Features of sulfate-resistant cement

It is the opinion that reinforced concrete products are the most durable and durable. However, such a wording is error. With inappropriate operating conditions, construction from concrete is also susceptible to serious deformations and damage. They have a negative impact of severe frosts, sedimentation of soil layers, oxygen oxidation, precipitation and influence of various chemicals.

Sulfate-resistant cement is considered the best possible construction. This building material has become the greatest popularity in those regions where weather conditions leave much to be desired. This applies to territories for which characteristic features are sharp temperature differences and a large amount of drop-down precipitation.

What it is?

Sulfate-resistant cement or portland cement is a special building material that differs from the usual analogue and is resistant to negative impacts of chemical compounds and changeable whims of nature. The main area of ​​portland cement includes the construction of pumping stations, water-supplying and water supply facilities. Concrete and piles from zinc sulphate building materials are used to build most of the industrial structures.

Sulfate-resistant cement is slowly frozen, but in the hardened state it has a very high density. The last factor is its main advantage among other building materials.

Views

In its composition, sulphate-resistant cement is divided into the following varieties:

  • Pozzolana Portland cement;
  • sulfate-resistant slagoportland cement;
  • sulfate resistant portland cement;
  • Sulfate-resistant Portland cement with the addition of minerals.

Now consider briefly each of these building materials:

  • Pozzolan Portland cement contains a mixture of granulated domain slag and Pozzolan. Under the latter, the products of volcanic origin in the form of ashes, tuff and pumice. Pozzolanes are active mineral additives in the manufacture of Portland cement. This building material relatively badly tolerates the mode of alternate humidification and drying, as well as thawing and sharp freezing.
  • Sulfate resistant SlagoporTland cement It is manufactured by mixing a clinker with a domain slag in a granular form (approximately 50-60%) and a small amount of gypsum. Slag, which is used for production should contain a limited amount of aluminum oxide (approximately 10-12%). Sulphate-resistant slagoportland cement Assigns M300 and M400 brands. It is relatively resistant to the effects of sulfates, but strong frosts suffer poorly.

  • Sulphate-resistant Portland cement has a brand M400. It is inclined to slow solidification and low heat dissipation. Is universal and withstands any kind of temperature and humidity.
  • In sulphate-resistant cement With minerals About 15-20% of the total cement mixture of the domain slag in granules or 5-10% mineral substances is added. This type of building material is manufactured with M400 and M500 brands. Sulfate-resistant cement with mineral additives is excellent for the construction of various designs, has increased frost resistance and resistance to strong humidity and drought.

Application

Due to the main components of Portland cement, which can be characterized as those resistant to unfavorable nature factors and harmful chemical compounds, the buildings created with its use are durable and durable.

Portland cement is used to create sulfate-resistant concrete, as well as the following structures:

  • sulfate resistant piles;
  • reinforced concrete facilities;
  • Bridge supports;
  • Hydrotechnical buildings.

Separate attention should be given to sulphate-resistant pile to understand what it is. Piles are products that are large rods that are made from Portland cement. Their main use is to strengthen the designs and creating a solid support when building the foundation.

The quality of these products is entirely affected by the durability and safety of buildings. Piles bury deep into the soil. They are resistant to moisture, precipitation, groundwater and chemical elements in the clogs of the soil. Most often serve for the construction of large-sized bridges, hydraulic stations and dams.

Sulfate-resistant concrete can be made even from ordinary cement if mineral additives are included in the solution. However, it is better to use Portland cement when creating a mixture for sulphate-resistant concrete. This will increase the strength of the structure at all stages from the concrete process and ending with guaranteed protection throughout the life of the reinforced concrete product.

Composition clinker

Clinker is an intermediate product in the production of Portland cement. For the first time he heard about him in 1817, when the French engineer Louis Vika invented cement clinker. This useful opening helped subsequently in 1840 to create artificial cement (Portland cement).

The composition of sulfate-resistant cement includes components of crushed clinker, consisting of minerals. In the manufacture of material, accurate dosages of all necessary components are made in obligatory. Typically, finished products contain 5% aluminate and 50% silicate. This ratio is due to the fact that in the layers of the soil and precipitating precipitation themselves there are already quite a lot of sulphate compounds.

Upon joining the reaction with the aluminate, the destruction of sulfates begins and, as a result, the deformation of the structure itself. For this reason, only a small amount of aluminate phase should be present in the initial raw material for the production of Portland cement.

At the main composition of the clinker, not only the original raw material has a great influence, but also the terms of manufacture. When the raw materials burn, then the impurities are placed chaotic. This factor creates a changed structure of clinker phases. Under the latter, it is customary to mean basic minerals: Alit and Belit.

  • Alit is an important mineral having great importance in clinker. He quickly solidifies and has high strength. Alith shows great activity in a water connection.
  • Belit in its reaction is less active in contrast to Alita. Also, its heat dissipation is less than twice as the main Mineral of Clinker – Alita. Belith slowly freezes and due to this ensures high material strength.

The wall intermediate involved in the creation of cement clinker is three-killy aluminate. The content of this substance in a standard sulfate-resistant cement is only 5-10%. The excess amount of this material can provoke, as already noted above, sulphate corrosion. This process is fraught with negative consequences in the form of destruction of the structure of concrete and crystallization of salts on the walls of materials.

As for the last destructive impact, the crystallization leaves its mark in the form of a noticeable expansion of cement stone in volume. Sometimes the effect of sulfates leads to the formation of gypsum, which also contributes to a significant expansion of the stone and the gradual destruction of buildings.

The harmful effect of sulfates for reinforced concrete structures is noted when alternately drying and moisturizing the soil and the structure itself. As an example, a constantly changing water level in the river can be brought. Reinforced concrete piles made from sulphate-resistant cement, during this exposure of moisture exposed to slowly engage in the structure of the material and wear structures until complete destruction.

Choosing cement for work, it is necessary to carefully examine its main composition. It is important to take into account that for each specific type of soil, you need a special kind of cement.

How to do?

Obtaining sulfate-resistant cement is possible by two methods:

  • made cement mortar with special additives from minerals;
  • The use of a special zinc sulphate cement-sand mixture made by an industrial method, which is distinguished by durability and guarantees the protection of the structure during the entire period of operation.

In the manufacture of solutions, accurate component ratios should be followed.

In the event that mineral additives are several times higher than the standard rate, the strength of the solution is significantly reduced, the fragility of structures increase accordingly, which is why their destruction occurs. Sulfate-resistant cement solution must comply with the basic standards of state standards.

Using Portland cement is an expensive procedure, so apply it is not as often as a simple analog. However, sulfate-resistant cement is simply incomparable in its characteristics with a conventional concrete solution.

          After all, portland cement durability is several times higher than the same indicator of ordinary materials. It should be noted that its main distinctive properties fully justify the high cost.

          Sulfate-resistant cement reliably protects buildings and buildings from the influence of moisture and frosts, increases the wear resistance of structures. It can also significantly improve the quality of a simple concrete solution, as a result of which such building material will last longer than the usual declared period.

          About how to protect cement mortar, see the video below.

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