Rules and technology laying paving slabs

Put the paving slabs under the power of even non-professional. Any newcomer, spilling, how specially trained workers work, is making unsuccessful attempts to create something their own – from what the construction of building materials in the XXI century offers.

Peculiarities

According to GOST, the paving slabs must withstand a certain permissible level of load. This load can be pedestrians, special equipment, cars, installed collapsible structures, for example, the podium on the occasion of the near holiday. The paving slabs should be played ideally for several decades before it is replaced by a new one.

The ratio of cement and other building materials when creating an artificial stone is determined by the difference in task stackers.

According to SNiP, the construction of sidewalks, covers relies on certain standards. It is impossible to put the tile directly on the ground – the first bauddy will turn the sidewalk into a vague pile of artificial stone. Through the tile should not grow grass – the soil must be isolated with impermeable for weed vegetation with a technological coating (layer) so that it does not spoil the appearance, view of the sidewalk, yard, arrival. The spreading just posted tracks threatens to turn out not just spoiled by the appearance of the site or covering the suitable / access path, but also by certain inconveniences when parking, the congress and race cars, passing pedestrians, the difficulty of arranging the landscape landing of trees and shrubs, pales and flower beds.

Tools and materials

As the tools, the master will need the following devices:

  • measuring tape measure (line folding tapered type);
  • Construction level (liquid, hose hydroelectric or laser);
  • Rubber hammer or wooden cizyanka;
  • Bulgarian with a set of cut-out stones;
  • Mobile mini-concise (operating on the basis of the electric drive), shovels bayonet and soviet, veser;
  • Rule – the longer, the better (try to purchase at least a single one);
  • Light guides (can be used and ordinary professional, for example, square professional);
  • bark.

In addition to tiles, the following: geotextiles, crushed stone fraction (about 10-22 mm for one pebbles), cement (brand not lower than M-400), frost-resistant glue (seam clamps), career sand (seeded), Bordary stone (the required number of units of the necessary dimensions – according to the calculated estimate).

How to make a markup?

The plan of your home and the whole household territory provides for the placement of paving coverage in the yard, tracks on the country. Follow and drive reinforcement or wooden pegs in all corners, from which the selection of the lad out tile of the territory. Rewrirling, referring to the plan, pull the fishing line between them: Now you have a visual landmark, on which you and lay out the courtyard, break and path tiles.

For better visibility, use a colored fishing line – for example, on the background of dark, brown soil is suitable for white, with reflective texture. Arrange the checkboxes – this will allow you during the work not to deviate from the specified Plan.

The rules for displaying the tile coating in the courtyard of a private or apartment building provides all the same stages as in the case of laying suitable pathways in the park, on the city square, near the building of the municipal or private object of public significance and T. D.

Excavation

Having placing part of the railway, twist all the vegetation and remove the delicious fertile layer of the soil to the depth of about 30 cm. If you eliminate the old coating – tracks, the playgrounds – then remove and remove the old, cracked building material (for example, it can be a powerful stone or concrete coating). So if finished plates were used as the old material, then to facilitate their dismantling, break these fragments to the bump in pieces. As a bipler, the perforator is sometimes used as a bidder (from 2 kilowatt), but if the volume of dismantling work is impressive, it is better to call “horses”, which work on professional jackhammers. Clearing, aligning and deepening a niche for a new site and / or tracks, proceed to arrange drainage.

Drainage device

The improvement of the drainage system in the garden or the country area includes the following steps.

  1. Locate down geotextiles. He misses water, but prevents the growth of weed roots, which often go deep into 50-60 cm into the ground.
  2. Choose a place for waste (technological) channels. This is a kind of Livnevka: drains from the roofs of the house and housekeeping. As a rule, they are located either at the edges (near the borders) of the site and tracks, the scene, and may in separate places cross the erected tile coating, approaching the drain pipes (or to one pipe).

Channels for the drainwater flow can be either external – look like a longitudinal cup-shaped component with rounded rounds, or be flooded to the base independently, have a strictly rectangular shape and overlap on top of the drainage lattices that match the length and width with the drainage channel itself. The second option is the most spacious – it will not overflow even during the shower.

If concrete is used as strong as possible, with a piece of iron (sprinkling with a small amount of cement with its smoke to raw, not frozen concrete solution), then such a channel will last much longer than the ready-made tile “Nachabin”, T. To. made by the master itself, and not bought as a blank, not everything knows about.

Installation of borders

T. N. “Blurry” is made from a conventional curb stone. He, in turn, according to GOST, is made from high-strength concrete brand M450 / M500. It is installed as follows.

