All about carbon fiber

Know everything about carbon fiber is very important for every modern person. Understanding the technology of carbon production in Russia, density and other characteristics of a treat, it will be easier to deal with the sphere of its application and make the right choice. In addition, it is necessary to find out everything about putty and warm floor with carbon fiber, about foreign manufacturers of this product and about various applications.

All about carbon fiber

All about carbon fiber

Peculiarities

The names of carbon fiber and carbon, and in a number of sources there are also carbon fiber very often. But the idea of ​​the real characteristics of these materials and the possibilities of their use in many people are quite different. From a technical point of view, This material is assembled from the thread cross section of at least 5 and no more than 15 microns. Almost all of the composition accounted for carbon atoms – from here and name. These atoms themselves are grouped into clear crystals that form parallel lines.

All about carbon fiber

All about carbon fiber

Such execution provides very greater resistance to stretching effort. Carbon fiber cannot be considered a completely new invention. The first samples of similar material received and used Edison. Later, in the middle of the twentieth century, Renaissance survived carboy – and from now on its use steadily increases.

Carbon fiber is now made from quite different raw materials – and therefore its properties can vary greatly.

All about carbon fiber

All about carbon fiber

Composition and physical properties

The most important of the characteristics of the carbon fiber remains Exceptional heat resistance. Even if the substance isges up to 1600 – 2000 degrees, then in the absence of oxygen in the environment, its parameters will not change. The density of this material, along with the usual, happens and linear (measured in the so-called texach). With a linear density of 600 TEX, the mass of 1 km of the canvas will be 600 g. Critically important in many cases has a module of the elasticity of the material, or, as they say otherwise, the Jung module.

At high strength fiber, this indicator is from 200 to 250 GPa. High-modulus carbon fiber, made on the database, has an elastic module about 400 GPa. In liquid crystal solutions, this parameter may vary from 400 to 700 GPa. The modulus of elasticity is calculated, pushing out from the estimate of its value when stretching individual graphite crystals. The orientation of atomic planes is set using X-ray structural analysis.

All about carbon fiber

All about carbon fiber

By default, the surface tension is 0.86 N / m. When processing a material to obtain a metal componosit fiber, this indicator grows up to 1.0 n / m. To determine the corresponding parameter helps measurement by the method of capillary lifting. The melting point of fibers based on petroleum peckers is 200 degrees. The spinning occurs at about 250 degrees; The melting point of other types of fibers directly depends on their composition.

The maximum width of carbon canvases depends on the technological requirements and nuances. Many producers it is 100 or 125 cm. As for axial strength, it will be equal to:

  • high-strength products based on Pan from 3000 to 3500 MPa;
  • In fibers with a significant lengthening strictly 4500 MPa;
  • At high-modern material from 2000 to 4500 MPa.

All about carbon fiber

All about carbon fiber

Theoretical calculations of the stability of the crystal with a stretching force toward the atomic plane of the lattice give an estimated amount of 180 GPa. The expected limit practical indicator is 100 GPa. But the experiments have not yet confirmed the presence of a level of more than 20 GPa. The actual strength of the carbon fiber is limited by its mechanical defects and nuances of the production process. Installed in studies in practice, strength to stretching a section of 1/10 mm long will be from 9 to 10 GPa.

Special attention deserves carbon fiber T30. This material is used mainly in obtaining rods. This solution is ease and excellent balance. Index T30 denotes a module of elasticity 30 tons.

More complex manufacturing processes allow you to get a T35 level product and so on.

All about carbon fiber

All about carbon fiber

Production technology

Get carbon fiber from various types of polymers. Processing mode Determines two main varieties of such materials – carbonized and graphitized types. An important difference exists between the fiber obtained from the pan and from various types of the pitch. High-quality carbon fibers, both high strength and high-modulus category, may have an empty level of hardness and elastic module. It is customary to attribute them to different brands.

Fibers make a thread or harness format. They are formed from 1000 to 10,000 continuous elementary fibers. Fabrics from these fibers can also be developed, like harness (in this case, the number of elementary fibers is even more). The initial raw materials are fibers not only simple, but also liquid crystal peckers, as well as polyacrylonitrile. The process of obtaining implies first the production of starting fibers, and then they are heated in the air at 200 – 300 degrees.

All about carbon fiber

In the case of pan, this process was called pre-processing or enhancement of fire resistance. Pek after such a procedure receives such an important property as defragment. Partial fibers are oxidized. Further warm-up mode determines whether they will refer to a carbonized or graphitized group. The end of the work implies the impression of the necessary properties, after which it is appresented or slotted.

Oxidation in the air atmosphere increases fire resistance not only as a result of oxidation. Not only partial dehydrogenation, but also intermolecular stitching and other processes contribute their contribution. Additionally, the exposure of the material of the melting and volatilization of carbon atoms is reduced. Carbonization (in the high-temperature phase) is accompanied by gasification and departure of all foreign atoms.

Breathed to 200 – 300 degrees in the presence of air fiber pan black.

All about carbon fiber

All about carbon fiber

Subsequent carbonization is carried out surrounded by nitrogen at 1000 – 1500 degrees. The optimal level of heating, according to a number of technologists, is 1200 – 1400 degrees. High-modulus fiber will have to warm up to about 2500 degrees. At the preliminary stage, Pan gets a staircase microstructure. For its emergence, “replies” condensation on inside the molecular level, accompanied by the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic substance.

