Today, the construction market is replete with a variety of facade finishing tiles. However, the choice should be carried out, guided not so much personal preferences as the purpose of the material. So, high demands are subject to tile for base, wear resistance, weather resistance, weather resistance.
The base is called the lower part of the facade, usually somewhat protruding forward. This is a kind of “layer” between the foundation and the main part of the building.
The base is more than other parts of the facade undergoing mechanical and shock loads. In winter, it is not only exposed to low temperatures, but also flies into the ground.
At the time of melting of snow, as well as during precipitation, the base is experiencing an active impact of moisture, and in most cases there are particles of road reagents and other aggressive components in melt water.
All this determines the increased requirements for strength, frost resistance, chemical inertness and moisture resistance of the finishing material for the base. And since it is inextricably linked with the facade, it is important that the material is characterized by external attractiveness.
These requirements correspond to the base tile, which can have a different design, mimic one or another surface and manufactured from various compositions. The unchanged remains only the high density of the baseless tiles, the large thickness compared to the facade analogues and, accordingly, improved strength indicators.
Together with an increase in the thickness of the material, its heat and sound insulation characteristics increase.
The obvious advantages of the tile for finishing the base are:
- Reliable protection of the building from the penetration of moisture;
- improving the heat efficiency of the structure;
- Most modern materials are non-flammable or have a low grade class;
- increased strength characteristics, wear resistance;
- weather resistance;
- Easy installation – the tile has convenient dimensions (its height usually corresponds to the height of the foundation);
- Easy to care – many surfaces have self-cleaning surfaces, most of them are easy to launder, applying a rigid brush and water;
- long service life averages 30-50 years.
The disadvantage can be considered a greater weight of the material, which requires additional strengthening of the foundation. However, you can always find a easier option and may resort to reinforcement.
For example, if the stability of the foundation is not enough to install clinker tiles, it may be enough to install a lighter base metal.
If necessary, you can choose a panel with imitation of the same clinker.
Tile for the base can be performed from various materials. Consider the most common types of tapes.
This facade tile appeared as an alternative to more expensive and severe facing clinker brick. It is not surprising that it imitates brickwork, although there are also options for the stone.
At the heart of clinker tiles – clay, which is exposed to high-temperature burning. As a result, a superproof material is obtained, which is characterized by low moisture absorption, heat resistance, frost resistance. By its reliability, it will be comparable to granite slabs.
Material itself does not have high thermal insulation qualities, so requires the use of insulation. But today you can find a thermal stillar – an improved sample based on clinker, equipped with a layer of polyurethane or mineral wool insulation. In addition to this two-layer case of thermal stillar, there are three- and four-layer, which are equipped with additional stiffery plates and fire-resistant inserts. The clinker tile is distinguished by a high cost, which, however, pays for a long period of operation – 50 or more.
Having sand in the composition, the tile has ease, good vapor permeability. A small mass of the product makes it possible to install it even on unoccupied bases, as well as bearing structures with a small margin of strength. The presence of polymer resins ensures the strength and moisture resistance of the product, the ability to maintain integrity and geometry when exposed to high and low temperatures. High plasticity Cuts tiles from the occurrence of chips and cracks on them. Mounted both dry and wet.
This tile is also characterized by low weight and durability, has increased indicators of moisture resistance, as well as an attractive appearance. Externally, very similar to clinker tiles.
Such a tile is performed using natural or artificial stone. Natural stone, however, is less and less used for decoration. Despite the big margin of safety, it is too heavy, complicated in processing and care, can have a radiation background and, finally, is characterized by a high cost.
But if you still decided to use a natural stone, choose a trim tile. This is a group of stones having a kind of plates of irregular shape, the thickness of which is rarely superior to 50 mm.
Worthy analogues of the material are porcelain stonewares, a fagot, which are species of artificial stone. The main components of such materials are grip crumbs and other natural stones, as well as polymer resins. As a result, plates are obtained, not inferior in the reliability of natural analogue, but lighter, moisture-resistant and having a smaller value.
It’s right to notice that The weight of the porcelain is still considerable, so it is used only on solid foundations. Thanks to modern technologies, tiles made of artificial stone imitate any natural surfaces – granite, slate, surface of processed and coarse stone and so on.
This facing tile is flexible, elasticity, which makes it possible to apply it for cladding semicircular and round elements of the base. Externally, they imitate brickwork or “torn” stone.
Decorative tile can be cut by building scissors, which facilitates the installation process. The installation is conducted by a wet method on special glue, the paste of the surmise clearance is not required, so an impressive monolithic surface is formed. Under the product may be laid a layer of insulation. Under the tiles there may be a concrete or plastered surface.
Ceramic tile is distinguished by environmental and moisture resistance. In its reliability, it is a little inferior to one of the most durable clinker tiles. However, unlike the latter, ceramic ties have less thermal conductivity.
Outwardly imitates the stone surfaces, fixed only on the crate.
Siding baseplane panels
The basis of the material can be used PVC (rarely, from buying it is better to refuse), metal or fibrocement frame. Fiber cement plates are stronger, more durable, but have more weight and higher cost. Metal and rings, however, also withstand increased load, have anti-corrosion protection.
