Laming – the best material for the arrangement of sites, urban streets and garden paths. From the material of this article you will learn how to properly put it on concrete with your own hands. We will consider in detail the step by step stages of mounting on the pillows from different compositions.
Features of technology
Laying of paving slabs on concrete – Warranty quality of roadbed. Concrete basis is stable and durable. In contrast to other structures, it is inert to atmospheric effects and does not seek at maximum weight loads.
This technology resorts to practical considerations. It is in demand if you need to put a tile on a plot with unstable soil. For example, it is relevant when the soil on the court or in the courtyard of a private house is exposed to a shrinkage or it is a bumping at the masonry place.
The distinctive characteristic of the method of laying paversing on concrete is the creation of a perfectly smooth surface with a strict geometry. To other key factors of technology include:
- resistance to deformation during many years of operation;
- increased frost resistance subject to editing rules;
- resistance to shrinkage, maximum fixation of all elements;
- the reasonable value of the material and the optimal deadlines;
- The complexity of the work in comparison with the sandy and cement-sand pillow;
- insufficient removal of water and moisture, the need for a complex drainage system;
- Problematicity of dismantling in case of damage to the elements of the finished cladding.
Unlike other grounds, laying on concrete is fixed. Such paving is recommended for the arrangement of car parking, sidewalks within the city, as well as driveways. This laying scheme resorts when the site is located near the quarries, in places where there is no dismantling of the material.
Installation technology implies thorough preparation of the foundation, surface alignment, creating a concrete screed using reinforcing structures. Reliability and durability of all completed work depends on the basis and compliance with the rules of laying. In this case, the basis is performed according to certain requirements.
Concrete Base Requirements
Mounting paving slabs are necessary on a fully formed surface. All work on removing vegetation cover, soil seal, planning is produced, according to SNiP 3 requirements.02.01-87. The key standard is the creation of a basic level surface.
In addition, it is necessary to observe the slope, which ultimately should be at least 1.5 cm for every 3 m track lengths towards the slope of the surface. The prepared base must be compacted. For these purposes, special techniques use, not forgetting about the timely moistening of individual layers of the core base.
- For each base layer, their thickness standards and seal coefficients are envisaged. According to the regulations, the sealing sand is subject to rehabilitation (processing sterilizing specials).
- When arranging the base under the fill of concrete, waterproofing should be laid. The density of the separation layer should be at least 120-150 μm. In the absence of geotextiles, it should be used a dense polyethylene film with a minimum fattest 15-20 cm.
- According to the requirements of SNiP, it is necessary to use a concrete mix of class B15. In this case, the optimal thickness of the concrete layer should be at least 15 cm.
- For strengthening it is necessary to use fittings. Minimum reinforcement involves the use of a network with a wire diameter of 5 mm and 15×15 cm cells. If the technology allows reinforcement replacement, a metal fiber is added to the concrete (using fibrobeton).
- Concrete aggregates can be soot and fractional. In this case, the grain size should not exceed 2.5 cm. There should be no extraneous inclusions on the surface layer of concrete. His humidity should not exceed 5%.
- The width of the deformation seams located in the middle of the courts should be 2.5 cm. They are filled, according to construction standards. To reduce surface voltage engaged in cutting concrete on the card shutter.
- Installation work is carried out in dry weather at a temperature not lower than +5 degrees Celsius. Within 7-10 days from the beginning of the hardening of concrete, the surface is protected from precipitation and loss of humidity. Next support the optimal mode for the increase in the strength of the base.
- The surface surface is controlled by means of a long 3-meter rail or rule. Standards allow a slight deviation: not more than 3 mm for every 3 m lengths in any direction.
The design of the drainage is determined for each specific project individually. Drainage – a prerequisite for qualitative preparation of the foundation. This is necessary not only for moisture removal, but also for the prevention of soils in the place of laying tiles. Waterproofing warns water from the bottom.
The basis should be practically perfect. The quality of laying and docking depends on. Silence and inconsistencies are excluded. All prepared base layers must be stable and resistant.
Preparation of materials and tools
To highlight the paving slabs and properly prepare the basis, you need to purchase tools and consumables:
- concrete mixer;
- crushed stone;
- cement (preferably M500);
- building level;
- machine for tamping;
- stakes and marking cord;
- Rubber Cyans;
- broom, rake;
- Watering Spa (Watering Hose).
In addition, you need to prepare a blocking. Material must have at least 200 freezing cycles, the strength of more than 30 MPa, water absorption up to 5%, abrasibility to 0.7g / cm2. The thickness of the pavement is selected based on the type of planned loads.
If it is decided to equip the garden track or sidewalk, it is worth taking a material with a thickness of 3 cm (thin tile). If you need to lay out the stone where the passenger car will ride it, it is better to take a blocking a thickness of 5 cm. 8 cm thick tiles take to the arrangement of roads in the locations of heavy vehicles.
