Among all the construction and finishing materials used to perform repair and finishing works and the manufacture of furniture, the chipboard occupies a special place. What is a wood-chip polymer, which varieties of this material exist and in which areas it is used – we will talk about these and other matters in our article.
What it is?
Chipboard is deciphered as “wood chipboard”. This is a sheet building material, it is produced by pressing chopped wood chips impregnated with glue. For the first time, the idea of obtaining such a composite saw the light 100 years ago. Initially, the stove was covered on both sides of plywood. In the future, the technology was constantly improved, and in 1941 the first factory for the manufacture of chipboard began work in Germany. After the end of World War II, the technology of manufacturing plates from waste woodworking industry was widespread.
Interest in this material is explained by a number of technical properties:
- stability of dimensions and forms;
- ease of making larger format sheets; using woodworking industry instead of expensive wood.
Thanks to the serial release of the chipboard, the volume of waste during forest processing decreased from 60 to 10%. At the same time, the furniture industry and the construction industry acquired a practical and affordable material.
Consider the main characteristics of the chipboard.
- Strength and density. Mix two groups of plates – P1 and P2. Products P2 have a large bend fortress – 11 MPa, in P1 this figure below is 10 MPa, therefore the group P2 has a greater residency to bundle. The density of the panels of both groups varies in the range of 560-830 kg / m3.
- Moisture resistance. Water resistance to existing standards is not regulated by existing standards. However, this material can only be used in dry conditions. Some manufacturers launched the release of waterproof products, they are made with the introduction of the hydrophobizer.
- Biostost. DSP is distinguished by high biorange – plates do not damage pests, they do not multiply mold and fungi. The stove can completely dwell and collapse from the water, but even then the rot will not appear in her fibers.
- Fire safety. Class of fire hazard for chipboard correspond to the 4th combustibility group – just like wood. Although this material lights up not as fast as a natural tree, but the fire spreads slower.
- Ecology. When buying a chipboard, it is necessary to pay attention to emissions, it is determined by the level of discharge of phenol formaldehyde vapors. In residential premises, you can only use materials with the E1 emission class. For hospitals, as well as kindergartens, schools and children’s rooms, it is possible to use only plates with a class of emissions E 0.5- they contain the minimum number of phenol formaldehyde.
- Thermal conductivity. The thermal insulation parameters of the chipboard are low, and this must be considered when applying materials as a sheat. On average, the thermal conductivity of the panel is 0.15 W / (M • K). Thus, with a sheet thickness of 16 mm, thermal resistance of materials is 0.1 (m2 • K) / W. For comparison: For a red brick wall, a thickness of 39 cm This parameter is 2.22 (m2 • K) / W, and for minvate layer 100 mm – 0.78 (m2 • K) / W. That is why the lubrication from the panels is preferably combined with air layer.
- Parp permeability. The permeability for water vapor corresponds to 0.13 mg / (M • h • PA), so this material can not be a parobarrier. But when using a chipboard for outdoor clamping, high vapor permeability, on the contrary, will contribute to the assignment of condensate from the wall.
Comparison with MDF
Private users are often confused by MDF and chipboard. Indeed, these materials have a lot of common – they are made of waste of the woodworking industry, that is, from pressed wood chips and sawdust. The difference is that for the manufacture of MDF, smaller fractions of raw materials are used. In addition, the gluing of particles occurs with the help of lignin or paraffin – it makes the plates absolutely safe and eco-friendly. Thanks to the presence of paraffin, MDF is characterized by high moisture resistance.
That is why this material is often used for the manufacture of elements of furniture designs and interior doors, as well as to build partitions. DSP plates in this area are not used.
For the manufacture of chipboard, almost any waste woodworking is used:
- non-condational roundabout;
- remnants from the shape of the boards;
The production process includes several stages.
Preparation of raw materials
At the preparatory stage of works, lump waste is crushed in chips, and then together with large chips, it is brought to the required sizes with a thickness of 0.2-0.5 mm, 5-40 mm long and a width of up to 8-10 mm.
From the roundabout remove the peel, cut into small segments, soaked, after that they are split into fibers and crushed to optimal condition.
Molding and pressing
The prepared material is stirred with polymer resins, they act as the main binder component. These manipulations are performed in a special device. Wood particles in it are in suspended state, the resin is sprayed with a diffusion method. Such technology allows the entire working surface of wood chips to maximally cover and at the same time preventing the adhesive composition.
