The chisel is a fairly simple and well-known cutting tool. In skillful hands, it is capable of performing actually any task: to process the groove or chamfer, perform threads or make a deepening.
What it is?
The chisel serves for planing, it removes a small layer of the treated surface. During work, it is necessary to put pressure on it or hitting the image. Impact chisels call chisel. They are distinguished by a massive reinforced handle and a thicker working surface that is necessary to prevent the tool breakdown.
The adjustment of the wooden billet is made by a joinery. Figured use for artistic figure cutting. Treatment of wooden blank on the lathe is carried out using a lather.
Joinery type can be divided into several groups.
- Straight chisel has a flat working surface. With it, you can remove excess on the outer plane of the product or make rectangular shape. This is the only type of tool, working with which the muscular strength of the hands can be made or with the help of a Cyan.
- Differences of the sub-seaman from a straight line consists in the length of the blade, which almost twice the length of the blade is direct. Undercrowding Tool type Used to process long or deep groove.
- Processing the groove or tongue can be made by a straight “crankshaft”. Her handle has an angle to the working surface of about 120 degrees and reduces the likelihood of damage to the hand of the product surface.
- Curved chisel is a flat type of tool, which has a bend on the length of the entire canvas and cutting part.
- “Kurkaraza” – a tool with a steep bend of the blade at the very beginning in the cutting part. It has widespread use in everyday life. Door locks are cut with it.
- Kosya chisel, as well as straight, has a flat working surface, But it is distinguished by the beveled corner of the cutting edge. This type is used to perform work in difficult or semi-closed parts of the product, for example, such as “Lastochkin Tail”. Usually two oblique chisels are required: with the left and right bevelled edge. There is a specialized chisel “Fish Tail”, which combines the left brave and the right.
- The angular chisel is a tool V-shaped with an angle from 60 to 90 degrees. This is a tool for embossed or contour thread.
- If the tool is made in the form of a semicircle, it is called radius or “semicircular”. This is the most popular tool. With it, it is achieved smooth, neat transition when gluing in the material of the product.
- The narrow sample of the material is made by braces. Their edge has sides of different heights and various angles.
- In art cutting, products use “Cerazik”. The working part of such a tool is made of a thinner metal and has a semicircular shape.
Despite the fact that all of the above types of chisels are used for wood thread, their direct purpose varies.
Moreover, acquiring a narrow-plated tool of different types, a situation may occur when a set of one type of chisels may need to perform one type of work, but various parameters may be needed.
The leading position in the premium class is rightfully occupied by manufacturers from Canada, Japan and the USA. Their products are distinguished by the high quality of the materials used, balance, convenience in work – “themselves lie down in hand”. Manufacturers of Russian, Swiss, Czech, Dutch, German and Latin American brands can be attributed to the middle (second) group. Their tools are made at high level, materials are used high-quality. The service life is inferior to tools from the premium segment slightly and requires minimal refinement before use.
Less attractive for professional carpenters are the tools of the group of the group produced without the use of modern materials or technologies, with impaired cutting portion geometry, unbalanced. Part of such a tool requires significant refinement or at all can not fulfill its functions. At their cost, they can be comparable to tools from the second group or be much cheaper. Most manufacturers from this group are located in the post-Soviet territory, in China and Taiwan, in Poland and Serbia.
Premium class sties are much more expensive, their cost can exceed the cost of analogues from the second group of several dozen times. About such a tool say: “Himself cuts”. In practice, this means that the cutting part of the tool accepts and correctly redistributes the force-applied force on the entire cutting part of the chisel.
Blue Spruce manufacturer – handmade tools from USA. Used high-speed steel A2, wavy maple handle, perfect geometry. For a set of chisels of 4 pieces will have to pay almost 500 US dollars.
Handmade chisels also offers a brand Lie-Nielson, USA. The characteristics of the tools are practically similar to the previous manufacturer, but the cutting part has a so-called skirt in its foundation – a conical recess for attaching the handle. The cost of sets from 5, 6 and 7 pieces varies from 300 to 400 US dollars.
In this price category are Veritas tools, Canada. Their latest development – cutting canvas from the RM-V11 alloy. This powder steel holds sharpening more than 2 times longer in comparison with high-speed steel A2, more wear-resistant, has increased strength and ease of sharpening. Sold in a set of 5 pieces.
Japanese manufacturers premium segment are represented by several companies. Shirigami offers a set of 10 flat chisels cost more than $ 650 US dollars. These are forged manually by a special way of a two-layer steel chisel. Handles are made of red oak and ends with a metal ring. Akatsuki introduced a set of incisors from 10 pcs on the market., Manual performed. Tools are made of two-layer steel with a wooden handle and are estimated by more than 800 US dollars.
The average segment is presented significantly wider. Their price category is in the range of 100 – 220 dollars. The leading positions occupy Swiss chisels Pfeil. Their working surface is well polished, and the edge is sharpened perfectly. By time of operation, they are minimally inferior to premium segment. Their working part is made of high carbon steel 01, and the knobs are from elm.
The main competitor of Swiss – manufacturer from Mexico Stanley Sweetheart. They offer sets of 4 or 8 chromasters from chromvanadium steel. LEE Valley, Ashley Iles, Robert Sorby, Kirschen and some others are pretty similar in their characteristics and problems. Their cost does not exceed $ 130 US dollars.
Producers from the third segment a lot. The quality of the cutting surface is low, so they quickly stupid. The tool is badly balanced or not balanced, badly “lies in hand”, requires long-term additional processing.
You can highlight a set of woodriver styers worth about $ 90 US dollars. After long-term numerous improvements, they can be forced to perform their functions.
How to choose?
Buy joinery tools only in specialized stores. It is necessary to decide: for what purposes and for what type of work is required tool, which set of tools will be involved to perform the task. For example, if the performance needs to clean the surface of 6 mm, 12 mm and 40 mm, obviously, you will have to get a minimum of 3 chisels for each size. No master will be able to align a width of 40 mm wide with a width of 5 mm.
Analyze the upcoming work, read on your own all stages, consult with experts in this area and with consultants of a specialized store. Now that the entire amount of work is already understood and the set of chisels that must be purchased, select the appropriate price segment.
One of the most important evaluation criteria when choosing a chisel is the time that the chisel can perform its functions. If the chisel is stupid during the working day, it means that it is either bad sharpened or unsuitable for work.
It is important to understand that the chisels are not a premium segment will require some time to bring them to the right working condition. They need to be improved correctly under the right angle. The “back” of the chisels must be perfectly aligned and polished.
The quality of the cut and the resistance of the cutting edge will depend on it. Pay attention to the width of the canvas of the chisel. If it changes more than 0.05 mm, it is unlikely to sharpen it better.
Next important factor when choosing a chisel – sharpening angle. It is determined based on the quality and composition of the working part of the chisel and the necessary tasks. The usual sharpening angle of a flat chisel is 25-27 degrees for European and American manufacturers. Japanese manufacturers draw their tool at an angle of 30-32 degrees. If the sharpening angle is reduced, the cutting edge will be damaged due to the hardness of the metal in the lower cutting part.
Under-cutting chisels when working with wood soft rocks, at an angle of 25 degrees, if it is necessary to work with solid wood – 30 degrees. All percussion chisels having a thick work surface must be sharpened at an angle of at least 35 degrees.