a much smaller moisture than that that was prepared at another time of the year.
Sukhoi is considered such a timber, the level of humidity of which is not higher than 22%. In this case, the drying method can be chamber or natural. Natural is performed at special enterprises, as well as directly on construction sites. The boards are placed in stacks, and there are air layers between individual rows – it contributes to free air circulation. From above, such a stack is closed with a film or other waterproof material for protection against rain and snow. Chamber drying is performed in a special oven, it allows to reduce the degree of moisture to 10-12%. However, this method requires an impressive energy consumption, respectively, the final product comes out quite expensive.
The use of such boards is economically inappropriate when mounting the frames in open areas – in this case, wood begins to absorb water from the air.
Another important factor on which attention should be focused – the acquisition of moisture-resistant “living” trees (the so-called “green forest”) is either dry. It is easy to guess that the “green forest” is obtained when cutting alive trees. Dead plants are becoming dead plants, usually damaged pests. Humidity of dry less, but also the quality of such boards is low. Often they are amazed by the larvae of insects, they often occur to rot. You can distinguish a dry color on the gray color, the mass of products from these logging is much lower.
For the manufacture of boards in the course there are coniferous and deciduous types of wood, each of them has its advantages and disadvantages. So, boys contains resin with antiseptic substances. This prevents the appearance of fungi and mold on the surface of sawn timber. That is why wood coniferous trees are usually used to build structures used in a humid environment.
The most affordable material is pine – it is well tolerated high humidity, it is distinguished by special density and strength. Freshly less durable fir lumber, but on the water resistance they are equal to the pine. In comparison with the pine and firness, cedar differs greater strength and resistance. But in our country he grows infrequently and therefore it is very expensive. The larch is much superior to the vast majority of coniferous trees, but it is not so resistant to the action of pathogenic microflora.
Deciduous woods are harder to carry contact with moisture, they are more often used to perform facing and other internal works or in those places where contact with moisture is minimal, for example, when arranged rafted under the roof. According to the strength parameters of oak, ash, birch, beech, maple, acacia, as well as teak wood, significantly exceed most of the coniferous plants. Exotic wood species are especially valued – they are distinguished by an unusual color and beautiful texture.
Use of use
Boards are used everywhere when performing construction work.
- Frame structures. Frame house-building today has received widespread distribution. Its main advantages are the speed and simplicity of installation of such structures. When building supports the frame does not do without boards. In this area, any varieties of lumber are used – dry or raw, edged or plagty, it all depends on the planned timing of construction and budget. If time is enough, you can buy natural moisture boards and dry them on their own on the construction site.
Usually, a lumber is 120-200 mm wide and a thickness of 40-50 mm.
- Floor. From the boards, lags are performed, draft flooring, as well as a piston floor covering. Lagi perform the functions of the base support, because they usually take the boards with a thickness of at least 50-60 mm. Since the floor covering is exposed to moisture, preference is better to give the wood of coniferous rocks. Such products are certainly treated with antiseptic impregnations to protect against posting. For roughing floor The appearance of building boards does not matter – in this case, you can purchase conventional edged materials or a thin profiled sex board with a thickness of 30-35 mm. When installing outdoor structures experiencing increased mechanical loads, preference is worth paying with thick options.
- Roof. Boards are indispensable when mounting a rafter system. Usually for the manufacture directly rafted, as well as jumpers in the course of the boards 50 mm thick. Another fundamental element of the roof is a doom, the whole design is holding on it. Ceiling board can be solid or sparse, the thickness of the workpiece in this case is 25-35 mm.
- Opal. Boards are used in the form of formwork when pouring concrete foundation. Best of all, such works are suitable.
- Other buildings. Boards are in demand when erected by arbors, baths, country houses and household buildings. The material is distributed in the manufacture of furniture, as well as in other works, when material texture is of fundamental importance. Preference is better to give dry smooth boards, unstored you need to pre-defeat. When buying a material in this case, it follows to budget opportunities. The cheapest decision will be a cutting board of natural humidity from ate and pines – to dry this workpiece can be alone. Dry planed models are more expensive, but also the quality of the coating will be much higher.
A universal decision will be the folding board with a groove – it can be used when performing all types of carpentry and construction and repair work.