The atmosphere of comfort in the house depends not only from the beautiful interior, but also the optimal temperature in it. With good thermal insulation of the walls, a certain microclimate is created in the house, which is constantly supported and allows a person to enjoy the comfortable living conditions throughout the year. Therefore, in the construction of housing, it is necessary to pay special attention to such an indicator as the thickness of the external and internal floors.
Any building buildings begins with the design and bookmark of the foundation. It is at this stage of the work that it requires the correct calculations for the calculation of walls based on technological analysis. One of the main parameters in construction is considered the thickness of the brick wall, since The following operational characteristics of the future facility depend on it.
- Noise and thermal insulation. The thicker the overlap, the better the premises from external noise will be protected. In addition, the house will delight warmth in the cold season and cool in the summer. To provide housing with a certain microclimate and save a family budget on the acquisition of expensive building materials, it is enough to lay out the walls of the standard thickness and additionally insulate them.
- Stability and strength of the structure. Partitions should not only have resistance to the total weight of all overlaps, but also additional floors, attachments. In addition, it is necessary to have resistance to unfavorable exposure to the external environment. Therefore, the thickness of the walls in this case does not directly affect the durability of the building. The most thick needs to make bearing overlaps, since it is precisely the greatest load. As for the carrying partitions, they can be done with a minimum thickness, applying cheaper material.
So that brick structures reliably served a long time, before choosing their thickness, it is important to take into account the climatic conditions of the region where the building is planned. For example, overlaps in Siberia should be thicker than in southern belts, where even in winter the minimum temperature indicator does not fall below 0 s. Also the wall thickness depends on the design features. In the multi-storey buildings, it is important to accurately calculate the load on the overlap and lay the bearing structures of different thickness. An important role is played by the aesthetic type of construction to hide the massiveness of the walls, it is recommended to use different ways of brick masonry.
Relation of parameter
The thickness of the brick wall depends on many parameters, so before you start independently the construction of housing, it should be calculated not only by its total area, the load on the foundation, but also the performance characteristics of the material. For high and large overlap premises make thick, as applies to building material, and recently bricks are most often choosing to build houses.
It is considered the most reliable, but each of his kind may differ in strength levels. In addition, blocks can be laid out in various schemes that provide houses not only heat safety, but also aesthetic appearance. Typically, the first layer of construction is a silicate laying (it is well withstanding the power load), the second – thermal insulation material, and the third – decorative trim.
With view of bricks
Bearing walls of buildings usually lay out bricks. It is produced in many species, each of which is distinguished by the structure and size. Therefore, the thickness of the floors depends on the features and quality of this material. For example, full blocks compared to holes are superior in thermal conductivity, strength and cost expensive. The products with cavities are much cheaper, but their operational characteristics are below.
In size, brick can be single, one and a half and double. Single products are made of standard sizes 250 × 120 × 65 mm, one-and-a-half (thickened) – 250 × 120 × 88 mm and double – 250 × 120 × 138 mm. Given the above dimensions, it can be said that the building material is the same in length and width, its only difference is the thickness. It is from this last parameter that the thickness of the walls depends. Therefore, for the construction of massive structures, it is best to purchase a double brick, and carrying blocks and interior partitions lay out single or one-hour blocks.
With brickwork type
To date, several masonry options are used to build brick buildings, each of which depends on the design features of the object and determines the thickness of the walls. If you choose a masonry in the Pollipich, then the thickness of the ceiling will be 120 mm, in one brick – 259 mm, in two bricks – 510 mm (in addition to blocks, 10 mm of cement mortar is taken into account, which fills the layers) and 2.5 bricks – 640 mm. To choose a type of brickwork, the building design conditions should be taken into account. For example, carrying walls can be lined with several bricks, and simple partitions that will not be powerful loads in one block.
The construction market is represented by a huge assortment of materials, but many of them are not universal, because they cannot meet all the requirements. So when it is planned to build a new house, experts recommend to give preference to brick. It has typical dimensions that standard are 250 × 120 × 65 mm and allow you to spread the walls of a certain thickness. For brickwork of residential facilities, it is important to take into account the load on the frame and the foundation, since it depends on their reliability and safety of operation.
So that the walls withstand not only the weight of the main elements, but also other types of overlaps, partitions and roof, their minimum thickness must be 25 cm. This indicator is obtained by masonry in one brick, is considered permissible for the strength of the structure and provides normal heating capacity.
