In the first few years of life, parents pay close attention to how tall their children are. This is no coincidence, as this indicator is one of the factors evaluating his health. Let’s try to figure out what should be the height of boys and girls at the age of 4.
Growth of the child, WHO assessment
In 2006 the World Health Organization introduced child growth norms which are acceptable for all countries. This was a large-scale study conducted in the United States, Brazil, Norway, India, Ghana, Oman. Its purpose was to create a new international standard to assess the physical height, nutritional status of children from birth to age 5. 8,440 children in the study. The prerequisite was a healthy upbringing, breastfeeding, prevention of infectious diseases, absence of bad habits among parents, sanitary and hygienic norms.
A study has shown that children born in different regions with optimal growth and developmental conditions can reach the same height range. Pediatricians have an opportunity to see how children should grow. Former growth charts were based on a random principle that included both breastfed and formula-fed infants. The WHO charts give you a window into your child’s growth and reveal any abnormalities.
Table boys and girls’ height at age 4
Boys and girls have different growth rates. The WHO tables made it possible for parents to determine how harmonious a child’s height is at age 4.The height of boys according to WHO:
A very low figure of 90.7 cm.
Low – 94.9 cm.
Below average – 99.1 cm.
Average of 103.3 cm.
Above the average figure – 107.5 cm.
High – 111.7cm.
Very high index – 115.9 cm.
Boys tend to have a higher height than girls.Girls’ height according to WHO:
Very low – 89.8 cm.
Low – 94.1 cm.
Below average index – 98.4 cm.
Average – 102.7cm.
Above average figure – 107.0 cm.
High is 111.3 cm.
Very high – 115.7 cm.
If parents find very low or very high growth figures, it is better to go for a consultation with a pediatrician, endocrinologist, may need to conduct an examination. Most often, high height is rarely a problem, provided it is not excessive, does not indicate a possible endocrine disorder.
How to measure the height correctly
During a routine visit to the pediatrician, the height is assessed. Parents at home can also measure their child’s height.For this purpose, you can use a growth meter or centimeter tape and perform a series of actions:
Place your baby with her bare feet back against the wall, near where the measurement will take place.
The child’s body should be straight, arms down, feet firmly planted, knees straightened.
The child’s head is positioned so that the edge of the lower eyelid is flush with the top of the ear.
During the measurement, the child touches the shoulder blades, buttocks, heels to the wall.
Hold a flat object perpendicular to the wall or a tape measure and mark the child’s height.
Measure the distance from the marker to the floor.
We recommend that you measure your child’s height in the morning. Since a person’s height decreases by a couple of centimeters by the evening. Since in the long upright position there is a load on the spine, the distance between the vertebrae decreases.
How to calculate the “adult” height of a child
Parents are interested in the question of what kind of “adult” growth the baby will have. You can use the following formulas to calculate a child’s possible height:
To calculate the height of a girl, take the height of her mother and add it to the height of her father. We divide the result in half and subtract 6.5 cm. For example, my mother’s height is 162 cm, my father’s – 172 cm. Let’s make the calculations, 162 +172. So we get 334 cm. Divided in half, we get 167 cm. Subtract 6.5 cm. So the girl’s estimated height is 160.5 cm.
To calculate the height of the boy, we take the height of his mother and add it to the height of his father. Divide the obtained result in half and add 6.5 cm. For example, my mother’s height is 162 cm, my father’s height is 172 cm. Calculate, 162+172. So we get 334 cm. We’ll divide it in half and get 167 centimeters. Adding 6.5 cm. So the estimated height of the boy is 173.5 cm.
Causes of stunting
Doctor of Medicine Sandugash Dyusenova, associate professor of pediatric medicine, in her paper “Causes of stunting in children” indicates that 80% of the problem is associated with genetic traits. Even if parents were an average height, and children grow very slowly, perhaps the reason lies in the heredity of the grandparents. Height features can be inherited through generations.
If it is not due to heredity, stunting may be caused by somatic, endocrine, or frequent infectious diseases. Of all the causes of growth retardation, the most severe is due to reduced synthesis of growth hormone, somatotropin, a violation of the sensitivity of peripheral receptors to it.