Opening chips goes into a special dispenser, here it is laid out by a solid cloth on a 3 layer conveyor and served in the vibropress. Briquettes are formed as a result of primary pressing. They are heated to 75 degrees and sent to the hydropress. There is a temperature of 150-180 degrees and pressure 20-35 kgf / cm2.
As a result of the integrated effect, the material is compacted, the binding component is polymerized and hardens.
Ready sheets are placed in high feet and leave under the weight of their own weight within 2-3 days. During this time, the degree of warm-up is equalized in the stoves and all internal voltages are neutralized. At the final processing stage, surface grinding, veneering and cutting on the slabs of the required size. After that, the finished product is marked and sent to the consumer.
Harm to health
From the moment when the technology of making a chipboard was invented, the disputes about the safety of this material did not subscribe. Some people claim that with proper use of chipboard is absolutely safe. Their opponents are trying to prove the harm.
To debunk all myths and doubts, let’s stay in more detail for those reasons that can make a chip plate toxic.
Potential hazard represent phenol-formaldehyde resins included in the glue. Over time, formaldehyde evaporates from adhesive composition and accumulates in airspace. So, if you locate a person in a hermetically closed room of a small volume and put a sheet of chipboard near him, then with time gas starts to fill the room. Sooner or later, its concentration will reach the maximum permissible values, after which the gas will begin to bind to protein cells in the tissues and organs and will lead to pathological changes in the body.
The greatest danger of formaldehyde is for the skin, eye, respiratory organs, central nervous, as well as a reproductive system.
However, you should not lose sight of that in any residential room there is constantly airbreaking. Part of the air masses goes into the atmosphere, and on their place comes clean air from the street.
That is why the wood-chipboard can only be used in rooms with good ventilation, with regular ventilation, you can minimize the content of toxic vapors.
Another argument presented by opponents of wood-chip materials. lies in the fact that in the case of burning chipboard allocates toxic substances. This is true. But do not forget that any organic gauge allocates at least carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, and if the carbon dioxide is dangerous only at large concentrations, the ditching gas can kill even in a small amount. In this plan, the slabs are not more dangerous than any synthetic clothing, household appliances and home electronics – All of the fire, they allocate poisonous gases that can seriously harm the person.
Review of species
There are several varieties of chipboard.
- Pressed dsp – has increased strength and density. Used as a structural material when creating furniture and construction work.
- Laminated DPP – Pressed panel covered with paper-resistant coating. Lamination has repeatedly increases the fortress of the surface and increases its resistance to wear. If desired on paper, you can print a pattern that enhances the similarity of laminate with natural materials.
- Moisture-resistant chipboard – Used in high humidity facilities. Its characteristics are provided with adhesive hydrophobic additives.
- Extruded stove – does not have the same accuracy as the pressed. Fibers in it are placed perpendicular to plane plane. Such products can be tubular and strip. Used mainly for noise insulation.
Pressed plates are divided into several criteria.
- By density – on groups P1 and P2. The first – is products of general purpose. The second combines the materials used for the manufacture of furniture.
- By structure – Plates can be ordinary and finely building. For lamination, preference is better to give the latter, since their surface is better perceived.
- According to the quality of surface treatment – can be polished and unlocked. Are divided into plates of the first and second grade. For each of them, the list of unacceptable defects is registered in GOST. The highest quality product refers to the first class.
- The surface of the chipboard may be refined – veneered, glossy, lacquered. Decorative laminated and non-aluminized products are presented on sale, models with plastic coating.
Generally accepted standard of parameters approved throughout the world. Because most manufacturers adheres to only restrictions in terms of minimal dimensions – 120 cm wide and 108 cm long. However, this is not connected with regulatory restrictions.
Dimensions are determined exclusively features of manufacturing and transport technology.
So, to carry panels up to 3.5 m and less than 190 cm wide will be much easier, since it is these parameters that correspond to the size of the body of the middle cargo car. All other transport will be much more difficult. Nevertheless, you can find a chipboard up to 580 cm long and up to 250 widths, they are issued by limited batches. Plate thickness varies from 8 to 40 mm.
As practice shows, the most common sheets of the following dimensions are the most common:
- 2440×1220 mm;
- 2440×1830 mm;
- 2750×1830 mm;
- 2800х2070 mm.
