Electric drills: device, types, selection and rating

Probably, each farming has an electric drill. This one of the most basic tools that is needed from time to time to hang a picture, shelf, repair the furniture or make some other housework works. Today we will look at the drill device, its main varieties, as well as imagine the most popular models.


Each good owner has a set of home tools that he needed for repair and construction work on the house, as well as in the country and the local area. Someone acquires only the most necessary tools. and someone bumps everything in a construction store. In any case, the drill is always in the arsenal of a home master, because without this tool, many works do not seem to be possible.

From a technical point of view, the electric drill is a portable tool that is used to drill holes in walls and other horizontal and vertical surfaces. In addition to its basic function, the drill is often used as a screwdriver or a building mixer. The base knot of drills is considered the electric motor that produces a rotation of the drill in the working billet. It is located in a plastic housing, the working tool is usually located in the hands of the user, so a person should be as reliably protected from electric shock. That is why there are elevated electrical insulating requirements for materials from which the case is made.

In any electrode there is a gearbox, this is a special device through which the rotational movement is transmitted from the electric motor to the drill. Its task includes a decrease in revolutions, which leads to slowing the speed of rotation of the drill, as well as to increase the torque of the power tool. A special cartridge is located on the shaft of such a device, which is needed for fixing the drill and other working nozzle. If the gearbox is located in the inside of the case, then the cartridge, on the contrary, is outside.


There is a wide variety of drills with the most varying operational features: small and large, manual, electric, rechargeable and many others. Depending on the purpose of the tool, household and professional drills are distinguished. The last working resource is much higher than at domestic, since a professional drill is usually used quite long, while the household is removed from the locker with the tools only from time to time. Accordingly, the price of a professional tool is much higher than on household.

Depending on the principle of operation distinguishes shock and unstressed models.

In an unstressed tool, the motion of the electric motor is transmitted through the gearbox, so that the angular rotation speed is reduced, and the rotational moment, on the contrary, increases. These drills are optimal for drilling holes with high accuracy, they are optimal for working with metals, plastic and wood, but for drilling concrete, also brick or stone This tool is not suitable, since the load on the mechanism is growing, and the effectiveness is almost zero.

Shock models are famous for the fact that the holes in concrete surfaces are pretty easily, Usually they combine the tasks of the standard drill and perforator, having 2 main operating modes – shock and standard drilling. It is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the impact mode in any drill is considered not leading, with frequent use leads to a fairly rapid wear of the instrument, therefore, in the total duration of operation, the number of work on the impact mode should not exceed 25%. It should be understood that such a drill should not be used to form holes in reinforced concrete products, as it causes an increased return on the working gears, as well as tool ratchet, which can serve as a proven failure.

Drill-screwdriver – a kind of hybrid that combines the options of a drill and a screwdriver, Usually they are complemented by mechanisms to carry out percussion drilling. The advantages of such a model include the possibility of working without connecting to the electrical current network, as well as the possibility of reverse direction of movement of rotational elements.

Corner drills are varieties of electrical tools that are used to drill holes in the corners in those sites where to get with a simple drill is not possible. Such features are due to the special structure of the gearbox, although the scope of similar drills is quite limited – it does not apply in working with surfaces, in addition, the mode of shock drilling can work in it.

Drills-mixers – are used when conducting construction work to knead solutions of dry mixtures. They include a rather powerful electric motor, which creates a significant torque, and therefore are equipped with additional handles that are necessary to hold the device while working. Usually have 2 main speeds of rotation and are equipped with several types of nozzles that are used for kneading various building mixtures. With the help of mixers, even paints, glue, putty, as well as cement and lime solutions are mixed. As for the basic drilling function, this tool is designed to work with DVS, chipboard, wood, plasterboard and thin iron.

Mechanism for diamond drilling – This modification is equipped with a heavy duty motor, Due to which it allows you to create holes in the strongest and solid materials using a diamond light. Usually, such systems are equipped with overheating protection and are used to interact with reinforced concrete and solid stones. Depending on the supply method, the drill is divided into wired and wireless. The first works only when connecting to the AC network, and the second operates on the battery.

Differences of professional from non-professional

Professional tools are quite significantly different from domestic, they are used in intensive workload mode, so they differ in greater hardness, strength and reliability of structures. The distinctive characteristics of professional tools include:

  • the presence of a two-speed rhythm of work;
  • Ergonomic handle with a convenient grip – it allows you to work with a drill for quite a long time without fatigue and fatigue;
  • Target – as a rule, professional drills have limited functionality, each model is designed to perform a specific circle of repair tasks and decoration;
  • Ability to use in high humidity conditions, dusting and temperature fluctuations.

