Fiberglass – fairly widespread material based on quartz sand. It is universally used for the production of building materials and high-tech structures. Let us dwell on more on the features of the material, its merits and disadvantages, as well as the scope of application.
What is it and what makes?
Glocked is a fiber formed from glass. In this form, the glass shows unusual characteristics for themselves – it does not crack and does not fight, but with ease takes a curved form.
Florals of natural origin can be found in the regions where volcanic eruptions once occurred.
They got the name of the hairs of the pele, their chemical composition is close to the composition of basalt breeds. However, according to its physico-technical characteristics, they cannot be considered complete counterpart of the glass bottles.
For the first time fiberglass was obtained by chance – In the glass production, an accident happened, the melted mass was swollen under pressure and was divided into thin flexible threads. It became a huge surprise for engineers, as usual after frozen the glass harden. More than 150 years have passed since. During this time, the technology was multiple times improved, but its principle remained unchanged.
For the manufacture of fiberglass, quartz sand is used, when recycling goes to the move – It can be glass container, broken glass or rejected glass products obtained in production conditions. Glass production waste is 100% amenable to any processing. This causes the use of recycling in production – it allows to significantly reduce the cost of finished material and maintain environmental protection of the environment.
Technology comes down to blowing out of the raw materials of the finest threads. For this, raw materials are melted at 1400 degrees. The pulmonary mass enters the molding and passes through the centrifuge. As a result, it turns out glass fiber mixed with each other. At the finishing stage, the obtained semi-finished product is passed through a sieve with micro-ripers and blows up under high air pressure. At the exit, smooth long threads are obtained, which in the future serve as raw materials for creating more complex products.
The resulting fibers can be two types.
- Long Nights – stretched for thousands of kilometers, they are obtained by a continuous method. Through the holes flow thin jets, cooled and wound on the drum. Externally, such a fiber resembles a silk thread. In the process of pulling out the threads pass through the grinding installation, soaked with adhesive substances and plasticizers. This processing allows you to get flexible fibers.
- Short threads – have a length of 35-50 cm, they look like wool for felting. The basis of production is a staple machinery – a glass molten mass is blown out with ferry or hot air.
Depending on the thickness of the threads allocate:
- Tolst fiber – more than 25 microns;
- thickened – 12-25 microns;
- Thin – 4-12 microns;
- Ultrathone – 1-3 microns.
The manufacture of fiberglass obeys acting to gta:
- for structural tissues – GOST 19170-2001;
- For insulating material – GOST 19907-83.
Fiberglass has a number of advantages that determine its wide demand in a wide variety of branches of construction and industry.
- The material is distinguished by low thermal conductivity, so glass gamble is used to perform thermal insulation. The lowest indicator has glass gamble – its thermal conductivity corresponds to 0.05 W / m * to. Due to this, there is a coolness in the premises in the summer, and in the winter heat does not leave the building.
- Fiberglass – acid and alkali. It is characterized by increased chemical inertia, since almost completely consists of quartz sand. Under the action of aggressive solutions of the chemical reaction, it does not occur, so fiberglass can be successfully combined with any construction and finishing materials.
- Thread – high strength, density corresponds to 2500 kg / m3. At the same time, the threads are flushed, so the finished product has a large volume in combination with a low weight.
- Fiberglass often used for the manufacture of fire equipment. It is a heat-resistant material with a melting point of 1200 degrees – it is possible to ensure such heating only with the direct impact of the burner. In theory, you can create such conditions in which fire will occur. But in this case, combustible binding components must be present in fiberglass, which is extremely rare.
- Material has an unusual structure. In it, the space between the fibers is filled with microscopic air bubbles. Due to this, a high noise insulating effect is achieved.
- Glocked has the ability to resist deformation and resist wear, so it preserves its original form for many years.
- Material is flexible, thin, but at the same time elastic. When transporting it, it can be folded or rolled by rolls – the operational characteristics of the canvas will not be broken. This allows you to save place in the cargo transport, and therefore, reduce the cost of transportation.
