When choosing a durable and reliable fastening of the design on the monolithic surface of the wall, the ceiling or floor is most often referring to the use of dowels. This type of fasteners by its properties hold high loads of structures with the right choice compared with the reliability with anchor bolts. Dowel fasteners are produced today in various modifications and have different parameters for diameter and length. Focusing on the view of a dowel-nail, differ and methods for its installation.
What is it and for what you need?
Dowel fastening is a way to install various objects or structures to monolithic solid surfaces – in this and consists of its purpose. It works fine on a concrete, brick or stone surface, and can also be applicable for drywall and ceramics. Outwardly, a dowel-nail looks like a device that combines 2 components: a dowel plate of plastic and a screw. The constructive of certain types of dowel frame has a limiter, made in the form of a cuff, which is necessary so that when driving a dowel in the wall, the device is not accumulated in the prepared hole. The limiter may be of various modifications – rounded, in the form of a cylinder or counted type.
Installing dowel fasteners inside the wall can be used when using a hammer, while the mounting process is simple and does not take much time. This mounting option is used to mount drywall systems, to install a plinth or cable channel, hanging shelves, cabinets and a lot of other. Dowel-nail Performs reliable fasteners only in solid monolithic structures, it is impractical to use it for a cellular concrete or hollow brick.
This is explained by the fact that the dowel-nail there is no such spacer component that would help him gain a fastening in a loose material.
The quality of dowel fasteners is regulated by the GOST standards, but in its manufacture, this regulation allows changing some technical parameters. For example, it is possible to change the diameter, structure, length or weight of this product. Despite such tolerances, there are norms that should be strictly observed by each manufacturer.
- Dowel-nail produced from steel rod, the type of alloy which is resistant to mechanical loads. Rockwell The hardness of the material is at least 54-56 HRC.
- Crirvance is allowed at the rod of the screw. Normally, if the screw rod is less than 50 mm, curvature can be 0.1 mm, and if the rod is greater than 50 mm, the permitted curvature occurs to 0.15 mm.
- The dumpness of the sharp tip in the nail may be no higher than 0.8 mm, while the tip of the screw should evenly move into the body of the rod, without forming cracks, jar or sunsets.
- Nailing on the working surface of the rod is permissible for the presence of traces remaining from clamping devices during processing. The tip of the product may have several faces.
- If the dowel is a ripple, then the step between the edges will be up to 0.8 mm, and the depth between the edges should not exceed 0.15 mm.
- Some models of a dowel-nail have a puck, which on the body of the product is placed rather tight, with the shear force of this washer should not be below 0.3 kN.
- The fasteners are made with a coating of zinc, the thickness of which should be at least 6-7 microns. Application on the surface of the nail of the zinc layer is performed by the cathode method.
As for other characteristics, their changes can be carried out only according to reasonable and coordinated technical regulations.
Review of species
Options for making a dowel-nail may be with the presence of threaded cutting or without it, its dowel is made in the form of a plastic housing with a secret cuff or cylindrical shape. The nail itself is equipped with a hat, which most often has a mushroom outline. The length of the rod nail has a spiral-shaped cut, and if the nail is a clogging – then its surface can be smooth, and there is no plastic cylinder in the fastener design. This species is classified as fire-resistant, as the metal in the absence of plastic does not support burning. Some model of dowels are released with raised washers. The Shaimy Space Service itself is initially at the end of the body of the nail, and when installing it shifts towards the Hats – this fastener is the most durable to the exposure to loads.
Dowel-nails are classified by installation method.
- Installation using conventional hammer – this method is manual. The hull of the nail happens with the thread – then it is screwed up using a screwdriver, or with a smooth working part – then it is scored with a hammer. Merging nail with a thread, if necessary, you can subsequently unscrew and dismantle, and it is very difficult to dismantle a product without thread, sometimes it is simply impossible.
- Installation using a construction and assembly pistol – In this case, the structure of the nail is distinguished by the presence of a special cuff, but it does not have a spacer cylinder of plastic. Such a product allows you to quickly install and can withstand heavy loads.
There are many varieties of fixtures on the material of the application.
- For walls of cellular concrete – The design of the dowel is equipped with ribs in the form of spirals, which are crushed at the time of clogging of fasteners in the prepared hole.