The following information must be specified on each plate:
- dimensions in mm;
- manufacturer and country of production;
- Surface category, strength and moisture resistance;
- emission class;
- The degree of processing of the ends;
- compliance with approved standards;
- number of sheets in the package;
- Manufacture date.
Marking is applied inside a rectangle.
IMPORTANT: at the plates manufactured in domestic enterprises or on legal grounds supplied from foreign countries, all information, except the brand name, should only be indicated in Russian.
When choosing a chipboard, preference is better to give proven manufacturers. To date, the top manufacturers of wood-chipboard in Russia include:
- “MONZENSKY DOK”;
- “Cherepovets FMK”;
- “Sheksninsky KDP”;
- Plant “Pfleiderer”;
- “Jesrta FZ”;
- “Syktyvkar FZ;
- “Karelia chipboard”;
- MK “Shatura”;
- “MAE chipboard and d”;
- “EZ chipboard”.
When buying cheap products of little-known companies, the risk is always a risk of becoming a lagging product owner, which uses many phenol formaldehyde resins.
Chipboard is used in different areas of construction, finishes and production.
Inner covering house
The chipboard of the emission class E0.5 and E1 can be used for internal premises. This material has a high hardness. Grinding plates can be painted by any paint materials, if you wish, you can stick wallpaper on them, put the tile or apply plaster. Before finishing the premises of the chipboard surfaces should be primed by acrylic composition and glue the grid-sickle.
Due to reduced vapor permeability, the internal trim should be performed ventilated. Otherwise, there will be condensate on the walls, and this will lead to the formation of rot and mold.
Aesthetic partitions are obtained from chipboard, they are fixed on a metal or wooden frame. Resistance to such a partition to static loads and rigidity directly depend on the characteristics of the frame itself and the reliability of its fixation.
But on impact resistance affects the thickness of the chipboard.
During the construction of facilities, it is often the need to fencing the site to protect pedestrians or passing by cars from damage. These barriers indicate a closed territory, because the designs are made by portable – they consist of a metal frame and covering from a chipboard with a thickness of 6 to 12 cm. On the surface you can make any warning inscriptions. In order for the paint to serve as long as possible and did not have under the influence of external adverse factors, the surface is treated with primer, it is desirable to use acrylic. Moreover, process the plate is needed on both sides and additionally rinse the ends.
Similar processing reliably closes the chipboard and protects the stove from absorbing moisture during rain and snowfall.
For such an application, you can use only waterproof DSPs impregnated with hydrophobic components. The strength and rigidity of the formwork directly depend on the correct installation of the strut, as well as the thickness of the plate. The greater the height of the plot of filling concrete – the greater the pressure in the lower part of the formwork. Accordingly, the material must be as thick as possible.
For concrete layer up to 2 m high, it is best to use a 16 mm thick chipboard.
Chipboard is characterized by high strength, so it is used in the field of manufacture of various types of furniture. Prepared furniture modules are covered with a paper-layered film with wood texture or covered with laminate. The appearance of such furniture is almost indistinguishable from similar blocks made of wood massif. To create cabinet furniture usually a chipboard of 15-25 mm thick, a plate with a thickness of 30-38 mm is used for milling.
Not only cabinet modules are made from DPP, but also countertops, in this case, take a chipboard 38 mm thick and more. A piece of the desired form is cut out of the sheet, the ends are treated with mills, grind, belained with veneer or paper with subsequent lamination and varnishing.
Wood-chip stove 30 and 40 mm thick can be used to create window sills. The detail is first cut out in size, after which the ends milling, giving them the desired form. Then it is covered with paper and laminate.
Such window sills look like products made of solid array.
From chipboard plates make all sorts of containers. The material was widespread for the creation of the European Pallet, which are designed to move packaged goods.
Such a container is considered one-way, to make it out of wood. Due to the fact that the chipboard is much cheaper than metal and wood, it is possible to achieve significant savings.
Many dackets make garden furniture from such pallets – of which unusual garden sun beds are obtained, sofas and swings.
Due to the low cost of the chipboard and the ability to give the stoves with the texture of the valuable wood, the material is very popular. Wood-chip panels are considered a practical substitute for expensive elements from a natural array.
More information about chipboard, see the following video.