At the same time, fiberglass has its drawbacks. So, when wetting it loses its operational properties. However, when drying, they are restored again. That is why the material can be used only with reliable waterproofing.
Fiberglass reacts poorly to abrasion and frequent bends. To correct the situation, varnish and resins are needed.
The numeric values of the listed physicochetics are directly dependent on the technology of manufacturing fiber, its thickness, chemical composition and impact of certain external factors.
Among the variety of presented products from fiberglass, two groups of materials can be distinguished:
- 100% consisting of raw materials;
- Composite – Additional components entering certain operational characteristics.
Depending on this, fiberglass is produced in several types.
- Mats from glass gaming – Such products have been widespread in the industrial sector and the construction industry. It is in demand when installing for noise and thermal insulation. The structure of mats involves the connection of the directed segments of the threads connected to each other naturally. Such products are 100% composed of fiberglass.
- Rolled glass gambler – in composition and method of production This product is absolutely identical to mats, only produced in the form of rolls. This form for performing some types of thermal insulation works is considered more practical.
- Fiberglass grid – Such a product is used to perform reinforcement of different types of surfaces when performing repair and finishing works. The structure is glass filaments woven with each other and treated with special impregnations. Can be produced in sheets and rolls.
- Based on the fiberglass produce self-adhesive ribbon, For its manufacture, an acrylic or siliconized binder is applied to the glass foundation. The finished product is distinguished by high strength at low thickness, good maintainability and undemanding when dismantling. Such a tape is used to smoke the joint and gaps between the sheet panels.
- Fiberglass – according to the functionality is similar to the grid, but is distinguished by a more dense weave of glass filaments. Performed in weaving technology. Used in production and electrical engineering.
- Fiberglass – Universal composite. Consists of glass filaments with the addition of polymer resins. Subjected to molding, therefore allows you to make a wide variety of details.
- Fiberglass fittings – A good alternative to steel counterparts, can replace the metal in most applications.
For the manufacture of products, fiberglass of several brands, made by various technologies, having different thickness parameters and thread lengths.
By type of coverage, all types of fiberglass are divided into several categories.
- Foil – the most common type of materials, in this case, fibergally covered with aluminum foil. Bonding fibers with foil is performed by high-temperature impact on the main components of the product. Such a foil is not stratified, does not let the water and protects glass filaments from UV rays.
- Silicone – soaked with silicone from one or two sides. In this case, the thicker will be the coating – the higher the water and gas-melting capacity of the material. Such products are distinguished by the resistance to the vibrating salts and have a long operational term.
- Polyurentanova – impregnation repeatedly increases the stability of the material to wear and the effects of aggressive substances. This canvas is used for the manufacture of products having an antiflower purpose.
- Fluorukhukovo – resistant glass gamble, successfully opposing the action of fuel and elevated temperatures. Gained distribution in aviation and chemical spheres.
- With graphite coating– Similar products are necessarily reinforced with steel wire. Fiberglass is characterized by water and vapor permeability, and when heated does not allocate toxic compounds.
- Hydrophobized – Fabric with water-repellent impregnation and high dielectric properties. The main purpose of such fiberglass – protection against aggressive exposure to water and current.
One of the most famous fiberglass manufacturers in Russia is Company “TEKHNONIKOL”. She produces high quality building materials corresponding to all European standards. The company uses all the advantages of fiberglass when creating thermal insulation and roofing structures, materials for insulation of main pipelines and many other products.
In great demand uses Products “Bautheks” brand ORTEX. This is high quality fiberglass produced by German technology. The product of this brand is in demand in ship and aircraft, is used in the manufacture of fiberglass.
Fibergather firm “Ratle” is a practical basis for roof work.
Scope of application
Thanks to the exceptional technical and operational characteristics, fiberglass is in demand in a wide variety of spheres.
In the construction industry, fiberglass gained widespread as thermal insulation material for the foundation, walls, ceiling and floor. It is used to improve the heat-preserves of residential and industrial buildings, as well as pipelines. To do this, use flat fibers, mats, as well as rolls from glass.