- For brickwork or concrete monolith – Nylon dowels are applied to work with concrete or brick, can withstand up to 450 kg of load. These models of the dowels can be like a thread, and without it, the diameter is in the range of 2-16 mm.
- For slotted with emptiness or solid massif – Such fasteners has a large length, which is 60-360 mm. The design of the spacer element in the dowel is designed so that when entering the hollow base, the dowel nail can hook a few jumpers inside the material, thereby providing a solid coupling.
- For crate – Such dowels are called remote, and they make it possible to fix the design of the crate with a small indentation from the wall surface. Such a distance fluctuates in the range of 1-30 mm. Dowel is divided into 2 parts, one of which is designed to rack design, and the second – for the wall. Both parts are connected by screwing.
This method can achieve the compensation of the irregularities of the wall and get a uniform consolidation.
- Universal fasteners – Its device is capable of self-determination inside the surface when installing. If the fixation occurred in a dense material, then the dowel case expands, and if the installation is carried out in the hollow material, then when you hit the void area, the design is repeated and adjacent to the support.
- For surfaces with a small thickness – For this purpose, dowel structures made of metal are used. When mounting the steel nail, the metal frame is exhausted and firmly adjacent to the area of thin walls of the material.
- For rush guides, Outdoor plinth, wall crate – applied nail type dowel. It is indispensable in cases where the multiple mounting of the fasteners is required. The nail of the attachment of such a fixture is equipped with a special oppression. The working part of the screw at the assembly process is inserted together with a dowel in a prepared hole through a crate or rail, and then seal this pair with a hammer.
After performing the mounting node, dismantle it, if necessary, will not work.
- For suspended ceiling structures – Special fasteners are applied, called “Butterfly”, which works on the surface having emptiness. When mounting, passing the first dense level of the material, under the action of the spring mechanism, the dowel opens its system, thereby resting in the design of the trim from the inside. The butterfly dowel is equipped with hook-shaped protrusions and has threads.
- For heavy suspended products – The structure of the dowel is used to work with concrete and brick surfaces in situations required to fasten the heavy gate on the working surface or other products. Such an anchor dowel fasteners will be able to withstand a multi-torque load.
- For foam concrete and gypsum cardboard – produced both nylon and types of metal, which have the tip of the working part in the form of drill, as well as on the rod of their body there is a carving. Similar dowel fasteners do not require drilling holes. For example, when you need to fasten the acoustic material, the whole design is screwed down with a screwdriver or screwdriver.
- For hard concrete or fixation of thermal insulation – For the use of a dowel, the holes in the material are not pre-done, and the fastener itself is scored without a nail.
- For bricks with slotted voids – An injection view of a dowel fastener is used. It works with a mesh anchor inserted into the prepared hole, where they are then ripped up a dowel, after which the solidifying composition is introduced to it with a syringe device. Under the action of adhesive substance, the anchor grid is destroyed, and on this place a round anchor is formed.
In the form of the side or head of the dowel-nail there are 3 species:
- cylindrical shape;
- with a secret head type;
- Wide mushroom shape.
Various materials of workers wall or ceiling surfaces require a solid approach in choosing a fastener. In addition, the size of the work itself depends on the type of work; the size of the dowel and nail.
Sizes and weight
For ease of use, manufacturers produce dowel fasteners in various sample variants. The parameters of this product are marked with two digits. For example, 10 for 80, as well as 30 by 6 or 8 to 160 – the first digit in this case shows the amount of diameter in millimeters, and the second digit will indicate a dowel length. The parameters of the dowel in diameter are in the range from 5 to 23 mm, as for the length, it is within borders from 10 to 160 mm, although there are products and a length of 200 mm, for example, a dowel-nail 10×200 mm.
Fasteners 6×40, 5×50 or 5×60 mm, as well as 6×60 mm are considered the most running sizes for household use. For industrial use, the dowels of 8×160 mm are often coming. By purchasing a dowel-nail, the consumer faces the fact that they are often sold on the weight, and the mass of products for wholesale or small purchases is indicated not for 1 unit of fasteners, and for 1000 dowels.
The weight of the product directly depends on its diameter and length, although in many construction stores a dowel-nail sale and sodly or small batches.
Tips for choosing
To correctly pick up a dowel-nail, you need to understand how much load is to be withstanding, and for what it will be intended. Most often, dowel fasteners are used to work with concrete material in the form of dense monolith. Consider the recommendations of specialists in the selection of fasteners.