Usually stunting is accompanied by low muscle mass, tolerance of physical exertion, increased cholesterol, impaired carbohydrate metabolism, reduced immunity. These changes begin in early childhood. If you do not start a timely and adequate treatment, then in adulthood can cause frequent bone fractures, cardiovascular disease.
What Factors Affect a Child’s Height
Elena Vasilyeva, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Pediatrics of Irkutsk State Medical University, in her paper “Factors influencing a child’s growth,” also says that genetics is a fundamental factor influencing the growth of children. This parameter is regulated by more than 100 genes the influence of which occurs after the child becomes 2 years old. Age 4 falls within the period of the first maximal family influence. Through heredity determines the limit and rate of growth.
But just as important are the external conditions. If a timely examination and adequate treatment is begun, then before the adolescence period, corrections can be made, which will be beneficial for the growth of children. In boys it is up to 12-14 years, in girls – up to 10-12 years. Otherwise, if the child has already entered puberty, growth opportunities will be missed.
In addition to the hormonal background, the genetic factor influences the formation of child growth through motor activity, the correct sleeping regime, the general emotional state. Against a background of trauma, depression, disturbed sleep there is an activation of the sympathoadrenal system, blocking growth and development. The greatest growth spurt in a child is seen during the first year of life, during which time he adds 25 cm. By the age of 4, body length increases to 8 cm per year. At this age, children double their growth at birth. At the age of 4, boys have their first growth spurt, with the second one occurring between the ages of 12 and 17. For girls, the first growth spurt occurs at 6-7 years of age, and the second one at 11-14 years of age.
Interesting! It has been observed that human growth is influenced by climatic and geographic conditions. In high altitude, hot climates there is an acceleration of puberty and growth inhibition.
Somatotropin, the growth hormone, is produced by the pituitary gland and not only affects growth. Its maximum amount is synthesized during intrauterine development. After birth, it remains high until the age of 10 years for girls and 12 years for boys. Somatotropin is delivered to the body in hormone surges. During the day, about 3-5 times. The greatest jump is determined in the morning 2 hours before waking up. Growth hormone production directly depends on heredity. Its main task is to regulate the growth of the tubular bones.
Delayed growth hormone synthesis can happen at any age. If the cause is a hereditary factor, then the first signs can be seen at the age of 3-4 years. During the newborn period, such children are no different from their peers. But in the third, fourth year of life, they start to grow less. If their peers are adding 8 cm at age 4., such children have a growth gain of no more than 4 cm. In addition to impaired growth, there is a delay in hair growth, teething. In this case, it is important to diagnose and treat. If it is carried out before the beginning of puberty, there will be quite an impressive result.
Growth restriction nutrition
If parents notice that their child is growing worse than their peers, they need to pay attention to their nutrition. In his diet must necessarily include:
Fresh fruits and vegetables;
fermented dairy products;
A varied diet will ensure the correct intake of vitamins and nutrients. Natural production of somatotropin contributes to the enrichment of the body with the necessary vitamins, protein, minerals:
Vitamin A increases growth intensity, boosts immunity, improves vision and skin condition.
Protein of animal or plant origin is simply essential for the renewal of tissues and cells. Growth hormone production depends on its presence.
Vitamin D is directly involved in bone formation.
Fiber accelerates the assimilation of nutrients in the body, removes toxins.
Minerals are responsible for bone growth.
The question of dietary intake should be decided on an individual basis with a supervising doctor. As the same foods can have different effects on different children.
Pediatricians note the positive influence of physical activity on the growth of children. If parents want their child to grow up, it is better to give him to a sports club. The beneficial effects of basketball, cycling, light running, volleyball, skiing have been noticed. Regular long walks are useful. Negatively affects the growth of gymnastics, lifting weights, wrestling.
Particular attention is paid to the right daily routine. A 4 year old should go to bed at 9pm and get up at 7am. The body grows in sleep. In the dark there is an increased production of hormones, metabolic processes are improved. A prolonged and restful sleep has a beneficial effect on the synthesis of somatotropin. It is the task of parents to arrange it for their child.
A child’s height is a major factor in assessing his or her health. If your baby has reduced growth, you need to pay more attention to his daily routine and diet, to consult with a specialist. At the age of children this figure can be changed, in adolescence it will be more difficult to do so.