Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

The sandy-gravel mixture is one of the most common inorganic materials used in the construction sector. The composition of the material and the size of the fractions of its elements is determined to which species refers to the extracted mixture, in which its main functions are concluded, where it is more suitable for use.

The sandy-gravel mixture is used in construction for fuses in the lower layers of various bases, For example, asphalt or other road surfaces, and for the manufacture of various mortars, for example, concrete with water adding.

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Peculiarities

This material is a universal ingredient, that is, it can be applied in different activities. Since its main components are natural materials (sand and gravel), this indicates that the sand-gravel mixture is an environmentally friendly product. Also PGS can be kept for a long time – the shelf life of the material is absent.

The main condition for storage is to find a mixture in a dry place.

If there is a moisture in PSA, there is a smaller amount of water in its use (for example, in the manufacture of concrete or cement), and when the sand-gravel mixture is necessary only in a dry form, it will first have to dry it carefully.

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

High-quality sandy-gravel mixture due to the presence of gravel must have good resistance to temperature drops and not lose its strength. Another interesting feature of this material is that the remnants of the used mixture are not subject to disposal, and may further be used for the purpose (for example, when laying a path to home or in the manufacture of concrete).

Natural sand and gravel mixture is distinguished by a low cost, Whereas the enriched PGS has a high price, but this is compensated by the durability and quality of buildings from such an environmentally friendly material.

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Specifications

When acquiring a sandy-gravel mixture, it is necessary to pay attention to such technical indicators:

  • grain composition;
  • volume of content in a mixture of sand and gravel;
  • grain size;
  • the content of impurities;
  • density;
  • Sand and Gravel Characteristics.

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

The technical characteristics of sand-gravel mixtures must comply with the adopted state standards. General information about sand-gravel mixtures can be found from GOST 23735-79, but also there are other regulatory documents regulating the technical characteristics of sand and gravel, for example, GOST 8736-93 and GOST 8267-93.

The minimum size of sand fractions in PGS is 0.16 mm, and gravel – 5 mm. The maximum value for sand according to standards is 5 mm, and for gravel, this value is 70 mm. It is also possible to order a mixture with a gravel size of 150 mm, but no more than this value.

The content of gravel grains in the natural sandy-gravel mixture is about 10-20% – this is the average value. The maximum number reaches 90%, and the minimum – 10%. The amount of content of various impurities (sludge particles, algae and other elements) in Natural PGS should be not more than 5%, and in the enriched – no more than 3%.

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

In the enriched PGA, the amount of gravel content on average is 65%, clay content is minimal – 0.5%.

In a percentage of gravel content in enriched PGS, materials are classified for such types:

  • 15-25%;
  • 35-50%;
  • 50-65%;
  • 65-75%.

Important characteristics of material are indicators of strength and frost resistance. On average, PGS should withstand 300-400 zerozer frost cycles. Also, sandy-gravel composition cannot lose more than 10% from its mass. The strength of the material affects the number of weak elements in the composition.

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Gravel is divided into strength categories:

  • M400;
  • M600;
  • M800;
  • M1000.

Gravel Category M400 has a weak strength, and M1000 – high strength. The average strength is present in gravel categories M600 and M800. Also, the amount of weak elements in gravel category M1000 must be contained no more than 5%, and in all other – no more than 10%.

PGS density is determined to find out which component in the composition is contained in more, and determine the field of material use. On average, the specific gravity of 1 m3 must be approximately 1.65 tons.

The higher the gravel content in the sandy-gravel composition, the higher the level of strength of the material.

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

It is of great importance not only the size of the sand, but also its mineralogical composition, as well as the size module.

The average seal coefficient of PGS is 1.2. This parameter may vary depending on the amount of gravel content and the dummy method of the material.

Not the last role plays the AEF coefficient. It is decrypted as the coefficient of total specific effectiveness of natural radionuclides activity and is available in enriched PGS. This coefficient means the Radioactivity rate.

Sand-gravel mixtures are divided into three classes of safety:

  • less than 370 BC / kg;
  • from 371 BC / kg to 740 BC / kg;
  • from 741 BC / kg to 1500 bk / kg.

