Gas masks are widely used to protect organs of vision, organs of the respiratory system, mucous membranes, as well as the skin of the face from the penetration of penetrations and toxic substances accumulated in the inhaled air. There is a huge number of various models of respiratory vehicles, each of which has its own features of operation. It should be aware of the purpose and mechanism of operation of insulating models of breathing apparatus.
What is it and for what you need?
The insulating device fully protects the respiratory organs from harmful substances that found themselves in the surrounding atmosphere during an emergency. Protective characteristics of devices do not depend on the source of selection of poisoning substances and their concentration in airspace. When wearing an insulating respiratory machine, the user inhales the finished gas mixture containing oxygen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen volume is about 70-90%, carbon dioxide accounts for about 1%. Application of gas masks is justified in situations when inhaling the air of the environment is potentially dangerous to health.
- In oxygen deficiency conditions. The limit for which the complete loss of consciousness comes, 9-10% of oxygen is considered, it means that when this level is reached, the use of filter sizod is inefficient.
- An exceeded concentration of carbon dioxide. CO2 content in air at the level of 1% does not cause deterioration of the state of the person, the content of 1.5-2% causes the increase in breathing and heartbeat. With an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide to 3% inhalation of air causes the oppression of the vital functions of the human body.
- High content ammonia, chlorine and other toxic substances in the air mass, when the operation of filter filter sizod quickly ends.
- If necessary, perform work in an atmosphere of poisoning substances that cannot delay the respiratory filters.
- When carrying out underwater work.
Device and principle of operation
The basic principle of action of any insulating protective device is based on the absolute separation of the respiratory system, the purification of inhaled air from aquatic vapor and CO2, as well as to enrich it with oxygen without performing an air exchange with an external environment. The composition of any insulating sisode includes several modules:
- facial part;
- breathing bag;
- Patron regenerative;
- a bag.
In addition, the kit includes unsopy films, as well as special insulation cuffs and a passport for Sisod.
The front part determines the effective protection of the mucous membranes of the eyes and skin of the toxic effects of hazardous substances in the air. It ensures the redirection of the exhaled gas mixture into the regenerative cartridge. In addition, it is this element that is responsible for summing up with saturated oxygen and the gas mixture-free from carbon dioxide and water to the respiratory authorities. Regenerative cartridge is responsible for absorbing moisture and carbon dioxide present in the inhaled composition, as well as for obtaining a user of an oxygen-containing mass. As a rule, it is performed in cylindrical form.
The launcher of the cartridge includes ampoules with concentrated acid, a device for breaking them, as well as a starting briquette. The latter is needed to maintain normal respiration at the initial stage of using the SIZOD, it is it that ensures the activation of the regenerative patron. Insulated case is required to reduce heat transfer from regenerative patron if it is supposed to use a sizod in aquatic environment.
Without this device, the cartridge will highlight the insufficient volume of the gas mixture, which will lead to a deterioration in the state of the person.
The breathing bag works as a container for inhaled oxygen highlighted from regenerative patron. It is performed from the rubberized elastic material, it has a couple of flanges. Nipples are attached to them for fixing the smoke to the cartridge and the front part. Pressure valve is additionally located on the bag. The latter, in turn, includes straight, as well as check valves, mounted in the housing. The direct valve is necessary to remove excess gas volume from the respiratory bag, while the reverse protects the user from the air penetration from the outside.
The breathing bag is placed in the box, it warns excessive squeezing of the bag during the use of sizod. For storage and transportation of SIZOD, as well as to ensure maximum protection of the device from mechanical strikes, a bag is used. It provides internal pockets where a block with unscrewing films is stored.
At the time of crushing the ampoules with an acid that is in a starting device, the acid goes to the starting briquette, thereby causes the decomposition of its upper layers. Further this process is on your own, moving from one layer to another. At this time, oxygen is distinguished, as well as heat and water vapor. Under the action of steam and temperature, the main current component of the regenerative cartridge is activated, and oxygen is released – the reaction is launched. The formation of oxygen is then continuing due to the absorption of water vapor and carbon dioxide that man exhales. The period of action of insulating sizod is:
- When performing severe physical work – about 50 minutes;
- with medium intensity loads – about 60-70 minutes;
- with light loads – approximately 2-3 hours;
- In a calm state, the period of protective action lasts up to 5 hours.
When carrying out work under water, the construction resource does not exceed 40 minutes.
What differ from filtering gas masks?
Many inexperienced users do not fully understand what the filtering and insulating devices are distinguished, believing that these are interchangeable designs. Such a delusion is dangerous and fraught with the threat of life and user health. Filtering structures are used to protect the respiratory system by means of mechanical filters or certain chemical reactions. The essence is that people who put on a similar gas mask continue to breathe an air mixture from the surrounding space, but pre-purified.
