- How to choose a subwoofer in a car
- Rating of the best subwoofers in the car
- Top rated in-car subwoofers up to 300 watts
- Hertz DBX 252.3
- EDGE EDV12A-E4
- Alpine SBG-1244
- The best car subwoofers with rated power up to 600 watts
- Hertz EBX 300.5
- Audio System RADION R 12 BP
- Hertz EBX 250R
- Pioneer TS-WX300A
- The best in-car subwoofers with a power rating up to 1,000 watts
- Kicker VS12L72
- Magnum MBW 151 SPL-BOX
- Mystery MBP-3000
- The best car subwoofers with rated power over 1,000 watts
- Kicker DL7122
- Magnum MLW 3×12-2SM
- Advantages of
- The best compact subwoofers
- Kicx PRO-POWER 301D
- Focal E 25 KX
- Alpine SWR-1542D
- The merits
- Hertz ES 300
- Alpine SWG-1244
*Overview of the best according to the editors. About the selection criteria. This material is subjective, it is not an advertisement and does not serve as a guide to purchase. Before buying the tyre you should seek professional advice.
Subwoofer is a device for accentuated reproduction of low frequencies (from 20 to 1000 Hz), which add richness and volume to the sound. The standard stereo systems used in cars have long gone beyond the acceptable quality of music reproduction, and despite the futile attempts of car manufacturers to fundamentally change the situation, are gradually being urgently upgraded by the user. The essence of their improvement is, in fact, to complete the system with a regular subwoofer, placed in the car interior or in its luggage compartment.
In today’s realities, the production of subwoofers is a mass phenomenon, as the number of them on the free market has increased dramatically over the past decade. In this regard, the independent selection of such a specific reproduction device causes a lot of difficulties for consumers. Taking into consideration all the constructive subtleties and the state of the market, the Expertology team made a rating of the best subwoofers for cars, divided into five separate categories. The following parameters were used as selection criteria:
- The popularity of the manufacturer and the model with consumers;
- analytical opinion of the experts;
- Both nominees are compared to each other;
- technical characteristics;
- degree of reliability and performance;
- Quality vs. nominal cost parameters ratio.
How to choose a subwoofer in a car
When buying a subwoofer for installation in your car, it is necessary to follow a number of specific nuances and rules, which will determine not only the sum of the expenses, but also your personal pleasure of using it. Therefore, Expertology recommends paying attention to five key aspects when choosing a bass player on your own:
- Overall dimensions. The main and obvious parameter of selection, non-compliance with which can cause significant problems with the placement in the trunk (or under the seat). As a rule, in modern car models, the place for installation of the subwoofer is allocated separately, which itself imposes (though not strict) restrictions on its dimensions. In most cases the power output also depends on the size of the model. So if you’re not satisfied with the performance rating of the subwoofer you’re sitting in, consider purchasing a more capable model.
- Power.The characteristic, which shows the degree of durability of subwoofer speakers. In general, the higher the rating, the better. Maximum power, in turn, indicates the amount of short-term peak impulse that the speaker can handle without mechanical or other damage.
- Number of acoustic bands. The parameter that directly determines the accuracy and quality of sound through the subwoofer. Efficiency increases on a “more is better” basis, but has a natural effect on the price of the loudspeaker unit.
- Amplifier.The presence or absence of an amplifier in the subwoofer affects not only its overall cost, but also the fundamental difference in sound reproduction. Subwoofers without an amplifier give a significant increase in the bass component of the music on the background of a weak sound component, while models with an amplifier provide a smooth increase in both.
- Case. Many consumers point out that the type of cabinet does not play a big role in choosing a “barrel” in a car, but they are willingly inclined to buy models with a solid chipboard construction and fabric upholstery, rather than subwoofers with a different kind of cabinet design. In fact, both the sound quality factor and the overall reliability of the product depends on its performance. Good speaker mounting ensures that there is no stray vibrations or noise, and prevents the possibility of spontaneous mechanical damage if the mounting is loose.
