No cement mortar impossible no construction. Properly composed cement-sand mix – this is the key to the fact that the object will be durable and eats for a long time. In the preparation and preparation of the cement mortar there are no little things, even minor details are important here.
In modern construction, the cement mixture is most often consumed, which is compiled in certain proportions with sand.
There are several options for cement mixtures that are in demand, namely:
- To make a screed takes a mixture in the ratio of cement to water 1: 3, additives and fiber opens are also often added;
- For masonry, a solution of 1: 4 is used, the grade cement is not lower than M200;
- For plastering, a mixture is usually used 1: 1: 5.5: 0.4 (cement, lime quenched, sand, clay) is a M50 solution.
Cement concentration in different mixtures per 1 cubic solution can vary significantly. This fact depends on the types of work and the intensity of mechanical loads, which are experiencing various fragments of the structure. Beginners builders often do not give due value to the proportions of materials in cement mixtures, thinking that this issue is insignificant. This is a deep misconception, because correctly compiled shares on m³ is the main key to the fact that the object will be durable and durable. It is recommended to take advantage of the composition of the cement mortar.
To correctly calculate the concentration of the cement mixture, you need to use norms and standards prescribed in special tables. They can be found in any directory for building themes.
The following tools will be required to work with cement mortar:
- concrete mixer;
- Device for weighing a bulk substance;
- buckets in which the mixture hangs;
- The table in which 1m² of sand density coefficients, gravel, cement, lime mixture are indicated.
Usually solution compositions include one binder. This solution is called simple. But there are mixed solutions that several plasticizers can be added to which. If the solution is only with the addition of sand, it turns out quite dense and heavy by weight. It ranges from 1680 to 2100 kg per cubic meter volume, in lighter solutions, such an indicator is noticeably less – up to 1650 kg per cubic meter.
What does it depend on?
The mechanical strength of the cement solution may be such gradations as 2, 4, 10 and 25. Guided by tables and standards, you can reduce the consumption of such a valuable material as cement without damage to the strength of the design. Usually for construction work, for example, Cement grade 400 is used for screed. The most common solutions are M25 and M50. To prepare M25, the sand ratio is required in relation to cement 5: 1. To make the M50 substance, a 4: 1 proportion will be required. Such a composition will dry for three days with a layer thickness of 1 cm. Sometimes arbolite or PVA glue is added, then the coating turns out even more.
Attention should be paid to the cement consumption when you need to prepare one cube concrete.
To important indicators for which the quality of the solution is determined:
- Time setting.
In order for the mixture to be high-quality, it should be well stirred. It is necessary to follow the proportions of sand and cement consumption. The M600 brand solution requires the presence of cement in a 1: 3 ratio. If the work of the M400 grade cement is present, then the ratio is obtained 1: 2.
It should be borne in mind that when calculating the amount of cement to obtain the required volume should be multiplied by the coefficient of 1.35, because there is an addition of water and various additives. On one cubic meter of solution, about 68 bags of cement weighing 50 kg. The most popular grades of cement for the construction of the foundation are M200, M250 and M300. The foundation requires a solution in which the optimal compression ratio will be present.
If the brand cement M100, then the list will attend the following density:
- M100 -175 kg / m³;
- M150 – 205 kg / m³;
- M200 – 245 kg / m³;
- M250 – 310 kg / m³.
For plastering for one square meter with a layer thickness of 1 cm, about 2 mm cement will be required. With such a thickness of the layer, the material works well, not deforming and not crack.
To put the slag blocks will need the following relationships:
- M150 – 220 kg / m³;
- M200 – 180 kg / m³;
- M300 – 125 kg / m³;
- M400 – 95 kg / m³.
When finishing the facade, special pigments and semicircles often use, as well as salt, soap solution, which improve the quality of materials. When preparing the mixture, the dry substance is first carefully stirled, only then liquid is added. The mixture is usually prepared in a small amount, because it has the ability to quickly capture. To make M150 and M200 brands, Cement and Sand Proportions are required 1: 4. If the M400 brand solution is needed, then such a composition has a proportion of 1: 3.