Optimum value and standards
The wall thickness of the brick house is considered one of the main parameters during construction, so it is regulated by the standards for GOST and must comply with all standards. To date, the standards are GOST R 55338-2012 (for the construction of outdoor structures) and GOST 2 4992-81 (for masonry of inter-weltered brick walls). According to regulatory requirements, the standard wall thickness may be from 0.12 to 0.64 m. The thinnest is the masonry in 0.5 bricks, its thickness does not exceed 0.12 m. This is the optimal value that is most often selected for the construction of interroom partitions and small fences.
Masonry in 1 brick provides walls with a thickness of 0.25 m, it is suitable for the construction of sheds and other auxiliary attachments. Partitions in one or a half layers are also often installed between apartments and houses located in the southern regions of the country, where climatic conditions do not require additional insulation. In this case, the width of the wall does not exceed 0.38 meters. The most durable and reliable is masonry in 2 (0.51 m) and two and a half bricks (0.64 m), it is intended for objects placed in harsh climatic conditions. In addition, for high-rise buildings according to GOST, it is also recommended to make the thickness of all carrier structures in two layers.
For external walls
Since the brick is a durable material, it is advisable to choose the optimal thickness of 38 cm for the construction of external structures. This is explained by the fact that it is additionally insulated and strengthening the construction is much more profitable than to increase the thickness of partitions. The heavy structures significantly increase the load on the foundation and cost much more expensive in the acquisition of material. They are usually laid out in two bricks in the construction of industrial large objects.
Compensate the minimum thickness of the outer walls of 38 cm by using additional siding and facing facade insulation with plastering. Brick laying in this case is best to perform by the type of “Well”, due to which the heat insulation layer will be created between the two partitions.
For internal bearing structures and partitions
Walls inside the house are designed to separate the total area into separate rooms and must perform the functions of heat and noise insulation. Therefore, internal structures that are not carriers can be made thick 12 cm. Bricks lay out the “edge”. In addition, you can also execute the calculation of 6.5 cm, in this case it turns out a subtle partition with insignificant sound and thermal insulation, but it will save the family budget. To reduce the power load on the walls with a thickness of 0.12 m, it is necessary to use silicate hollow or porous blocks that can be insulated in the future.
Recommendations of specialists
Recently, many land owners prefer to build houses on their own, as it allows you to significantly save finances. So that the construction turned out to be durable and served more than a dozen years, it is necessary not only to make a project correctly, use high-quality building material, but also accurately calculate the thickness of external and internal overlaps.
Beginner masters will help the following advice from specialists.
- The thickness of the walls consists of the inner, middle and outer part. Therefore, to correctly lay out partitions, you need to pay special attention to the corners. For this, the main point is selected and lighthouses are placed from it. Brick is needed with dressing, applying a specific scheme. After each laid out of the series, the walls should be checked for vertical. If this is not done, then the appearance of curvature in the plane and the thickness will be unequal.
- The width of the bearing structures is recommended to calculate on the basis of the characteristics of the climatic zone in which it is planned to place a house. However, it can not be less than 38 cm. In the northern regions, the thickness of the overlaps should be increased to 64 cm.
- To save the material and obtain the optimal thickness of the walls, it is necessary to lay out blocks “Well”. As a result, two partitions distant from 140 to 270 cm wide. The space between them can be filled with sawdust, light concrete or slag.
- Since the inner walls are made thinner than external and do not require additional thermal insulation, they need to be laid on a thickness of at least 25 cm. In order for the loads on such designs evenly, the locations of the internal and outer walls should be reinforced with a special grid or reinforcement every five rows of masonry. As for the seasplets, their thickness can be 51 cm and they are also reinforced. When laying at 1.5 bricks, additional supports are substituted with a cross section of 38 × 38 cm.
- For interroom partitions that are not carriers and only zonate space, you can pick up any thickness. For example, between rooms and in the bathroom, you can make a masonry of 0.5 bricks, and laying in the “edge” with a thickness of 65 mm will be suitable for storage room and other auxiliary premises. Such structures every 2-3 row of masonry should be reinforced with wire. If you increase the thickness of the masonry, the premises will acquire higher heat and sound insulation, but at the same time will increase the cost of acquiring material.
- If the external walls are erected “under the extection”, their aesthetic species will depend on the composition and quality of cement mortar. The thickness of all seams in this case should be the same, so the solution must be evenly pouring all emptiness and cavities. Since such structures are not very thick, insulation material and good decoration using facing plates will increase their heat power.
- When building walls, it is also important to remember that any deviation in their thickness can provoke unpredictable consequences. Therefore, it is impossible to allow changes in their height during the masonry, as well as reduce the distances between the openings or increase their number.
About brickwork angle in one brick You high from the video below.