Rating of the best subwoofers in the car
|Top in-car subwoofers with rated power up to 300W||1||Pioneer TS-WX70DA||17 400€|
|2||Hertz DBX 252.3||14 300€|
|4||Alpine SBG-1244||7 590€|
|5||Alpine SWE-815||8 138€|
|The best car subwoofers with rated power up to 600 watts||1||Hertz EBX 300.5||21 000€|
|2||Audio System RADION R 12 BP||20 000€|
|3||Hertz EBX 250R||15 670€|
|4||Pioneer TS-WX300A||6 789€|
|The best in-car subwoofers with rated power up to 1,000 watts||1||Kicker VS12L72||28 000€|
|2||Magnum MBW 151 SPL-BOX||–|
|3||Mystery MBP-3000||6 490€|
|The best car subwoofers with rated power over 1,000 watts||1||Kicker DL7122||78 000€|
|2||Magnum MLW 3×12-2SM||12 000€|
|Best compact subwoofers||1||Kicx PRO-POWER 301D||8 558€|
|2||Focal E 25 KX||27 990€|
|3||Alpine SWR-1542D||18 590€|
|4||Hertz ES 300||8 560€|
|5||Alpine SWG-1244||5 690€|
|6||Pioneer TS-W306R||3 070€|
Top rated in-car subwoofers up to 300 watts
A technically superior loudspeaker element, designed for true connoisseurs of precision in the sound of their favorite songs. Pioneer TS-WX70DA is one of the few representatives of its company who received a D-Class amplifier with built-in function of advanced bass control (Digital Bass Control). Its essence is the possibility of adjusting the system for two modes of operation:
Dynamic – for more precise and rhythmic bass, suitable for dubstep, drum’n bass, electro and other genres.
Deep – deeper sounding bass frequencies, by definition suitable for any music.
It is noteworthy that the presence of the amplifier does not give an increase in reproduced frequencies: Pioneer TS-WX70DA feels good within the range of 20-250 Hz, but it does not decrease the feeling of fullness of the sound. On the contrary, it’s amazing how this model excels all its rivals in the playback component. Well, we can describe it for a long time, but it remains the fact: this subwoofer is definitely worth its money, especially in view of its cardinal dissimilarity from the others.
- A very favorable ratio of cost to overall quality;
- availability of an amplifier with two modes of operation;
- Remote bass, phase and level control;
- Magnificent design and original look of the case;
- compact size and weight (10.4 kg);
- inimitable sound ambience.
Hertz DBX 252.3
The car subwoofer from the German company Hertz simply could not pass over the rating of the best, getting almost to the top of this top. With a very specific configuration and design, the DBX 252.3 provides a big increase in bass in the normal sound of the regular stereo system. Operating in frequencies from 28 to 300 hertz at a power rating of 300 watts, this model can withstand spikes and peaks of up to 1200 watts without any hint of mechanical damage.
Feature of the Hertz DBX 252.3, which we mentioned in passing, is the box configuration. Instead of usual “cubes” German manufacturers have decided to stretch the body width, bringing this linear size up to 650 millimeters. At the same time managed to “squeeze” the box a little in length and height (up to 295 and 300 millimeters, respectively). This configuration accommodates two 10-inch drivers at once, stylized by all the canons of the brand. From the point of view of cost such assembly seems a little bit expensive, but taking into account the general operating parameters this nuance is completely leveled.
- atmospheric bass, smoothing out all the shortcomings of the standard stereo reproduction;
- operation in the range of 28-300 Hz;
- Possibility to withstand power peaks up to 1200 W;
- The best combination of price and quality;
- Very effective trim on the cope.
- is not detected.
A well-known model from a not-so-famous manufacturer, the whole beauty of which boils down to an extremely favorable ratio between price and sound reproduction capabilities. EDGE EDV12A-E4 – a typical representative of budget subwoofers, which, according to the manufacturer’s will, received not the most sophisticated, but a good amplifier in the kit. With a rated power of 300 watts this “baby” is able to play frequencies from 25 to 1500 hertz, somewhat winning in this component from the competitor in the face of Alpine SWE-815.
According to users, the effect of buying EDGE EDV12A-E4 is reflected not only in the increase of the sound saturation, but also in the banal vibration of the non-noise-insulated metal. Attributing this nuance to the disadvantages of the subwoofer is not possible, but for a general idea of its work the sounding of such a remarkable fact was very necessary. The reasonability of buying this model in terms of key performance parameters is fully justified: for a low price you get not only a beautiful thing with a nice design, but also high quality sound reproduction, underpinned by the reliability of the most important components.