  1. Formwork is installed at the installation site. Its width at least twice the curb.
  2. Inside the formwork placed waterproofing (thick-grained polyethylene or rubberoid). T. E., The formwork must be wound up completely. This will allow when the boards are rotated in 5 … 10 years, to reliably hydroize the concrete base.
  3. The first layer of concrete is poured – for example, 15 cm in height (relative to the formwork).
  4. Waiting for the setting of this layer, the masters carefully put and build (on the stretched fishing line) border stones in the rows.
  5. Rewring the fatality of their interpretation, the masters dozate concrete to fill the remaining, unoccupied space within the formwork. It is carefully settled with the help of a trowel, seeking flatness of spreading.
  6. Refreshes the evenness of the interpordability of border stones. If the displacement occurred, the stones are picked up, adjust, putting them in place (by project).
  7. Waiting for the concrete to begin to fit (1.5 … 2 subsequent hours), the stressed concrete “Relineee” using a non-filament spatula or trowel.
  8. Having waited when concrete completely grabbed, in order to set the strength of the base, they begin to water the sprinkled on the eve of the “0th” design. Watering takes at least 30 calendar days – on the heat the design is poured with water every hour – three, in the offseason – less. If the period of frequent, protracted rains begin at this time, then the concrete around the wetting is gaining maximum strength.
  9. Next, remove the formwork boards – from the inside of the future platform or track.

“Blurry” is fully ready. Go to the next stage.

Options for foundation

The geotextile is covered with a layer of sand – about 5-7 cm. Next – the same layer of rubble. You can fall asleep on it another layer of sand. On him, in turn, you can lay a plastic film or another layer of geotextile. Such an orderly prevents mixing, displacement of the “layer cake” of the sidewalk. But the base for the tile can be made by the following methods.

Concrete

Put the concrete directly on the ground is contraindicated. There must be at least three layers: geotextiles, 5 cm of sand and 5-7 cm rubble. All layers thoroughly tram with the help of a mobile electrotramic machine or hooked. It is possible to attract and the trambling special machine – a rink, a different rubbing on wheels (or caterpillars), which is used by roads.

Laying (fill) of concrete without a lower layer of rubble can lead to accelerated destruction due to grounding of the soil, whose depth, depending on the region, fluctuates in Russia from 60 to 220 cm, and the sand with a crusher level its frosty movement, swelling.

The situation depends on how bubber is the soil, however, a sand-gravel pillow (PGP) is necessarily needed. It is possible to fall asleep it from the PGS (sand-gravel mixture). Next do the following.

  • Prepare concrete in the proportion of “sand cement-water”, Characteristic for M-400 brand (1: 4 in the ratio “Cement-sand”). Do not save on the cement – the flawlessly made base will notice without much cracking and any signs of plenty, split at least 35 years. Big parties of concrete conveniently do on concrete mixer. If you do not have such a device, and you do not want to mess with carriage on a wheelbarrow (or carrying versions), you can order a machine with a concise (up to several cubic meters of finished (commodity) concrete.

  • Locate for PGP polyethylene and fill out freshly prepared concrete, Immediately distributing, moving it. The layer of the filled concrete can reach 15 cm. Even greater strength can be obtained by placing in this space before the fill of the concrete “knitted” or welded metal frame (self-assembling grid) from the “10-ki” reinforcement or “12-ki” class A3 (A-400). In the future, this will give the opportunity to take part of the courtyard under capital extension (you need to change the project of the house, estate). A frame grille in front of the pouring raise 5 cm above the PGP.

Having waited when concrete hardens, start it regularly. Maximum strength set – month.

Cement-sand

You can generally do without (iron) concrete – instead of it the cement-sand mixture is poured. She is done on the same technology as concrete – with the exception of non-use of the rubble in its composition. Actions all the same – fill, set of strength. You can use the skinny concrete – the Sand ratio is such that the number of cement in it, in contrast to standard compositions, not 20 … 45%, not counting water, and only 6%. As you can see, the consumption of cement is reduced to several times. Disadvantage – coating is not intended for car arrival and special equipment for such a platform.

From the rammed sand

Base without cement, with only rubble and sand, can be unstable. Even despite the “groove” edging around the perimeter of the track / platform, the use of metal frame next to it, the tile can affect and join the tile. This method is recommended only where there are not only cars, but also intensive human traffic, besides, such a tile will need to be elevated, and the sandy base from under the feet is to sliced ​​and reverupping. Possible gerby grass germination in the sand. Displaced tile fragments due to non-uniformity loads are often broken.

Tile processing

Tile processing before laying on sand concrete is made as follows. Her impregnate with a hydrophobizer, preventing water from entering her near-surface layers, which in the cold would lead to cracking. Hydrophobic composition does not give the tile of moss, mold and fungus – this increases its attractive appearance. The occurrence of salt spots is also excluded.