The more the temperature increases, the more the structure of the cyclic type will. After the end of heat treatment on technology, the placement of molecules or aromatic fragments is such that the main axes will be parallel to the fiber axis. Tension avoids the decline of the degree of orientation. Features of decomposition Pan during heat treatment are determined by the concentration of graft monomers. Each type of such fibers determines the initial conditions for processing.

All about carbon fiber

Liquid crystal oil pitch takes long time to keep at a temperature of from 350 to 400 degrees. Such a regime will lead to condensation of polycyclic molecules. Their mass rises, and slugging (with the formation of spherolites). If the heating does not stop, spheroids grow, the molecular weight increases, and the result is the formation of an inseparable liquid crystal phase. Crystals occasionally soluble in Chinoline, but usually both in it and in pyridine they do not dissolve (it depends on the nuances of technology).

Fibers obtained from a liquid crystal pitch with 55 – 65% liquid crystals flow plastically. Spinning lead at 350 – 400 degrees. The highly important structure is formed by initial heating in an air atmosphere at 200 – 350 degrees and subsequent withstanding in an inert medium. Thornel P-55 fibers have to warm up to 2000 degrees, the higher the elastic module, the higher the temperature should be.

All about carbon fiber

All about carbon fiber

All about carbon fiber

Scientific and engineering work recently pay more attention to technology using hydrogenation. Initial fiber generation is often obtained by hydrogenation of a mixture of a coal pen and naphthale resin. At the same time there must be tetrahydroquinoline. Processing temperature is 380 – 500 degrees. Solid impurities can be removed by filtration and rank through the centrifuge; After that, there are tucked peks at elevated temperature. For the production of carbon, it is necessary to apply (depending on the technology) quite a variety of equipment:

  • layers distributing vacuum;
  • pumps;
  • sealing harnesses;
  • desktops;
  • traps;
  • Conductive grids;
  • Vacuum films;
  • prepreg;
  • Autoclaves.

All about carbon fiber

All about carbon fiber

Market Review

In the global market, such carbon fiber manufacturers are leading:

  • “Tornell”, “Fortafil” and “Decion” (United States);
  • “Graph” and “Mr.” (England);
  • “Curekh-Lon” and “Toreie” (Japan);
  • Cytec Industries;
  • Hexcel;
  • SGL GROUP;
  • Toray Industries;
  • Zoltek;
  • Mitsubishi Rayon.

All about carbon fiber

All about carbon fiber

To date, Carbon is produced in Russia:

  • Chelyabinsk carbon and composite materials plant;
  • “Balakovo Carbon Production”;
  • NPK “Himprominginirring”;
  • Saratov enterprise “START”.

All about carbon fiber

All about carbon fiber

Products and Scope Applications

Carbon fiber is used to get composite reinforcement. It is also common to use it for obtaining:

  • bidirectional tissues;
  • fabrics of the designer category;
  • biosal and quadroaxial tissue;
  • nonwoven canvas;
  • unidirectional tape;
  • prepreg;
  • external reinforcement;
  • fiber;
  • Zhgutov.

All about carbon fiber

Enough serious innovation is now Infrared warm floor. In this case, the material is used as a substitution of the traditional metal wire. It can highlight 3 times more heat, in addition, electricity consumption is reduced by about 50%. Fans of modeling complex equipment often use carboxylic pipes obtained by winding. These products are also in demand by car manufacturers and other techniques. Carbon fiber is often used, for example, for manual brake. Also, based on this material is obtained:

  • Details for aviation models;
  • Fully hoods;
  • bicycles;
  • parts for tuning cars and motorcycles.

All about carbon fiber

All about carbon fiber

Panels from a portion of 18% tougher aluminum and 14% more than the structural steel. Sleeves based on this material are needed to get pipes and tubes of the variable cross section, spiral products of various profiles. They are also used for production and for repairing clubs. It is still worth indicating its use When issuing particularly strong covers for smartphones and other gadgets. Such products are usually premium and have elevated decorative qualities.

With regard to a graphite-type dispersed powder, then it is needed:

  • upon receipt of electrically conductive coatings;
  • When producing glue of various types;
  • When enhancing molds and some other parts.

All about carbon fiber

All about carbon fiber

Putty with carbon fiber over a number of parameters is better than traditional putty. A similar combination is valued by many specialists for plasticity, mechanical fortress. The composition is suitable for the cover of deep defects. Rods or rods from carbones are durable, easy and serve long. Such material is needed for:

  • aviation;
  • rocket industry;
  • Form of sports inventory.

With the help of pyrolysis of carboxylic acid salts, ketones and aldehydes can be obtained. Excellent thermal quality of carbon fiber allow it to be used in heaters and electric heaters. Such heaters:

  • economical;
  • reliable;
  • Different with impressive efficiency;
  • Dangerous radiation do not distribute;
  • relatively compact;
  • perfectly automated;
  • operated without unnecessary problems;
  • do not spread outsiders.

All about carbon fiber

All about carbon fiber

Carbon-carbon composites are used when released:

  • Stands under Tigley;
  • conical parts for vacuum smelting furnaces;
  • tubular parts for them.

From the additional applications can be called:

  • homemade knives;
  • use for the petal valve on the engines;
  • Use in construction.

Modern builders have long apply this material not only for outdoor reinforcement. He is still needed to harden stone houses and pools. The inlet reinforcing layer restores the quality of the supports and beams in the bridges. It is also used when creating septic and the framework of natural, artificial reservoirs, when working with caisson and a scene.

You can also repair handle tools, repair pipes, fix furniture legs, hoses, handles, equipment, window sills and PVC windows.

All about carbon fiber

All about carbon fiber

In the next video you will find additional information about the production of carbon fiber.

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