- the presence of the amplifier and the concomitant ability to reproduce frequencies in the range of 25-1500 Hz;
- optimal sensitivity figures (90dB) of the speaker;
- The low price;
- High quality finish;
- attractive exterior.
- no protection for the loudspeaker.
Phase-inverter subwoofer of the active type, which got into the rating thanks to the high ratings from consumers and complimentary reviews from the experts. Even with several fruitful years on the market, the Alpine SWE-815 is still one of the most expensive models in its segment. But despite this, users continue to be persistently drawn to buy it. This is dictated by two factors:
First of all the production team managed to implement the optimal balance between the bass and the sound component of the reproduction, making the device to reproduce the frequencies in the range from 34 to 1500 hertz. Combined with the sensitivity of 91 decibels the sound is truly magnificent.
secondly, the system of remote control sub by means of a wired remote control was introduced, which, with minimal effort to modernize, allows you to manipulate with the speaker (in the luggage compartment) directly from the cabin.
All of the above is enough to understand that Alpine SWE-815 is a worthy representative of its class, which can compete with much more powerful models.
- built-in amplifier and, as a consequence, a wide range of operating frequencies (34-1500 Hz);
- nice design;
- remote control capability implemented;
- high sound quality.
- high price.
The best car subwoofers with rated power up to 600 watts
Hertz EBX 300.5
Having learned from the mistakes of a very decent speaker Hertz EBX 250R, German craftsmen have focused on creating a more perfect model of subwoofer in a car, and it is worth saying that they coped with their task brilliantly. Hertz EBX 300.5 has received not only a considerable increase in peak withstand power, but also a nice addition in the design part. Providing frequency reproduction within the range of 25-250 hertz, this device got 500 watts of nominal power, thanks to which it significantly increased the indicators of the output sound pressure. This, in turn, had a positive impact on bass – the depth and precision of its reproduction went to a qualitatively higher level.
The peak power has grown to 1000 watts, protecting the speaker from a high probability of mechanical damage during sudden changes. The design of the sound element itself has undergone many qualitative changes:
Double winding was introduced, allowing you to connect the speaker to the amplifier in any way you want (in series, in parallel, independently);
The neodymium magnet was replaced by a simple ferrite “pancake”, which allowed to achieve the effect of cost reduction without loss of quality.
All of this and more has allowed the EBX 300.5 to break into the ranks of the best subwoofers on the market, in parallel winning back a large portion of the audience from Pioneer’s subwoofer segment.
- tremendous work on the mistakes that led to the complete rehabilitation of the company in the segment;
- optimal level of operating frequency (25-250 Hz);
- Good power indicators (500 watts nominal and 1000 watts peak);
- pleasant design;
- Strictly within the established price brackets.
- have not been revealed.
Audio System RADION R 12 BP
The model, all its appearance shows adherence to the old canons of exterior design. Which, however, plays into its hands, as it is an additional guarantee of quality for consumers. Audio System RADION R 12 BP is a typical representative of subwoofers in Band-Pass cabinets for sound pressure build-up, giving not so much atomperity, but rather fun and electrifying depth of bass for almost any musical genre. No one really knows what its true frequency response is, but it seems to overlap the lower limits completely (around 20 to 300 hertz).
The power rating of the Audio System RADION R 12 BP will also please the fans of the sound: 400 watts is a necessary minimum for such a dynamic system. And as to the maximum values, there is a situation similar to the Hertz EBX 250R. 600 watts in peak is not bad, but if it increases sharply it can cause big problems and loss of quite a lot of money. Fortunately, such cases have not been described in online reviews, but the very fact that such an outcome is possible is strongly alarming.
- The optimum between price and quality;
- high power rating (400 W);
- very dynamic and accurate bass sound;
- original case design.
- Low peak power (600W).
Hertz EBX 250R
Phase-inverter passive sub from the German company Hertz is a very inexpensive, but effective solution to the problem of the paucity of sound of regular car stereo systems. Working in the range from 28 to 300 hertz, this “box” provides sound, which is comparable with a similar sound in an older development from Korean “pioneers” (Pioneer TS-WX300A).
