- Rating of the best insulators for the floor
- Basalt wool
- Cellular glass
- Polystyrene foam
- Expanded vermiculite
- Glass wool
- Polyurethane foam
- Foamoisol – liquid foam
In a private home the ground floor is very close to the ground and through it the cold and moisture penetrates into the premises, so between the beams requires quality insulation. In multi-storey buildings there is usually an uninsulated basement below which also serves as a source of cold. In such cases the floors in the apartment are additionally filled and covered with insulating materials. We figured out what heat insulation for the floor is considered the best and give you the top 10 most popular thermal insulation. This will help you decide which substance is best suited to your operating conditions and affordable.
Rating of the best insulators for the floor
|Rating of the best insulators for the floor||1||Basalt wool||5.0|
|10||Foam insulation-liquid foam||4.1|
When compiling a list of the best insulation, we were guided by the following characteristics: thermal conductivity of the material, density, susceptibility to combustion or formation of smoke, water vapor permeability and hygroscopicity. The experts also drew attention to the ease of installation and feedback from the masters.
Basalt wool, which is a type of mineral wool, comes first. This material is obtained from rocks, where it is melted in a furnace at 1500 degrees and then, by means of centrifugal force, drawn into filaments. They have a cross section of 3-5 microns, so that heat is very slowly transferred through them (average of 0.038 W/m*K), which is an excellent insulation for the floor. The insulation can have vertically or horizontally oriented fibers, but the material with multidirectional fluffs is considered more effective. To bind the insulation and give it a shape, using resins and bitumens. Masters in the reviews like how the basalt wool is cut and if you cut a little larger size, it is easy to squeeze and lay in the floor. When choosing a product pay attention to the density, ranging from 10 to 30 kg / m ³.
We have marked it as the best insulation because it is absolutely nonflammable. Other building structures (walls, doors) use it as a fire protection barrier. If there are wires under the floor, it is the best protection against fire.
- does not prick your hands during laying;
- easy to lay in the floor;
- if stepped on, it will not be damaged;
- Can be cut to size and does not have to worry about dimensional tolerance.
- It is necessary to lay a layer of height up to 100 mm
- if placed below the dew point, it gradually gets wet and loses its insulating properties.
In second place, insulation obtained by foaming glass. Silicate material mixed with carbon is used for this purpose. The homogeneous mixture goes into the furnace and is heated to a temperature of 800-900 degrees, after which the glass softens and the carbon reacts and foams it. The result is closed pores with thin walls that do not transmit heat to one side and cold to the other. The substance cures in forms with a thickness of 40-100 mm. It is laid on the floor joists and the joints are treated with sealant to prevent the formation of “cold bridges. Thermal conductivity of cellular glass is 0.052 W/m*K, which is only slightly inferior to rock wool.
Our experts have singled out the insulation as the best in terms of minimum vapor permeability. In the case of walls and ceilings vapor permeability is important to remove excess moisture from the room (ceilings, as if “breathing”). But it is important for the floor to be completely sealed so that moisture from the basement can’t get into the living space. The actual vapor permeability of cellular glass is 0.005 mg/(m.ch.Pa). In fact, the insulation does not allow steam to pass through at all, which means that your floors will be dry, despite the humidity in the basement.
- absorbs noise up to 56 dB;
- total ecological safety
- does not burn;
- resistant to fungal and bacterial attack.
- weak bending strength 0.4 MPa;
- It is necessary to precisely adjust the size of the segments;
- high cost;
- joints need to be treated with sealant.
Next in the review of polystyrene foam, popularly known as Styrofoam. it is made of styrene copolymers, whose granules are filled with gas. The air dissolved in the polymer mass, increases the volume of the granules several times. The process is carried out in special block molds to give the material a specific configuration. After filling the matrix to the borders, the substance sintered and cools. You get the dense, but lightweight blocks (2% styrene and 98% air), the cross section can be from 20 to 100 mm. When insulating the floor foam is laid between the beams, and the boundaries of the processing foam. The thermal conductivity of insulation ranges from 0.036 to 0.050 W/m*K.
We single out this insulation as the best for the price. For example, one sheet, a cross-section of 30 mm and dimensions of 1000×500 mm, will cost 50 rubles. For 400 rubles. You can buy 4 m² of floor insulation, which is enough for a small kitchen or hallway in the house. If your floors need immediate insulation, and funds for repairs are limited, consider expanded polystyrene.