Tips for laying
Save and show the best technical characteristics of the base tile is possible only when the installation technology is met.
This process includes several main stages.
Preparation of the Wall
The surface is aligned, the old coating is removed, and the wall is processed in 2-3 layers of primer. Then the layer of heat and waterproofing materials is placed on top of them – a metal reinforcing mesh.
Wall markup, preparation of materials
In accordance with the sizes of the tile, the ground markup is made. Do not neglect this stage, since it is possible to achieve a flawless appearance of the base.
After the markup is made and verified, proceed to the preparation of the adhesive composition. It is recommended to apply a special frost-resistant glue for the base tile. It has good adhesion, withstands 150-300 frost cycles and will ensure reliable fixation of tiles.
Preference should be given to the compositions from well-known manufacturers, before purchase, make sure that the storage conditions are properly respected by the seller.
Remember that even the highest quality and expensive tile will not be able to protect the base, if you choose the adhesive of dubious quality. Material will start to move away from the wall.
With a wet method of installation, the glue is applied to the wall (in size, the adhesive stain should be slightly more glued tiles). The same or slightly smaller layer of glue is superimposed by a toothed spatula on the back of the tile. After which it presses to the surface and holds a few seconds.
The tile is placed with gaps, the uniformity of which is achieved through the use of beacons or steel rods with a round cross section of a suitable diameter. Usually the surmise space is 12-14 mm.
After drying the tile, the space between the seams is processed by a grouting composition.
Thus stacked mainly clinker tiles.
Most of the modern tile materials is attached to the crate, built on the surface of the walls of the building. The framework is built from metal profiles or wooden bars. Its fixation to the walls is carried out by means of curvatures.
After mounting the frame on the bolts, screws or special attachments (for example, movable salads) fastened facade plates. Place the corners and other architectural elements, as well as window and door slopes allows the use of fair elements.
The advantage of the attached system is the lack of additional load on the foundation, which you can not say when fixing the plates wet. It is possible to mount panels regardless of the features and status of the wall covering the building, as well as hide minor defects and wall height differences.
Hinged systems usually suggest the preservation between the facade and the wall of a small air gap to 25-35 mm. The system is called ventilated and allows you to increase the heat efficiency indicators of the building.
Often between the wall and the crate, the insulation is laid, which also provides an increase in the thermal insulation characteristics of the structure.
During the device of the crate, it is important that metal profiles are made from moisture-resistant materials (aluminum, stainless steel) or anti-corrosion powder coated.
The wooden cutter is less common due to less strength indicators, it is suitable for the skin of a small area and does not provide for the use of heavy facade plates. In addition, wooden elements must be carefully processed by antipirens and compositions to increase moisture resistance.
First, the base tile is installed and only after that facing the facade. This is due to the need to organize a lowbow, which protects the protruding part of the base from moisture ingress, and its facing.
The unified standard that approves the size of the base materials does not exist. Plates of different types and produced under various brands differ in their dimensions. Unity is observed when it comes to the thickness of the coating.
The thickness of the base tile is usually 1.5-2 times greater than the thickness of the similar material of the facade. Tiles of this type should have a thickness of at least 17-20 mm.
In general, it is possible to distinguish 3 basic dimensional types of base tiles:
- large-sized (their length can reach 200-250 mm);
- medium-sized (the length is from 80-90 mm to 10-120 mm);
- small-sized (usually fit the sizes of facing bricks or have a slightly large dimensions).
This division is very conditional, usually for each type of tiles provided its own dimensional rows.
How to choose?
Before purchasing a tile, it should be determined how the material laying will be carried out, clarify the supporting ability of the foundation. Unattended overlaps, unambiguously, do not withstand heavy stones based on stone or cement. Ideally, with a facing option, the facade and the base should be decided on the development stage of the construction plan.
Having come to the store, make sure that you evaluate or offer you a material intended for external work. As a rule, it has a special labeling “snowflake”, which indicates frost resistance of products.
Ask the Seller to present certificates and other documents confirming the originality of products. Buy, of course, better products of well-known manufacturers. The leading position in the market occupy German and Polish companies. The use of tiles should not be limited to meer than 20-25 years of operation.
If you need to stick the tile, and then fasten the seams, choose the frost-resistant compositions of the same brand.
If you can not decide on a touch of tiles, choose those that the tone is darker for the main finish. This option is usually win-win. Preferences should be given materials, the shade of which occurs during the roasting process without adding pigments (when it comes to clay-based tiles).
Tiens having painted surfaces should be protected by a reliable transparent polymer layer (as an option – have a ceramic spraying). Only in this case can we talk about the preservation of the color of the material throughout the service life of the basement facade.
At home, whose socities are decorated with natural or artificial stone, always look thoroughly, respectable. The rest of the facade is usually faced with brick, plaster or stone (or materials that simulate the surface data). It is important that the stones in the basement are larger compared to the elements of the facade finish.
Sometimes the same structure is used for finishing the base and the facade, but different materials are different. Color range can be both close and contrasting.
Harmoniously combines a smooth brick on the facade with a similar material on the ground. True, brick here can have rhyps. In other words, the facade should become a more relaxed background for the textured, attracting basement of the base tile.