The service life of automotive tires is a non-alarm – already a few years after the purchase of the tire is subject to replacement, while annually the amount of cars used increases by 10-15% at least. That is why in front of the ecologists of the whole world to the fore, the task of disposal of used tires.
In our review we will tell you more about the processing of this material and the manufacture of rubber crumb.
About the roads in our country said a lot – the Russians themselves are called this problem, no other than the “trouble”. Hundreds of kilometers of worn asphalt coating, pit, bumps cause premature wear tires, which accumulate in garages, cellars and on loggias of our compatriots. As they say, and throw it sorry, and there is nowhere to do.
However, this problem has long found a practical decision. In some regions of our country, specialized plants for the processing of wheels in production conditions work. Automotive tires are crushed to the state of rubber crumb. This product serves as raw materials for the manufacture of high-quality street and floor coatings. The material is distinguished by resistance to wear, good depreciation and durability.
Rubber crumb products have a rather high density, while preserving plasticity due to the introduction of polymer binding components into raw materials. They have a small relief, thanks to which even after wet cleaning and rain, the coating remains rough – it makes it possible to spend any active action without risk to slip and get injured. Rubber granules have the same set of advantages as rubber herself.
In addition, according to manufacturers, the crumb is absolutely not toxic, so the use of such materials does not bother any harm to people nor pet pets.
In addition to the floor and road surface, the crumbs are also manufactured:
- lying police officers;
- figurines for the design of sports grounds;
- Loading substrates during transportation;
- Some types of soundproofing finishing materials;
- Bituminous rubber mastic;
- Dielectric products for electrical sector.
Granules are also injected into asphalt, as a result, it turns out quite dense and durable coating.
To create rubber crumbs, not only tires can be used, but also to put into the course of semi-finished products from synthetic or natural rubber, as well as rubber shoes, bumps, transport tape and other rubberized products.
However, the most popular is the use of a car tire, it is not by chance that this product “flies like hot cakes” – this is explained by the exclusive operational parameters of the auto strokes.
Equipment for grinding
Let’s stop more detail on the minimum set of equipment required for highly efficient processing of served auto strokes in fine-flowing crumb.
Machine for removing sides
This is one of the basic units necessary at the very first stage of technological processing. The functionality of the machine is reduced to the removal of onboard rings. Depending on the structural features of the equipment, landing rings can be deleted by cutting, cutting or pulling out. All methods are equivalent, none of them has a pronounced advantage over all other.
Subsequent processing of remote rings is made on crimp installations, where the metallized base is simply extruded from the workpiece. The remaining rubber is crushed in the remaining mass of raw materials.
Shredders of tires without sides
This group of machines include hydraulic scissors, all sorts of mills, shredders, lentilisa, as well as roller mistress mechanisms.
Lentilhesis and scissors perform tires to large fragments. Next, the raw material enters Schroeder, where it is processed to a large fraction. At the final stage, the roller installation brings rubber fragments to the required size of the pellets.
Separators for deleting inclusions
All the disturbed remnants of the metal Cord from the resulting crumbs are removed by the magnetic separator. This device has a simple principle of operation – high-power electromagnet is simply pulls out of the workpiece all metallized waste and moves them to a special bunker.
The removal of textile fragments is made in the air separator, working on the principle of cyclones, when the air jet blows the whole textile fluff.
The composition of any production equipment for the processing of tires includes vibrosite. They are a table with numerous holes in the size of the fraction, as well as the mechanism providing the necessary vibration.
No less than two installations should be included in the production line: one for rough, other – for fine cleaning. The first device performs a separation of large, not fully recycled fragments, the second is separated by the conditioned crumb.
During the factory processing of wheels, ribbon conveyors are used, they are necessary to move the fragments of tires, as well as the finished product from the venue of technological operations to the processing site. Many manufacturers establish screw conveyors, and automated refining lines of the eating tires are often equipped with bunkers, process control mechanisms and safety modules.
All the above equipment must necessarily be present on any line of recycling used tires in a small crumb. In this case, the total number of installations and machines directly depends on the scale of production, as well as on the requirements for the final type of material obtained.
In industry, there are two basic methods of producing crumbs from the wheels of the wheel: shock wave and mechanical. Let us dwell on them.
This technique grinding auto strokes and other rubber raw materials to the status of small crumbs is recently designed. In this case, recycling is based on freezing of blanks at ultra-low temperatures with further crushing of a powerful shock wave. Usually, cryogenic chambers are used for freezing, and a powerful shock wave creates a special electrical installation or a small portion of explosives.
Such technology requires expensive equipment, so economically this production method is beneficial exclusively for the largest enterprises with huge amounts of raw materials processing.
This method of recycling is considered standard technology. It is used everywhere, even in the smallest industries. The essence of this process is a step-by-step mechanical effect on rubber blanks in order to obtain a proper fraction on the output of the rubber crumb.
There are several used tire mechanics used:
- crushing with cooling rubber raw materials;
- with overpriced temperatures;
- with a conventional temperature background;
- with the use of “ozone knife”;
- With a pressure of raw materials under the most powerful press.
The greatest distribution received crushing at normal temperature. Such a technology allows you to get a car crumb even in conditions of small enterprises, and the exit faction can be absolutely any – from large fragments to a dust substance.
The progress of tire processing is mechanically divided into several main steps:
- At the very beginning of the technological process, the auto strokes are sorted by their size – this will allow you to configure the machines under the wheels of certain dimensions. Directly crushing begins with cutting onboard rings on specialized equipment.
- In the second stage, the hydraulic scissors of the tires are cut on the ribbons of the average size.
- Further, the raw material enters Schröder, where even the largest fragments are crushed to the size of chips – 2-10 cm².
- The resulting billets are further processed, during which they are ground to the fraction of the desired value. At this stage, a mill with sharp four-edged knives or other mechanisms can withstand increased loads.
- At the final stage, it should be separated directly to the crumb from other by-products, that is, textile residues and metal cord.
- The material is practically ready for use, it remains only to skip it through the viburnian – it will separate the resulting rubber crumb into separate fractions.
The resulting product is refused and delivered to the place of processing.
Depending on the features of the equipment used, the number of technological stages can be both increased and is reduced.
Owners of country sites that do not plan to produce rubber crumbs on an industrial scale, but they just want to make their own hands inexpensive and practical coating for garden tracks, can grind auto strokes independently. The workpiece of raw materials, most likely, will not cause any difficulties – it’s just enough to go through the neighbors. Surely, many of them will gladly get out of the sheds serving their tires.
At home, mainly used mechanical cutting of old autoresin, the option with freezing for the house is unprofitable, because in this case there will have to buy a low-temperature chamber. In everyday life, it is most often resorted to a mechanical cutting and further bringing to the desired fraction in domestic shredders and crushers.
To create painted crumbs add coloring glue based on Laprol.
A clear review of the transformation of old tires into a rubber crumb to a mechanical way is presented in the following video.