The household drills are characterized by the optimal balance price / quality, as a rule, they are completed with the large number of a wide variety of nozzles for use in several directions, while such models are not intended for long-term use, they are recommended to use 15-20 minutes, after which they need the same By duration of the break. Such restrictions are explained by the low power of the engine, as well as weak protectedness from overheating, mechanical exposure, water and dust particles.

Selection criteria

Before you choose an electric door First, it is necessary to determine for yourself the amount of work with which the tool will have to face. If you plan to use it intensively, then you should give preference to professional models, because household appliances for frequent operation for a long time. But for a regular apartment or a private house, where the tool uses rarely and gradually, household options is more than enough.

Separate attention should be paid on the technical parameters of the product. One of the basic characteristics of functionality is the power, drilling diameter and the number of revolutions. The number of revolutions are measured at idle. This parameter indicates the maintenance of your drill with the surfaces of different types. The higher this value, the better. This indicator has a particularly relevant value in the case when you have to work with grinding nozzles, fixtures for stripping surface and polishing, because in the event the load on the drill will be increased.

The power of the electric drill is usually varied from 300 to 1500 W, this indicator allows you to determine how quickly and easily you can perform certain construction work. As a rule, a tool with increased power has great functionality, for example, allows drilling holes of quite large diameters. However, for household use it will be quite enough power in 500 W – this tool can work with a tree, and with some other soft surfaces.

The ability to adjust the speed is another indicator of the drill, although not the most important. It is produced due to the work of a special regulator and significantly increases the degree of ease of use of the tool. So, to twist the screws, it is possible to establish a reduced speed of work, but when drilling a hole in durable materials, it is better to install maximum turns.

Be sure to pay attention to the maximum hole diameter, otherwise you can quickly burn tool. If you work in accordance with the technical conditions and gtales, the tool will serve you faithfully for quite a long time.

Rating the best models

The highest popularity of the wide range of professional tools is used by the electric drill Makita. Products of this brand are distinguished by increased assembly quality, their housing is made of high quality plastic, and the nozzle is securely attached due to the scoring cartridge. The power of a similar tool begins from 500 W and above, while depending on the model, the drilled holes may have a diameter of up to 4 mm.

Among ordinary consumers are high demand tools of Russian production “Bison”, which are designed to work with concrete and brick. Such an opportunity is due to the combination of shock and rotational modes of use, and the “bison” drills are equipped with quick-sample cartridges, so that they can be quite easy to change. In the assortment of this manufacturer there is a series of high-quality drills of mixers, which operate in unstressed mode and are used to mix liquid mortars. Torque is quite high, so the tool allows you to form a rather large diameter holes.

It is noteworthy that the “bison” is equipped with the electronic adjustment of the degree of rotation, due to which the mixer works without scattering the building mixtures, and due to the metallic body, the transmission dimensions are distinguished by real geometric accuracy. Tools of this series are quickly cooled, therefore can be used in a more natural mode. The presence of these undoubted advantages is distinguished by the “bison” from the models of its competitors, the tool is focused on domestic use with intermittent work mode.

Operating Rules

When working with a drill, it is very important to comply with the safety requirements, if you neglect the rules of work, you can get quite serious injury. Before use, it is necessary to study the instruction manual and get acquainted with the basic rules of work. It is very important to constantly monitor the type and condition of the cable, as well as inspect the sockets and forks. They do not allow any damage to the integrity of the insulating coating, the forks and sockets must be missing chips and cracks, and the cord should not have traces of abrasion.

It is important to avoid water and other liquids on a working tool, as well as a plug with a socket and cable – it often causes a serious lesion to the current. When working with solid concrete surfaces in the impact mode, it is desirable to wear headphones to reduce the load on the hearing organs. If you drill the base with a high degree of dangerous dust release, then it is advisable to use safety glasses and respirators. When multiplying large holes, as well as when working with nozzles, it is necessary to apply an additional ergonomic handle. During the replacement of the drill, turn off the access of the electric current – that is, to remove the fork from the outlet.

It is very important to comply with all the rules of safe use of a drill, since their violation may entail quite serious injuries.

Possible problems

Regardless of whether you purchased some kind of functionality and manufacturer, some time may happen. The most common are the following:

  • Stator breakdown or anchors that lead to the failure of an electric motor;
  • high degree of worn brushes;
  • problems with the work of bearings;
  • breakdown of speed control buttons;
  • The start button is quite often oxidized or burned working contacts;
  • Periodically breaks a cartridge that holds the drill – the reason for this is usually covered with the wear of the sponges.

If you intend to make an electric device repair on your own, to begin with complete diagnostics, in most cases the problem is solved by the usual substitution of the part to the new. If you cannot establish the cause of the fault – it is worth contacting the service center.

About how to fix drill with your own hands, look in the following video.

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