If the main advantage of the Hertz EBX 250R is entirely dependent on the key function (quality reproduction of bass frequencies), the disadvantage is entirely affected by the power characteristic. The thing is that at peak power this model can handle only 700 watt load, while the opponents have indicators surpassing the threshold of 1000. This is not critical, but in extreme operating situations can cause serious damage to the speaker. Actually, this was the only admonition for this subwoofer from the circle of experts, while users were completely satisfied with this model. True, if it weren’t for the high cost, there would be considerably more satisfied.
- Wide bass reproduction range for the passive subwoofer (28-300 Hz);
- Excellent quality of execution of the case;
- nice look;
- very atmospheric and deep sound.
- high price;
- low peak power (700 watts).
An active subwoofer of the bass reflex type, consistently ranking among the best since its market debut. Is a typical carrier of the philosophy of Pioneer, which does not want to deliberately inflate the range of its products, so as not to adjust to the trends of Western competitors. In this regard, the Pioneer TS-WX300A works only with frequencies of 20-130 hertz, immersing users in a special state of bass liturgy. Rich bass frequency saturation levels out the horror of the car stereo sound, which makes this subwoofer a perfect “companion” to any “domestic pelvis”.
In addition to the quality of bass in a very constricted (unfortunate, it’s true) range, the Pioneer TS-WX300A boasts pretty good figures for input and output power (350 and 1300 watts respectively), as well as very low construction weight (10 kilograms) for fairly large dimensions. At the same time all consumers note the successful combination of red and black color in the trim with small inclusions of chrome on the protection of 12-inch speaker. This is one of the best offerings in its price range, alas, somewhat out of date since it went on sale.
- Price to quality ratio;
- Rugged enclosure, not allowing the slightest vibration in 5 years from the beginning of active use;
- very atmospheric bass;
- The legendary trim in a three color combination (black-red-chrome).
- Low frequency response (20-130 Hz).
The best in-car subwoofers with a power rating up to 1,000 watts
Solobaric subwoofer by Kicker, which knows how to create powerful acoustic equipment. The main feature of this model is in the configuration and shape of the cone – in this case it is square, which is not so much decorative as a deliberately technological feature: thanks to this step the manufacturers managed to achieve almost two-fold (42%) increase of the radiating area. The box itself, upholstered in gray carpentry, is a standard cube with a beveled back wall to install the subwoofer close to the second row of seats (and give extra rigidity).
As for purely technical parameters, it is worth noting the good correlation of power with sound pressure level and pickup at different frequencies. Kicker VS12L72 has nominal power ratings of 750 watts with peak increases up to 1500. In order to fully realize the potential of the speakers experts recommend to buy a special amplifier, preferably from the same Kicker, to minimize problems with connection and tuning. This model is ideal for audiophiles who prefer the juicy and loud bass to the deeper and more measured sound.
- Increased radiator area;
- Top build quality, eliminating the appearance of gaps and accompanying noise with vibrations;
- 750 watts nominal and 1500 watts maximum power;
- Suitability for heavy-duty applications;
- nice appearance.
- not found.
Magnum MBW 151 SPL-BOX
The base version of Magnum’s high power phase-inverter subwoofer, which they say is capable of giving a physical sense of deep bass. Despite the passive design Magnum MBW 151 SPL-BOX provides frequency reproduction in the range from 28 to 550 hertz, which, coupled with a good stereo system, provides an incredible influx of clear and rich sound.
The rated power of this model is 1000 watts and by this parameter it leaves its rivals far behind. The situation is similar regarding maximum power: 2000 watts is an unattainable value for all representatives of the segment. Because of this situation the sound pressure produced by subwoofer can cause a lot of troubles with vibration effect on non soundproofed car parts and units of important units. But leaving this one to the conscience of the owners, we can say: Magnum MBW 151 SPL-BOX is definitely worth buying.
- The highest power ratings in the segment (1000 watts nominal and 2000 watts maximum);
- range of reproduced frequencies (28-550 Hz);
- Not a bad finish and quality connections between the speaker and the body;
- low price.
- not found.
The most inexpensive and yet productive “box” from Mystery, designed for installation in cars with a great need for loud bass. The MBP-3000 operates in the range of 25-140 hertz and is therefore only capable of picking up low bass frequencies. However, even this level of the model is quite enough to provide deep sounding tracks, though in this component consumers often compare it to the representative of another segment, which is Pioneer TS-WX300A.