- Available in any cross-section of 20 to 100 mm;
- Does not create stress on the floor due to its low weight;
- does not leak water;
- environmentally friendly material.
- crumbles when cut;
- exact dimensions must be observed;
- joints are treated with sealant.
This insulation differs from the above by the fact that it is not made in the form of blocks, and is loose. It is made from shale and clay. The raw material of small pellets falls into a large rotary kiln set at an incline. As the drum turns, the pellets fall down and are burned by the gas nozzle. It increases the strength of the material and removes moisture from it. Thermal conductivity is 0.912 W/m*K. Claydite is one of the most environmentally friendly insulators for the floor. It does not burn, which customers like in reviews. Remaining funds are used by owners of private homes for decorative decoration of the landscape, as red and orange pebbles look favorably on the black soil. When choosing insulation, pay attention to the size of fractions, ranging from 10 to 40 mm.
In our opinion, the best insulation for ease of installation. You do not need to mark or cut anything – the material is simply poured from the bag between the floor joists. The surface is then smoothed out. The fine pebbles cover all the gaps well, forming a mixture of gravel and air, creating a powerful barrier to the passage of cold. The top is covered with decking and the floor is ready.
- When insulating the floor, no sealant is needed;
- does not require cutting
- Fills narrow areas well;
- does not create a load on the floor.
- There must not be any gaps in the floor, otherwise it will overspill;
- If in order to repair it is necessary to remove some of the insulation, it is more difficult to do than with other materials.
And here is another bulk material, which can be of fractions from 0.5 to 8 mm. As can be seen, it is finer than expanded clay, so it fills the space in the floor even more densely. Vermiculite is a representative of hydrosludge, which has a multilayered structure. It is a mineral that has been “blown” in order to increase its volume and decrease its weight. 10 cm of vermiculite is as thick as 1 m of brickwork or 35 cm of timber. The thermal conductivity of the substance ranges from 0.045 to 0.053 W/m*K, which is only slightly inferior to mineral wool. In reviews, customers are pleased with the relatively affordable price of the product and the ease of installation in the floor.
This is another best floor insulation with increased fire resistance. The substance is completely non-combustible and retains its shape (does not melt) up to a temperature of 1300 degrees. At the same time, the filler in the floor is resistant to alkalis and acids, so spilled liquids seeping through the flooring will not spoil the thermal insulation layer. Therefore, the material is well suited for filling in the floors of not only domestic, but also industrial buildings.
- Does not rot under the action of microorganisms;
- does not decompose;
- rodents are indifferent to it;
- no insects live in it.
- the space in the floors needs to be sealed from gaps, because the small fractions of 1-4 mm are easy to spill.
Continues the review another insulation, which belongs to the section mineral wool. The starting material is glass scrap or its constituents (soda, sand, borax, dolomite, limestone). The mass melts in a hopper at 1400 degrees. After that, the composition falls into a centrifuge, where it is blown by steam to form the finest filaments. When generating fibers, the material is treated with aerosols. It is then smoothed and shaped on a conveyor belt. Polymerization begins at 250°C, giving the fibers strength. The result is the formation of hairs with a cross-section of 3-15 microns, and the overall thermal conductivity is 0.030-0.052 W/m*K. In contact with an open flame, the insulation can withstand temperatures up to 450 degrees.
Insulator recognized by us as the best, since the length of the fibers is 2-4 times greater than that of similar types of mineral wool. It makes glass wool more durable. When laid in floor blocks, it is less likely to stretch and tear. Another advantage of long strands – resistance to vibration loads, so the insulation can be used in production, where powerful machines and machines work.
- affordable cost;
- it is easy to cut;
- easy to install over the floor joists;
- you do not have to maintain the exact size of the beam spacing.
- it pricks up when laying and causes itching
- It is necessary to work on insulating the floor in a respirator.
This insulation can be in two types: elastic or rigid. The first is known to many as foam rubber. But for thermal insulation of the floor the second option is better suited. It is fed from a special unit in liquid form, after which it expands due to the chemical reaction with the air and polymerizes. At the heart of polyurethane are plastics, consisting of gas by 85-90%. This ensures the lightness of the substance and sufficient viscosity. When the filler solidifies, it becomes durable and can only be removed mechanically. Reviews show that masters like the insulation has a service life of 15-20 years.