Calculation of the required amount of tile depends on the size of the laying section, parameters of tiled modules, docking seams. Professionals perform calculations rather quickly. It is easier to refer to online calculators that determine the exact amount of raw materials required.
However, such calculations do not take into account the drawing of the cladding and features of the form of paving. To simplify the work and achieve the identity of the docking seams, it is worth buying a package of styling tiles. For trimming, you can use a grinder.
In order not to make a mistake with the choice, you need to order a facing raw material with a small margin (up to 10-15%). The required amount can be verified with the seller. Specialized stores have special programs for calculating. The reserve is taken to trim blocks around the edges, damage during transportation and replacement of elements with random damage.
Step-by-step installation instructions
Initially engaged in preparatory work. To make the basis for all the rules, you need to create the basis for concrete fill. In other words, the so-called puff pastry from several layers of different material is constructed.
First perform marking of the required site, analyzing its characteristics (strength, tilt corners, soil moisture). After that buy the necessary tools and materials. Selecting the borders of paving, stakes in the ground. They stretch the rope (twine), denoting the borders of the future masonry.
Laying of paving slabs involves creating a pit for filling. To do this, after the markup are engaged in the recess of the soil. Trench depth is at least 25-30 cm. In addition, during the markup, they liberate the land in places behind the rope for a couple of centimeters. In the future, it will be useful for editing borders.
The bottom and side sides of the dug pita are cleaned from roots, weeds and pebbles. Remove all foreign objects that may cause deformation of the base under load. The bottom layer of the soil is aligned with rake. After that, the surface is moisturized with water (spilled out of the hose) in order to prevent soil sizing.
For the bottom seal, you can use manual or pneumatic tamping and water. Before you continue to work, it is necessary to wait for the total soil drying.
It is important to remove the entire fertile loose layer of the soil, since it is not compacted, and the seal of each layer is a prerequisite for the preparation of high-quality and reliable foundation.
Drainage pillow and waterproofing
Regardless of the type of cushion under the concrete used in the preparation of the base do drainage. The typical procedure requires the creation of two layers: sandy and rubble. First, the pavement layer, the thickness of which is approximately 5-10 cm. It is equal, taking into account the necessary slope of the surface, weave water.
After that, the crushed stone layer is poured over the sand. 10-15 cm thick. It is also trambed in compliance with the slope of the surface. The size of the stones should not be too small or, on the contrary, is large. If the crushed stone is large, it will overcome, which will lead to deformation of the ground.
The rubble grab must be careful: waterproofing will be laid on top of it. Material can break about sharp edges of stones, so they need to be well aligned. Pillow of sand and rubble must be a couple of days. After that, you can continue to work.
It is necessary to build a formwork, which will continue to fix the laying, preventing its shift and curvature. To create it, use wooden boards with a thickness of at least 4 cm. The formwork is fixed with scored stakes in no more than 1 m. After creating the box, it is starting to lay waterproofing.
Waterproofing will protect the concrete base from groundwater and will provide optimal cement hydration. She keeps the germination of weeds, retains the integrity of the foundation for a long time. After that, the layer of rubble is embroidered from above. It is moving and compacted by preparing the basis for reinforcement.
The next stage of work is the preparation of concrete solution. The recipe and the ratio of components by 300 kg of cement are as follows:
- Sandy sand – 600-700 kg;
- Crushed stone or small gravel – 1000-1100 kg;
- Water – no more than 180 l.
In addition, the mixture includes a plasticizer needed to give a solution of elasticity.
After stirring the composition until uniformity, the concrete layer is poured onto the bottom of the trench. In the future, it is placed by a reinforcing grid, which is poured by the second layer of concrete thickness up to 10 cm.
If you need to strengthen the monolithic slab, make the grid in 2 tiers. Under reinforcement put metal angles. Frames are located in the middle of the reinforced concrete plate.
If the pavement section is large, the area has to be divided into zones. The borders of each of them become wooden boards of the required thickness. The seams between them are close in a bitumen mastic. After final fill, it is necessary to wait for a complete drying of the base.
When pouring, the fill level does not reach the ground surface. The top layer of concrete is far from the rule, not forgetting about the slope for the drain.
It is necessary to fill the concrete mixture without the formation of emptiness and cold seams that reduce the strength of the formwork.
Installation of borders are engaged after pouring concrete. They are mounted after dismantling formwork, placing in the remaining deepening and pouring hard concrete. For sealing, the stone uses rubber xy. If, as the installations between the curb elements, small gaps are formed; they are poured with liquid concrete.
You can put the curb in the laid markup, focusing on the strained threads. In this case, along them dig a trench with a width of curbstone. It is smaller and trambed it, they add crushed stone as needed.
