No house can do without glass, and, therefore, the question of its cutting occurs almost with every repair. There are many ways to solve this problem.
Glass cutting – the most important stage in the processing process. As a result, the product acquires the specified sizes and shapes, as well as the possibility of an artistic finish that improves its appearance. These actions, depending on the desired result, can be performed in various ways and methods on specialized machines.
Manual cutting exists and is quite common, but usually it is used only with small repair work, in other cases it is inexpex. The oldest and common method of processing and cutting glass is the mechanical method. Currently, this is the most suitable processing method. This method implies the use of special wedge-shaped rollers made mainly from tungsten.
Cutting in this way includes two operations. First, the roller makes the groove (risk) on the glass of the desired trajectory, after which an attempt is made to split it.
Despite the outdated mechanical cutting technology, it still has significant advantages:
- the greatest cutting speed – up to 120 m / min;
- Low cost of equipment and simplicity in service;
- Processed products may have different sizes and shapes.
The most common disadvantages of mechanical cutting:
- chip and roughness of the cut due to mechanical material defects;
- the need for subsequent processing and finishing edge cut;
- When cutting, it is necessary to use special fluids.
Laser cutting was originally tested on a small thickness metal. Most recently, the same method began to apply for cutting glass using special devices. Two laser cutting methods distinguish. The first is the original technology and is called laser sharp by thermal evaporation. This process is currently practically not applied, as it is the slowest and consumes a large amount of energy. The method itself is to evaporate the glass to the end. The main disadvantage of this variant is the presence of residual voltage in the material due to heating, which can cause a damage to the product around the edges of the cut.
The second method used at the present time has been developed as a result of improving the thermal spare. It has been established that it is absolutely optionally a laser to completely evaporate the glass, low thermal conductivity and heat resistance allow you to use the heat dissipation method. The principle of this method lies in the discrete heating of the glass throughout the cut line. Next cooling occurs, and the stretching voltage is formed on this site, the glass is clearly for the lines.
This method is faster and less energy-intensive, so it is now actively used and gains momentum.
Laser cut has a number of benefits:
- high-quality slice with flawless edge;
- Figure cutting simplifies;
- Possible cutting glass with a large thick;
- The product does not turn out to be a mechanical impact;
- Easy to regulate and control the cutting process.
The process of laser cutting glass is currently under development. Therefore, as all new technologies, this method has its drawbacks:
- Low emission material (reflective infrared radiation) is not suitable for laser processing;
- expensive machines requiring careful use;
- Low processing speed – from 5 to 10 m / min.
The water jet cutting has become possible in the 1980s due to the use of powerful hydraulic pumps, which allowed to mix small pointed granules of chopped materials with water. Technology is designed to cut a wider range of materials. Glass is very suitable for this method, which leaves the matte edges, which is easily polished.
Advantages of such cutting:
- excellent edge quality, which makes unnecessary grinding;
- lack of chemical and thermal impact on material, minor mechanical impact, absence of cracks;
- Ability to cut very thick and multilayer glass.
Despite the advantages, there are disadvantages:
- Very low cutting speed (0.5-1.5 m / min) depending on glass and equipment;
- high costs of operation of equipment;
- The need to prepare a large amount of water.
Than cut the glass at home?
Before cutting glass at home, first of all it is necessary to determine the tool that is applicable to this method. In most cases, glass cutter use glass. Distinguish the following types of glass cutters:
This process can also be performed using a soldering iron, a cornerless machine or a disk saw, nichrome string and even conventional scissors.
- Soldering iron. First of all, risks are applied on both sides of the cut-off line. Then the entire cutoff line is heated using a well-heated soldering iron. Due to the difference in temperatures on the surface, the glass is stripped, after which it remains only to neatly split it.
- Bulgarian or disk saw. To cut off the glass with a grinder, you need to use a diamond disk. First, on the line of the slice of a diamond disk to apply a small groove. In the process of work, to ensure that the surface of the glass is not heated strongly. To do this, water the surface of ordinary water. The tool applied at the same time must be working and have no defects. Otherwise, the glass will simply split.
When working, the Bulgarian needs to use the means of individual protection of respiratory and vision organs.
- Using heating and cooling. Impregnated with a flammable thread, lay down the cutting line and set fire. After the thread completely prohibit, sharply cool the surface with cold water. From such a drop temperature glass collapses along the cut line. Another option is the heating of the material using the nichrome string connected to the electric current. With this method, water is not used for cooling. The difference in the temperatures of the thread and glass enough for the chick in the intended place.