Insulating sizod gets a breathing mixture with a chemical reaction or cylinder. Such systems are necessary to protect the respiratory organs in the medium of special toxicity of air or with oxygen deficiency.
Replacing one device to another is not recommended.
Review of species
Classification of insulating sizod based on air supply features. On this basis, 2 categories of devices are distinguished.
These are autonomous models that provide the user with a respiratory mixture in the process of regenerating exhaled air. In these devices, the oxygen necessary for full respiration is allocated during the reaction between sulfuric acid and alkali metal superior compounds. This group of models include SP-46 systems, IP-46M, as well as IP-4, IP-5, IP-6 and PDA-3.
Breathing in such gas masks is carried out on the pendulum principle. Such protection means are used after eliminating the consequences of accidents related to emissions of toxic substances.
The hose model in which the purified air is sent to the respiratory system using blowers or compressors on a hose from cylinders filled with oxygen or compressed air. Among typical representatives of such SIZOD are the most in demand, the Kip-5, IPSA and the Hose Claud.
Pay attention to the fact that insulating gas mask models are not intended for domestic use. Such devices are used by the armed forces and units of the Ministry of Emergency Situations. Preparation of the breathing apparatus for operation is carried out necessarily under the guidance of the commander of the detachment or a chemical-dosimetritist, which has an officially executed admission to perform insulating respiratory control devices. Preparation of the gas mask to work includes several steps:
- verification of completeness;
- Checking the health of work units;
- External inspection of technology with a pressure gauge;
- Selection of a suitable helmet;
- direct gas mass assembly;
- Check the tightness of the collected breathing apparatus.
During the verification of the completeness, you should make sure the presence of all nodes in accordance with the technical documentation. With an external inspection of the device you need to check:
- Control of carbines, locks and buckles;
- Belt fixation strength;
- The integrity of the bag, helmet and glasses.
In the course of the inspection, it is important to make sure there is no rust, cracks and chip on the gas mask, must be present seals and safety check. Excessive pressure valve should be in working condition. To perform a preliminary check, you should put on the front part, after which it is possible to press the connecting nozzles as close as possible and inhale. If the air in the outside does not pass, therefore, the facial part of the sealed and the device is ready to use. Finally, the test is performed in the area with chlorpicrine. In the process of assembling the gas mask you need:
- Connect the regenerative cartridge to the respiratory bag and lock it;
- take basic measures to protect glasses from freezing and fogging;
- The front part is placed on the top panel of the regenerative cartridge, fill out a workform and lay a fixture on the bottom of the bag, close the bag and tighten the case.
The SIZOD prepared in this way can be used to carry out work, as well as to store within the division. When operating any gas masks, it is very important to adhere to the rules.
- Individual work is not allowed in the breathing appliance in a separate room. The number of persons working at the same time must be no less than 2, while there must be a continuous visual contact between them.
- In the course of performing rescue work in premises with a high level of smoke, as well as in wells, tunnels, tanks and containers, every rescuer must necessarily be linked by the safety cable, the second end of which holds a double, which is outside the dangerous room.
- Re-exploitation of gas masks undergoing toxic fluids is possible only after a thorough check of their condition and neutralization of harmful substances.
- When working inside the tank with the remnants of toxic substances, it is necessary to degasses the tank and to air the room in which it was located.
- You can start working in the SIZOD only after you make sure that the cartridge at the time of launch worked.
- If you interrupted the work and removed for some time the front part, the regenerative cartridge during the continuation of the activity must be replaced.
- When replacing the spent cartridge is a great risk of burning burns, so you should keep the device on the removal from the eye and use protective gloves.
- When operating in the room electrical installations, it is important to avoid contact with electric shock.
When organizing the use of insulating gas masks, it is strictly prohibited:
- remove the facial part of the breathing apparatus even for a short time during the work performed in the danger zone;
- exceeding the work time in the SIZOD established for specific conditions;
- wear insulating gas masks at temperatures below -40 °;
- use partially spent cartridges;
- allow moisture, organic solutions, as well as solid particles to the regenerative cartridge during the preparation of the device to work;
- lubricate metal elements and connection nodes with any oils;
- use uncomclosed regenerative cartridges;
- Keep the SIZOD assembled near the radiators, heaters and other heating devices, as well as in the sun or near the combustible substances;
- keep used regenerative cartridges along with new;
- Cover the regenerative cartridges that failed, it leads to their discontinuity;
- open a block with unscrewing plates without much need;
- throw out regenerative cartridges in the zone available to the civilian population;
- It is not allowed to use gas masks that do not meet the requirements of GOST.
In the next video, you are waiting for an overview of insulating gas masks IP-4 and IP-4M.