Despite the fact that nominally Japanese (but in fact Chinese) firm Mystery is not in the category of preferred manufacturers, users are very happy (but not without some fear) to buy the MBP-3000. In particular, they are attracted by the good indicators of the nominal power (800 watts), a successful design of the band case, as well as ample opportunities to equip any level of amplifiers. Unfortunately, durability leaves much to be desired: in this component the company still has some work to do.
- low price;
- A good level of bass depth;
- Nice design (adherence to the company style);
- double winding on the speaker.
- low level of speakers durability (they notably shrink during operation).
The best car subwoofers with rated power over 1,000 watts
Top of the list goes to the Kicker DL7122, which broadcasts in a very small frequency range (20-100 hertz), but with a very high power rating. If we start from the power parameters this model is one of the most optimal on the whole acoustic systems market. Higher (or better) results can only be achieved by premium and exclusive car designs, as well as by full-size subs for multimedia centers and other entertainment equipment.
Due to the fact that the rated power of the installation is 1800 watts, the manufacturers had to go to the step of reasonable substitution of standard materials by other, as it happened in the case of the cone. Instead of fabric and paper, high-strength polypropylene was used here, with custom overlays to match the overall box design. The speakers themselves (because of the increased radiating area) were made square and placed at a slight angle to each other. Given the use of high quality materials, as well as the highest performance indicators, the cost of the Kicker DL7122 is quite expected. But in isolation it looks frightening and is guaranteed to cut off a large group of budget consumers from its audience.
- Top quality of performance (both in terms of technical parameters and reliability);
- 1800 watts of power;
- A beautiful design, made in accordance with the corporate identity of the company;
- Very clear and deep bass.
- very high price.
Magnum MLW 3×12-2SM
Another representative of the Magnum company loses the competition for the leadership of the subwoofer from Kicker, losing to the latter both in terms of reliability, and from the point of view of technical characteristics. The original shape of MLW 3×12-2SM allowed to place three 12-inch drivers on the front surface, creating the effect of comprehensive sound. The total nominal output of the subwoofer is 1200 watts, and with such parameters the car becomes more of an object for stationary reproduction of music, so to speak, “outdoors”.
Despite the complexity of design and very acceptable quality of used materials the price for Magnum MLW 3×12-2SM barely exceeds the price for low-power models of subwoofers of famous manufacturers. First of all it is connected with the marketing principles of the company, trying to squeeze the maximum possible even from not very good quality raw materials. Because of this, the subwoofer may lose some looks over the course of prolonged use, but stubbornly remains in condition until the speaker fails.
- Optimal cost figures;
- original design and configuration of the radiators in the box;
- 1200 watts of power in nominal;
- solid build quality.
- for its price – not found.
The best compact subwoofers
Kicx PRO-POWER 301D
The best advantage of the Kicx PRO-POWER 301D compared with its competitors is a value for money – you can hardly get such a high-performance woofer for a similar price. Its power rating is 1250 watts and can handle 2500 watts of peak power for short durations, which is not even possible with standard boxy subwoofers. Playable frequency ranges from 30 to 600 hertz, and that number goes up a few more points with the installation of an amplifier.
The Kicx PRO-POWER 301D has a double high-temperature winding as a coil, which needs intensive cooling. It also allows you to connect the amplifier in any way convenient for the user, which greatly simplifies the installation of the model. The basket is made of aluminum, the heat dissipation of which is also at a good level, but it requires several technological holes for through air circulation. If to speak frankly, the purpose of this subwoofer limits in providing high volume of the bass and its dynamism, rather than in depth and richness, therefore some music-lovers will not like its usage.
- Highest power ratings (1250 and 2500 watts rated and rated tolerance);
- wide frequency range (300-600 Hz);
- pleasing design;
- aluminum basket;
- double winding, which provides a simplified connection of the amplifier;
- great value for money.
Focal E 25 KX
Considering the novelty factor Focal E 25 KX presents a better alternative to the notorious Alpine SWR-1542D, albeit with somewhat less pronounced power parameters. So, the speaker is rated at 600 watts, while at its peak it can deliver up to 1200 watts. For a 10-inch subwoofer, this indicator is optimal, especially due to the ability to reproduce the frequencies around 25-500 Hz.
Other features of the Focal E 25 KX include the presence of dual windings for increased ways to connect the amplifier (in parallel, in series and independently). Despite having only one band for reproduction the speaker shows high fidelity and practically absence of parasitic noise and vibrations. The only drawback: the cost of this model exceeds all imaginable limits, so it becomes unattractive for most customers.