Fiberglass is often used to arrange a soft roof, as well as dense roof coatings. For this glass is combined with composite additives. As a result, a beautiful material is obtained, resistant to ultraviolet rays, heating and humidity.
Fiberglass is used to create construction objects – composite based on fiberglass and polymer components. It produces protective architectural elements and heat-insulating panels.
Widespread use in the finishing works received glazed, for plastering in the course there is a grid.
Refractory and non-combustible fiberglass are often used for thermal industry thermos, heating archs, as well as lining of chimneys and ceramic boilers.
Use fiberglass and road construction. The canvas laid using fiberglass reinforcement acquires high strength. It withstands intensive loads and does not crack as it is used. This material is practical than concrete, besides, it reduces the height of the asphalt layer. The use of fiberglass materials warns the appearance of elevation and thereby increases the comfort of movement on the road, increases the period of time between repairs and promotes the durability of the coating.
No fiberglass glass does not cost any construction of dams, storm collectors, bridges and embankments. Most of the septic parts, bumps and sumps are also performed from fiberglass.
Despite the widespread prevalence in the construction sector, in recent years fiberglass inferior to basalt waders. The latter wins significantly in the parameters of thermal insulation, its fibers do not appear and do not irritate the skin, mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory organs. That is why today fiberglass is mainly used for pipe insulation.
As for the glasses, they are performed from the long thread, so do not suck. Their use is completely safe for people and pets pets. In addition, they look impurious and can become a real interior highlight.
With a stable structure and exclusion of sprinkling parts, fiberglass is completely safe for people. Therefore, it is often used to create prostheses and implants, including dental. Material in demand in the production of certain types of surgical equipment.
Use in this area confirms health material safety. The harm can cause only the smallest particles of fibers and glass dust, which surrounds glass gamble, and also formed when sawing fiberglass. In all other ways of use, the material is harmless.
Production of goods
Fiberglass is in demand in the creation of plaels and aircraft and other industries, where key factors are simplicity of maintenance, corrosion resistance and affordable cost.
Fiberglass makes the instrument housings, make boats and boats, machine elements.
Depending on the parameters of fiberglass threads, other products are produced:
- Sanitary and technical devices – showers, septicities, as well as pool bowls;
- Products for sports – ski sticks, oars for rowing, spinning and rods;
- packaging containers – containers, garbage boxes;
- All kinds of domestic domestic tubes – holders, antennas, flagpoles.
This is not the entire list of areas where fiberglass is used. Annually the scope of material use is increasingly expanding, capturing new activities.
Electric insulation conductors
In everyday life of the glass bottles perform electrical insulation of wires in the lamps, since this material is a dielectric. Glass fibrous fabric is made from the windshkones and wrapped around the conductor.
In the industry glass blocks are used in the following situations:
- Wire winding;
- insulation of transformer winding;
- production of electronic circuit boards;
- Production of foil dielectrics.
Fiberglass uses in great demand – long fiberglass threads covered with PVC sheath.
If you wish, some of the fiberglass things can be made with their own hands at home. This can be anything, ranging from the heat-resistant stand under the kettle, ending with the model of the car and even a homemade boat – the flight of your imagination does not limit nothing.
The easiest way to use the technology of layer-by-layer fiberglass to the finished model of the product, each layer is sampled epoxy resin. This method can make a bumper machine, dashboard or even a floating.
The most important thing is to make a model that you plan to glue fiberglass layers. The model can be made of wood, clay, plasticine and any other easily processed materials.
For ease of removing the frozen product, the model is treated with wax or paraffin.
After complete hardening, the workpiece is removed, clipped along the required circuit and perform grinding. If necessary, the holes cut holes in the finished product.
The widespread use of fiberglass and products made from it became available due to the achievements of the modern industry in terms of composites and polymeric materials. This is a universal product that meets all the realities of time. It has the operational characteristics inherent in the highest quality materials.
What are the fiberglass, look in the following video.