Our experts have found the insulation to be the best underfloor cavity filler. Thanks to the application in liquid form, the substance spreads out well and fills all the gaps. The master does not need to adjust the size between the beams in the floor, because the product itself will disperse into the channels. To mount the flooring, you only need to cut off the protruding areas of the foam. When using this insulation the formation of “cold bridges” or passages for insects are excluded.
- resistant to the action of solvents;
- it is not interesting for rodents;
- Resists moisture absorption;
- does not rot.
- Requires sophisticated equipment for application;
- then it is difficult to remove a fragment of the material from under the floor.
This insulation is also called PVC, vinyl or vinyl. The foam type of plastic, which is available in mats, is used for laying in the floors. They can be laid in whole sheets without cutting directly under the flooring, or even on top of it when the next layer is the finish of the floor. The thermal conductivity of the material reaches 0.159 W/m*K. Craftsmen praise the product in reviews for its stress resistance. Tensile strength is 40-50 MPa, and when you try to bend the panel, the figure ranges from 80 to 120 MPa.
This insulation is distinguished by its small cross section. Mats are available in 2-5 mm thickness, although there are also 19 mm. It is relevant for insulation of floors in apartments where there are no beams and sufficient space, and the use of other fillers will reduce the height of the room. Sheets 2-5 mm can be laid under the linoleum or laminate, which will create an additional insulating layer. Unlike cork backing, polyvinyl chloride is resistant to detergents and saline solutions, so it will last longer on the floor.
- Ability to absorb sound and vibration;
- resistant to aggressive chemical environments
- Tensile strength is 40-50 MPa;
- it belongs to the non-combustible group.
- high cost;
- The composition includes light-absorbing dyes;
- After a full soak can become more rigid (requires proper storage prior to installation).
Next in the review is floor insulation made of polyethylene foam. Thanks to the closed cell structure of the layer significantly complicates the transfer of heat. The material is available in sections from 3 to 10 mm. It is sold in rolls, for example with a width of 1.2 and 15 m long. Masters note that the insulation is easy to cut to size when laying in the floor. Due to a small cross-section mats do not need to be cut to fit between the joists, and you can close the floor as a continuous layer, bypassing each joist. Allowed the use of insulation and on the floors in the apartment, where it can serve as a layer under the linoleum. The thermal conductivity of the insulation is at the level of mineral wool and is 0.039 W/m*K.
A special feature of the material is the presence of two layers of aluminum, which not only serve as reinforcement, but also effectively reflect the temperature in both directions (the cold from the basement back down, and heat from the room back into the apartment).
- resistance to mechanical stress;
- high density allows the use of a smaller layer;
- There is no need for vapor barrier;
- easy to transport;
- safe in operation and does not require personal protective equipment.
- high cost;
- with a thickness of 10 mm reduces noise by only 20 dB.
Foamoisol – liquid foam
Completes the review of insulation foam, which is fed not in solidified, but in liquid form. It is sprayed from a special pumping station. The process is not complicated, and the foam is already setting in 10-15 minutes. After 3-4 hours, it already reaches hardness, and the final set of strength comes after a few days. But this does not affect the possibility of laying floors, because all the processes take place under them with access to air. In reviews, users praise the floor insulation for its resilience. The substance retains some elasticity and levels out after receiving dents. In addition to thermal insulating properties, liquid foam is excellent resistance to vibration transmission, so if your house is located near the subway or streetcar line, the filler will serve as additional protection against shaking. In terms of thermal conductivity 5 cm of foam insulation replaces 12.5 cm of mineral wool.
Liquid foam for the floor stands out by the accelerated installation process, in the presence of specialized equipment. If you are building a large house with an area of 100m² or more, where you want to insulate the floor in one day, so as not to stretch the process and not to slow down other work, use penoizol. Masters apply it 20-40 m ³ per day.
- mice do not wind up;
- the material is environmentally safe;
- Quick installation;
- Resists shocks and impacts well.
- specialized equipment is required;
- Some may cause allergies, but it is individual and quite rare.