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

The safety class also depends on which area of ​​application is suitable for this or that PGS. The first class is used for small construction actions, such as manufacturing products or repair of the building. The second class is used in the construction of automotive coatings in cities and villages, as well as for the construction of houses. The third security class participates in the construction of various high-speed sites (they include sports and playgrounds) and large highways.

The enriched sand-gravel mixture is practically not subject to deformation.

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Views

There are two main types of sandy-gravel mixtures:

  • Natural (PGS);
  • Enriched (OPGS).

Their main difference lies in the fact that the enriched sand-gravel mixture is not found in nature – it turns out after artificial processing and adding a large number of gravel.

Natural sandy-gravel mixture is mined in quarries or from the bottom of the rivers and seas. At the place of origin, it is divided into three types:

  • mining
  • lake-river;
  • marine.

The difference between these types of mixtures is not only in the place of its production, but also in the field of further use, the amount of volumetric content of the main elements, their size and even form.

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

The main features of natural sandy-gravel mixtures:

  • The shape of gravel particles – the most pointed angles have a mining mixture, and in the sea GS, they are missing (smooth rounded surface);
  • The composition is the minimum amount of clay, dust and other pollutants are contained in the marine mixture, and in mining, they prevail in large numbers.

Ozernoy-river sand-gravel mixture is distinguished by intermediate characteristics between sea and mining PGS. It can also find IL or dust, but in small quantities, and its angles have a slightly rounded form.

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

In the OPGS from the composition you can eliminate gravel or sand, and instead of add gravel crushed stone. Gravel crushed stone is the same gravel, but in the processed form. This material is obtained by crushing more than half the source component and has sharp corners and roughness.

Gravel crushed stone increases the grip of building compounds and is perfect for the construction of asphalt concrete.

Crushed stone compositions (sand-rubber mixtures – fox) are divided by fractions of particles for such varieties:

  • C12 – up to 10 mm;
  • C2 – up to 20 mm;
  • C4 and C5 – up to 80 mm;
  • C6 – up to 40 mm.

Crusche compositions have the same characteristics and features as compositions with gravel. Most often used in the construction of a sand-chicken mixture with a fraction of 80 mm (C4 and C5), since this species provides good strength and stability.

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Scope of application

The most common types of construction, in which sand-gravel mixtures are used are:

  • road;
  • housing;
  • Industrial.

Sand-gravel mixtures are widely used in construction for backfilling of catlots and trenches, Alignment of the surface, construction of roads and styling of the drainage layer, the production of concrete or cement, when laying communications, swelling of the bases for various platforms. Also used in the construction of the base of railway canvases and landscaping. This available natural material is involved in the construction of one-storey and multi-storey houses (up to five floors), the foundation laying.

The sandy-gravel mixture as the main element of the coating of the automotive route ensures the resistance of the road to mechanical effects and performs water-repellent functions.

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

In the manufacture of concrete (or reinforced concrete) in order to eliminate the possibility of formation of empty spaces in the construction, used precisely rich PGS. Its fractions of various sizes are perfectly fill in voids and this causes the reliability and stability of structures. Enriched sand-gravel mixture allows you to make concrete of several brands.

The most common type of sandy-gravel mixture is PGS with gravel content in an amount of 70%. Such a mixture is characterized by high strength and reliability, it is used in all types of construction. Natural PGS is used much less often, since due to the content of clay and impurities, its strength properties are underestimated, but it is ideal for filling trenches or pita due to the ability to absorb moisture.

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

Sand-gravel mixture: features and scope of application

      Most often, Natural PGS is used to arrange entry into the garage, pipelines and other communications, the construction of the drainage layer, garden tracks and arrangement of household territories. The enriched composition participates in the construction of road highways and houses.

      How to make a pillow for the foundation from a sandy-gravel mixture, see below.

      Rate article
      ( No ratings yet )
      Share to friends
      Rebuildhom.info - construction and repair, dacha plot, apartment and country house, useful tips and photos
      Add a comment