- possibility of speaker installation into boxes of inward or outward-facing type;
- Optimal power figures for a 10″ speaker (600 watts nominal and 1200 watts peak);
- 25-500 Hz frequencies;
- very high quality performance.
- high cost.
Alpine SWR-1542D is the most protected from unwanted power surges subwoofer model capable of running at prohibitive values of the key technical parameters. Providing up to 750 watts of rated power, the user gets an excellent chance to build up sound pressure until the peak values reach the 2,000 watt mark. With such figures listening to music can become not only an individual process, but a common activity.
The SWR-1542D gets the job done too: Alpine’s SWR-1542D starts out in the 22-500 Hz range, delivering exceptional bass precision and dynamics. As the pluses of design all without exception note the cast basket as the most resistant to vibration and fatigue deformation. Manufacturers strongly recommend “packing” this model into inverter and closed boxes for optimal sound effect.
- a very high quality design;
- Optimal power parameters;
- frequency support within the range of 22-500 Hz;
- rather mediocre, but extremely recognizable design;
- wide possibilities of mounting the loudspeaker in a box.
- not found.
Hertz ES 300
An interesting representative of the Hertz company; it is recommended to install it in 20-38-liter enclosures to achieve the best sound effect. Capable of operating in the 25 to 250 Hz band with a sensitivity in the region of 92 decibels and 4 Ohms impedance allowing for a wide range of amplifiers to be integrated into a single enclosure. Which, by the way, it is recommended to use a reflex port or a closed type of design.
The positive feature of the design Hertz ES 300 is entirely in the presence of a double magnet on the extended voice coil. This pair allows the subwoofer not to lose any sound quality, even during long-term operation at high power. Which has a pretty tough limitation: for example, at 350 watts rating short-term peak surge can reach 700 watts. Anything over the limit can lead to unfortunate consequences. From other features of the speaker users often mention universal appearance, nice sound and very high reliability parameter.
- The SWG-1244 is a great value for money;
- A fairly wide range of reproduced frequency (25-250 Hz);
- Wide customization possibilities according to the manufacturer’s recommendations;
- universal design;
- Nice sounding bass even at low volume.
- Understated peak power (700 watts).
The speaker of a scarcer kind than the Pioneer TS-W306R has unexpectedly become a standard of quality for all low-budget products of this category. With its smaller rated wattage (250 watts) the Alpine SWG-1244 has a wide reproducing frequency range of 28-1000 Hz.
As in the case of the above-mentioned competitor, this model has acquired a huge number of fans and, obeying the laws of logic, the market began to gradually pour in boxes, once assembled to order or according to a set pattern. Which, on the one hand, simplified the installation for the car owners themselves, but deprived the niche of a share of individuality. However, this in no way negates the chic sound shown by Alpine SWG-1244 and so chicly described by thousands of domestic users. According to them, the bass gains in atmosphere, depth and juiciness, and fits absolutely any song, which is important for avid music lovers.
- wide range of bass frequency reproduction (28-1000 Hz);
- Not bad rated and rated power (250 and 800 watts respectively);
- universal design;
- quality sound transformation.
- no detectable.
ioneer TS-W306R is a low-frequency speaker for pretentious people, who have high demands for sound quality. Working in the range from 25 to 125 hertz, it is able to take on a little more, but only in conjunction with a quality amplifier (preferably from the same “pioneers”). Fortunately, the sensitivity (96 decibels) and impedance (4 ohms) allow you to select a sufficiently wide range of amplifiers.
As for power parameters, the rating for the Pioneer TS-W306R is 350 watts, with the ability to absorb up to 1300 watts in the short term without causing any damage. As users have noted, due to the high demand for these speakers a huge number of custom and factory boxes for their installation have appeared in the market. External design of the model is interesting enough, even in spite of scantiness in the sense of colors (from the “abundance of colors” on the speaker there is only a red belt and gray company’s logo). Costs quite cheap and is inferior to its category opponents only in terms of power.
- Amplifier options are wide-ranging;
- the quality of the low-frequency sound;
- The abundance of assembled boxes for a particular model;
- The ability to handle up to 1,300 watts of power;
- pleasant design.
- not found.