- Scissors. The thin glass of a small thickness is cut by simple scissors, if this is done by immersing scissors and glass under hot water. It looks like a cutting process of thick cardboard.
- To drill round holes The glass use drills for ceramic surfaces, as well as diamond crowns of various diameters.
Never be neglected to prepare glass cutting process. This operation is impossible without its preliminary training. It is necessary to wipe the surface by a moistened with a rag, to remove all unnecessary inclusions. After the glass is dry, dried with a dry cloth.
Many experts advise the use of old paper, and not a rag. It does not leave on the surface of the fibers that impede the cutting process. Glasses that have already been used, it is much more difficult to cut, so they are prepared longer. In addition to cleaning and drying, such a material must be deguted with kerosene.
Features cutting different types
Tempered glass, also known as Kalenoe, is made by heating it in the oven to a temperature of 680 degrees and subsequent rapid cooling with uniform air flows. Use such a product as windshield and window glass in cars, as well as heat-resistant and refractory overlap. As a rule, cutting and glass processing is performed immediately before the annealing, which eliminates other problems. Processing of such material in conventional methods is impossible due to its mechanical properties.
Different cutting methods are available for tempered glass. First – laser dissection of glass. Due to the fact that the laser cuts the material with heating at a certain point, the internal stresses at this point fall and prevent the glasses cracking, producing a smooth and high-quality cut. The second and more complex method implies a preliminary annealing. The main purpose of this method is the complete removal of residual stresses throughout the area of the material and its transformation so in the usual sheet quartz glass. Annealing is carried out by soaking the material in water to the temperature indicator of the solidification viscosity in the furnace. Then the slow cooling to the temperature below the deformation. As a result of these actions, the glass loses its hardened properties and may be subject to mechanical cutting.
Acrylic glass, also known as organic, is a synthetic polymer methyl methacrylate, transparent thermoplastic plastic. It is called glass only formally due to transparency. The remaining properties differ significantly and have nothing to do with the present glass, which allows to apply completely different processing methods to it. In connection with this, one of the most popular cutting methods is a dissection using a milling machine when specialized equipment is not required, and is used as for wood processing and metals.
Other methods used to disassemble glass are also applicable to acrylic version. Water jet and laser cutting interact with organic glass with great efficacy and provide higher cutting speed than when using the same equipment for processing ordinary glass. Cutting of thick reinforced glass is hampered by the presence of a metal mesh in it.
However, all the cutting methods discussed above are applicable to processing this species. The only difference is that in some cases there will have to eat metal wire with nipples.
Before the start of cutting of any type of glass, first of all it is necessary to check the health of the glass cutter and its sharpening. It is necessary to try to cut an unnecessary piece of sheet. Competitive glass cutter moves without effort and screens, slice line is thin and continuous. All other results will mean that the cutting element is faulty or errors in the cutting technique were made.
It is still worth choosing a flat support with dimensions exceeding the size of the leaf processed. Suitable any straight surface. For safety worth sitting on it thick cloth. Glass markup tools – this is a bright marker, iron line, roulette.
For high-quality cutting, it is necessary to comply with technology and a sequence of operations.
- On the surface, apply the initial and end point of the cut.
- The glass cutter is at the top point, and the line is attached to it.
- Cutting is performed smoothly from top to bottom, with constant effort and in one direction. Do not hold glass cutter several times one place. Glass can crack.
- Split a piece by aligning the cut line with the edge of the table. Call a crack, carefully tapping on a glass cutting cut, and then you can get around with one sharp movement.
- If the chief turned out to be uneven, it can be fixed with pliers or use special cutouts in the glass cutter handle. In order to avoid cracks, the cut line should be moistened with turpentar.
- At the final stage, the cutting line is treated with sandpaper, velvet saw or grinding stone.
To work with glass, it is important to comply with safety equipment.
- Never cut glass on your knees or random items. Do not clean the cut along the cut line with an unprotected finger.
- The product should be broken correctly, only in the direction opposite to cut. Tick lips should be protected by rubber tips or wrapped in fabric or isolate.
- Sort and lay the sheets in gloves, and not bare hands.
- Be careful when using electrical glass cutters to avoid electric shock and possible burns.
- Before starting work, check all tools and accessories, and defective replace.
- After each working day, work clothes must be cleaned from glass dust and particles.
- Wear protective glasses.
About how to cut the glass correctly, look in the following video.