- If you need to hang kitchen cabinets or other items with a rather large weight, then you need to be fastened, the length of which will be at least 85 mm.
- When performing fasteners for a plinth, for a cable channel, for the insulation of walls with one or another material, as well as for fixing the structures located horizontally, the length of the dowel fastening is selected from 30 mm, and its diameter is taken from 6 to 10 mm.
- For mounting the suspended ceiling, as well as for PVC structures or installation of lighting devices – in a word, for those products where the load comes from the bottom of the structure, dowel fasteners are used, which have spacer mustache or notches applied on a working case.
- If you want to pick up a dowel fastener under the ready-made hole in the material, it should be remembered that the size of the diameter of the hole and dowel fastener should be equal. In the case when the hole diameter is greater than the dowel, high-quality and reliable fasteners will not work, as the dowel is overwhelmed and will come out with time.
- In the walls of foam concrete, the dowel fastening can be a kind of softening plug-in material. In this case, it is necessary that such fasteners are tightly fixed in the material, and the weight load of the retained structure is evenly distributed over all mounting nodes, that is, by the rest of the dowels.
Experienced installer masters believe that the universal type of fastening is best used for the old concrete wall, since unfilled emptiness may unexpectedly find out in concrete monolith. As for the size and diameter of a dowel-nail, then the more implies the load on it, the thicker and the fastener should be longer.
Use the fastener in the form of a dowel-nail in the presence of minimal skills to work with the electric drill and the hammer is quite simple. You can install fastenings for household needs on your own, I have not invited to fulfill these works by hired masters. Before starting to fix, you need to calculate the number of dowels, their diameter and size. To perform work, it will be necessary to use a hammer, electric drill with a winning drill or a hammer with a brown, and also need to be prepared and the selected number of dowels-nails. To properly use fasteners, you need to know, you will have to twist a dowel fastener, or it will need to score.
For various materials, the features of the attachment of the dowel will be different.
In the planned section of the wall surface, a hole is performed, and, in order to avoid the formation of cracks in the body of the brick, drill on low drill turns, gradually increasing them, but only when the opening depth reaches 8-10 mm. Before mounting a dowel fastening from the hole, dust and fine brick crumbs are removed, and then ride a dowel with a hammer.
The area for the hole is placed using a kerner, after which they take a perforator and drill a hole to the required depth. The diameter of the drill or drilling drilling is required to take equal diameter of dowel fasteners. As for the length of the hole, then it is done on 5-6 mm longer than the dowel chosen by you. Next, the dust and fragments of the material are removed from the hole with the help of a household vacuum cleaner. Then the dowel is clogged with a hammer into the hole, and the screw is screwed or scored in the design of the dowel. Scoring the screw, you need to leave 3-5 mm of its free edge of the head in order to carry out the mounted design.
When working with this fragile material from the installer, great accuracy is required. First, in the drywall, the opening of the desired lengths and the diameter is performed, and then dowel fasteners are inserted until the stop is introduced, lightly tapping with a hammer in its cap, after which it is necessary to screw the screwdriver screw in the design of the dowel. When working with plasterboard surfaces, you need to measure the mass of the construction fixed on them.
If it is rather big and heavy, then apply a dowel-nail is not recommended, since this type of fastening will destroy the material under the influence of the weight fixed on them.
On ceramic tiles
During installation work, the ceramic material should be treated carefully, as it has an increased fragility. On the surface of the tile, there is a place for drilling the hole, then take the metal drill and perform a recess of 0.5 mm, that is, remove the enamel layer. Next take the electrical shock engine and drilled the hole of the desired depth. In the hole put up the design of the dowel fastener and spin the screw.
The listed mounting methods imply that the dowel-nail will be screwed or scored in the working hole. But, in addition to these options, there is another way to install dowel fastening. To implement it, you will need to take a special construction and mounted gun, with which the design “is targeting” to the working monolithic surface. Most often it is used for concrete. The work use a special dowel that equipped with a special washer that is responsible for the tight fit of the fastener in the wall. The construction and mounted gun has a peculiar device, which after pressing the trigger shot of a dowel into the wall, and this action moves the washer from the end of the dowel fastener to its hat, securely fixing the mount in the wall.
How to install a dowel-nail into the wall, look in the following video.