Immerse in solution and dry tile fragments need twice. After drying, tile fragments are examined for cracks and chips. Having such products are laid out in the background, for example, away from the gate.

Possible schemes

Put the tile – in t. C. And at the cottage – you can by any of the dozen schemes. Used both generally accepted “park” schemes and something. For example, you can lay out some slogan, character and t. D.

Chaotic

Used tile of different sizes, colors and shapes. As a result, your yard or track turns into a mosaic.

Wake up the talent of the artist-mosaist – show fantasy by posting something that is not similar.

Yolchka

This laying scheme – comes from the USSR. It was used when the parquet is lined with rooms. Need appropriate long “bricks”, allowing to make texture.

With displacement

Use a tiled bar, bricks to shift the edges of fragments. They should not coincide among themselves. Result – Texture with shift. Cubes can be used. As a result, the performed sidewalk design looks beautiful.

Chess

The simplest scheme: here you need square and light tone squares. This is exactly the black and white combination – you can lay out, for example, gray and green, yellow and blue, and t. D.

The main thing is that the texture of two colors is contrasting.

Geometry

From cubes, bricks, bars you can lay out square, circle, circle, triangle. The disadvantage is the need for the sawing of some bars to ensure a shameless connection. Either wide seams are uneven in their structure, close to the extension of the standard cement-sandy solution (1: 4). This scheme is poorly suitable for sandy base – need (iron) concrete with cement-sand layer between them itself and tiles.

Circular pattern

Circular patterns can be made of already ready-made, optimized fragments (in form). Masonry reminds puzzle to which a clear instruction is given. Attempt to “reinstate” a drawing with a pavement will deprive the sidewalk of attractiveness.

As a rule, it is possible to post only one structure here – this is not a “designer LEGO”, compatibility here is small, and the flight of the fantasy of the stacker is most likely not allowed to postpone instead of a particular drawing completely different.

How to fix it?

Laying of paving slabs on a concrete base is not required without pre-installing it on the cement-sand layer. On the cement solution, tile fragments are placed in such a way that all the slots and lumen of the bottom and from the sides of this solution filled. Seams should not diverge more than 3 mm: a greater flow rate of 5 and more millimeters is inappropriate, although the tile will well hold.

Evdiction of tile fragments is carried out using a xyiyan or rubber hammer. Checking evenness and smoothness is carried out by means of construction. The simplest bubble level from 1 m long can ensure. To avoid distortion, do not use the rolled level, which has repeatedly falling from the height: finding that the level brings you, it is recommended to reconsider it again differently, in good level, or using a transparent, flat and wide water tank (based on physics laws).

As the master moves, the wizard moves to the already laid and “captured” tile, which will not shift under his weight. Uneven styling, as a rule, leads to the fact that people passing through such a platform can stumble, clinging to the edge of the soles for a slightly protruding tiled fragment. To get perfectly smooth monolith, all seams are storm, rubbed after the end of the cement layer hardening.

When laying a tile on a purely sandy layer of tilers usually carry out masonry towards yourself, if necessary, slugging / dumbling the sand layer.

Putting a tile on the sand, the wizards sprinkle the cement-sandy mixture, which is then distributed using any broom or brush. So that the cement will not “weathered”, after laying the laid tile shed water – this allows him to flow in the sand. Then seam, in fact, representing a skinny concrete, hardens. Watering a laid tile repeat once a day – the seams will rotate the ultimate strength.

Install the tile on the score, the descent can be only in accordance with the terrain. At the same time, “aiming” is created for a bias, t. To. put the tile vertically in this case can not. The laying is made only on a full cement mortar – than it is stronger, the better. This is not the case when you need to save on cement. Tile fragments do not form something remotely similar to the mini-steps of a very long staircase, and lie parallel to the earth’s surface.

In some cases, the slope must be praised, t. E. Secure using engineering methods of landscape-relief improvement, so that it is possible to equalize the tile parallel to the horizon, with the simultaneous creation of staircase marches and transitions. The platforms and sections of the tracks should be strictly horizontal, without slope.

Frequent errors

Do not use instead of rubber hammer simple, with the steel work part. The slightest bust with the effort – and the fragment will crack, after which it can be thrown.

Do not use for laying tiles instead of cement whether sandbetone lime, other substitutes. Most likely, the masonry made in this way at home will be fragile.

Do not use the car check-in to the site too thin (less than 70 cm) tiles – it is quickly extended. Putting the tile with your own hands, follow the work technology, check with SNiP and GOST. Do not attempt to replace vibropressed vibrolyta tiles (and vice versa), if this step is not due to weighty arguments.

Do not replace the standard concrete so-called skinny – with reduced cement content, in the place where auto prey is planned.

Observe the recommendations, try to repeat exactly one of the step-by-step instructions, which follow the experienced masters.

See tile laying tips.

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