Concrete is in the greatest demand in construction. Its main components are crushed stone, water, sand, cement. It is important to initially submit for what purposes will be used concrete. Its consumption averages about 245-325 kg. It all depends on the cement brand, in which ratio and proportions are preparing a mixture.
How to calculate?
Cement of higher stamps is used, as a rule, in industry to create durable structures. In everyday life and civil engineering, their use is found in rare cases.
Cement brand 500 is often used to create such supporting structures as piles, overlap and fastening beams. Such cement shows well at low temperatures, has high anti-corrosion performance. It is also often used in the construction of various overlaps, beams and plates. The characteristics of this cement also include good frost resistance and water resistance, as well as it has an excellent anti-corrosion capacity and is therefore often used during emergency operations.
It is recommended to follow the recommendations regarding the proportions. The presence of cement directly affects the plasticity of concrete and its other indicators. Most often consume the following ratios: cement (1 kg), sand (3 kg) and crushed stone (5 kg). Sometimes it is also added to the composition of a little glass, which is why it becomes even stronger. With this ratio, the concrete mixture will be very strong. Any deviations from prescribed proportions lead to a substantial composition. The brand used in obtaining this material must be greater on average twice the brand of the obtained concrete.
For convenience, the work usually use bags with cement 50 kg. As an example to get concrete M200 you should use four cement bag. For masonry, a solution based on lime is often used, which is characterized by good plasticity indicators.
If you want to make plaster facades, then such mixtures are optimal for such work. For carrier walls, a higher brand cement is applied, this will provide additional strength of the object. The binding material M500 is used in the ratio of 1: 4, if the cement brand M400, then the ratio, respectively, 1: 3. When the mixture is made with your own hands, usually used cement, which brand is twice the brand of the product obtained. For example, if you need to get a mixture of the M100 brand, then the cement must have brand M200.
Calculation of the area of the wall
In one cubic meter there are 482 bricks in size 242x120x64 mm. Consumption of bricks on the laying depends on the thickness of the walls. For Russian realities, external walls are optimally fitted, isolated from two bricks. Single brick has dimensions of 252x120x65 mm, one-time – 252x120x87 mm, double – 252x120x138 mm. Based on these indicators, it is easy to calculate how much bricks will be required for 1 m².
If we talk about the consumption of cement on the masonry, then this indicator depends in many respects from the thickness of the seam. This parameter is usually 15 mm. It should also be borne in mind that for silicate bricks it is necessary much more solution than for facing. The most out of the solution is due to the hollow brick, in this case the cement-sand mixture is made in a dry form 1: 4. A little water is added to a small container and a cement-sand substance is added, stirring it to a semi-liquid state.
Master of the hollow brick is spent the most solution. For such a masonry, it will take seam at least 0.2 cubic meters of solution, given that brick width – 12 cm. If you make a masonry in one brick, then the solution will be 0.23 m³, at one and a half stone it takes 0.16 m³. Also consider the amount of consumable liquid mortar.
Tips and recommendations
During the construction of private houses, the so-called heavy concrete brand 400 is most often used. Calculating material consumption, it is recommended to consider this fact.
Sand plays a very important role in the preparation of cement mixture. This component gives substance plasticity. For plastering, you should choose a seeded sand with a small content of clay. If layers of plaster will be too thick, then it is necessary to mount the metal mesh on the wall, it will be a guarantee that the plaster is not cracking.
Sometimes clamzite is added to the sand-cement mixture. This component is needed in cases where the spray is necessary in inter-storey floors. Sometimes clamzit is simply falling asleep in the grooves between lags and shed cement milk. Such a composition of time dries in 2-3 days and is a good heat insulator.
About what depends the consumption of cement for 1 cube. Summary, look in the following video.