Then on the bottom flooded the sandy concrete mixture. At the end of the fill in the solution immersed stones. Next, they are compacted, align the position. A curbstone grabbing with a solution of about a day. After this time, the emptiness between the stones and the earth falls asleep and trambet.
After that, you can proceed to further work and put the plates themselves. Borders are immersed in a trench about half a height. Stones contribute to the protection of tiles from damage during operation. According to the technical requirements, the border height should be slightly below the height of the paving. This is necessary for the optimal drainage from the facing surface.
Further work type depends on the weight load on the coating. If the building material is equipped with an access road for trucks, a blocking is fixed on glue either cement. When the load is smaller, use technology with a sand-cement pillow.
On sandy cement mortar
Lay paving slabs on a sandy cement mortar is easy. Technology is quite simple and allows you to achieve high paving quality.
Sands are connected to the cement, mix the solution, then applied in the area of hand reach and a toothed spatula. Then perform tile laying.
The drawing can be laid out plates of one or different colors. So that he looked beautifully, design is planning before buying a facing. Considate the number of blocks of different color, their position, symmetry relative to the center.
Cement mortar – reliable base for laying. At the same time, the seams are allowed to treat garbage with careful moisture. The laying method does not differ from the usual outdoor cladding of ceramics. Wash the residual cement and sand must necessarily.
Clause plates can be glued with a polymer or cement basis. When choosing the appropriate option, the frost resistance class and its elasticity are taken into account. What it is higher, the better the amortization of glue and high quality depreciation cushion base.
Method of execution is similar to stacking tiles and cement mortar. On the base and the element itself applies glue, distribute it over the surface, after which the module is put in place with some indentation in the adhesive composition.
Adhesive compositions dry very quickly, due to the small life cycle of the diluted solution. Therefore, they have to be kneaded by small portions. This is the material of experts, beginners easier to work with a cement-sandy mixture.
The composition is applied to a concrete tie with a thin layer (no more than 1 cm). After that put the tile using plastic crosses to identify the seams. At the edges, the modules are cut by a grinder. At the end of the work of the seams are treated with glue or harvesting.
On dry mixes
The facing scheme for this technique is somewhat different. When using dry mixtures after the preparation and fill of the concrete screed on a dry base, low material. The average thickness of the layer is 3-5 cm. The mixture is distributed on the basis by means of the rule, flatter the layer.
After that, start installing paving slabs. Perform laying, according to the selected pattern. Typical drawings are the “Christmas tree” scheme, “braid”, “Diagonal”, “Chess”. At the end of the work, all the coating shed water. This will fasten the elements on the basis and together.
After the coating dry, engage in seams. To do this, they are filled with a dry mixture and spill again. After 2-3 days the composition finally freezes. It remains to remove the remaining garbage, get rid of dust and shed a pavement path under strong water pressure.
Eliminating possible problems
To prevent errors at various stages of laying, you need to pay attention to several nuances.
- The size of the path and platforms are selected in such a way that one-piece plates are stacked between the edges. This will reduce the amount of waste and spending on building materials.
- The cutting of the pavers is best to perform a grinder with a disk designed for stone surfaces. Cut bars need correctly: first cutting, and then chopping. Before the cut, you need to apply a mark.
- If there are no great experience working with construction mixtures, you should not immediately knead much. Working solutions (especially glue) have a small life cycle. When it ends, the glue loses its best qualities, which can affect the durability of the finished cladding.
- Compliance with installation technology – key work factor. If not to prepare the reason properly, the deformation and drawdown of concrete is not excluded.
- So that the tile looked monolithically, during the stacking it is necessary to ensure that it is immersed in the pillow at the same level. At the same time, if necessary, it is necessary to end the blocks until they grab.
- It is impossible to use overdue compositions. After the expiration date, they lose their properties. Count on the durability of the sidewalk in this case.
- Laying tiles on concrete without slope fraught with water. If the seams are not processed properly, water will come through the joints and accumulate between the block and concrete. As a result, the coating will depart from the basis.
- Usually seams close up material used pillow. Such a grout prevents plant growth, is the prevention of water flow through the seams to the base. Waste seams can be hydrophobic composition.
When laying tiles, in addition to practicality, you can not forget about the decorativeness of the coating. Modules welcome some chaotic. If laying of pavers with a different shade of one color is performed, it is necessary to avoid the formation of spots. Accumulations of tile elements of one tone on a general background do not look beautiful.
So as not to doubt the color of the material, it is necessary to purchase it from one party. So the coating will look monolithically and status. If the work uses the stone of different sizes and colors, different tones of the stone are not so noticeable. As for the drawing, it all depends on the skills of laying and pattern scheme, as well as the amount of bought raw materials.
When working with an old concrete base, the base is carried out before laying, its cleansing from the gathering garbage, chips. Such a base is first putting off and get rid of irregularities, remove zones of significant damage. Only after that it is pillow, and then the tile itself.
How to put the paving slabs on a concrete base, see the following video.