- General points
- Finger games based on nursery rhymes
- Sounds and voices
- Guessing game
- Games train and develop the articulation apparatus
- Complete the word
- Step into three words
- Matching words
- Colors of this world
- Race against the clock
- Matching words according to the characteristics of the object
- Create word
- “Poetry” contest
- Complete the phrase
- Searching for a syllable
Develop your child’s speech, as well as many other basic skills, should begin as early as birth. The early years of a child’s life are in every way unique in terms of the intensity and speed of changes that occur. Also, these years are the most favorable period for children to learn their native speech. If you miss this point at the initial stage, further training may require several times more effort!
Children learn most readily by playing. The most effective ways of learning the basics of native speech were and will remain games, which will be discussed in this article.
A child’s speech development proceeds in two directions – the understanding of speech and the development of active speech itself in children.
A supportive speech environment must be created for the development of the child’s speech.A supportive environment is created on the following bases:
The basis of speech is the child’s realized need to imitate and repeat after the adult his/her actions, including conversation, phrases and words – for this purpose it is necessary to speak to children as much as possible from birth. The best way to “find a text” to “speak” to the baby would be to comment on all the actions performed by the adult in everyday life, in the organization of the child’s daily routine and other moments connected with the events occurring in the life of the child, as well as to comment on all the actions performed by the child.
A “unified policy” must be developed in relation to speech communication with the baby for all the adults who are close to him or her and who make up his or her environment.
Gradual increase in the complexity of speech communication with the child.
Systematic and daily games and exercises for the development of speech.
Finger games based on nursery rhymes
The old familiar Slavic nursery rhymes “Magpie the Crow” and “Ladushki” – a wonderful game simulator for the development of speech. They can be played from as young as one year old and continue up to five years old. In addition, based on them, using basic acupuncture, it is possible to conduct therapeutic and prophylactic work with a child. Fingers should be squeezed massaging from the base to the fingertip and back, depicting with the whole hand the characters or objects that the game is voicing – a goat, a hare, a flower, etc.p.
For example, circular movements in the game “Magpie the crow” when she “…cooked porridge and fed the children,” allow for stimulation of the child’s gastrointestinal tract. Each of the four fingers of the baby, which act as “fed babies,” should be taken by the tip, gently squeezing. The little finger is responsible for the cardiovascular activity, the ring finger – refers to the work of the nervous system, massage of the middle finger pad has a beneficial effect on the work of the liver, and the index finger stimulates the work of the stomach. The thumb, which has been deprived of porridge because “…you didn’t chop wood, you didn’t carry water – on you!”, not just left for the final play. This finger is responsible for the work of the brain, so to activate its work is not enough to be limited to a light touch, and should be “beaten”.
Good and fun to play, with children, which are called gesture nursery rhymes, such as “Balls – lanterns” or, for example, “hamster, hamster – hamster. You can also just picture a plane, a car, a train or some animals and birds.
Sounds and voices
This game is suitable for children aged three years. The game is based on the use of the Imitation Method. The game requires simple musical instruments and a little imagination of the adult who plays with the baby. An adult uses an instrument or voice to make different sounds, and the child should repeat them after him:
to knock in a children’s tambourine or a drum – boom-boom;
Ring the bell – ding-dong;
Tap your feet – stomp, stomp, stomp;
Clap your hands – clap-clap;
Like geese shouting – ha-ha-ha-ha;
How a sparrow chirps – chirp, chirp, chirp;
how a kitten meows – meow meow meow. And t.p.
The game is also for children three years old. The game requires cards with pictures of any subject with which the child is familiar. An adult gives a verbal description of each image in turn, and the baby must recognize and give the correct answer to show the picture, which corresponds to the description. For example, “big, white with black spots, horns and hooves, eats grass and gives milk to children – cow.
Games train and develop the articulation apparatus
This kind of game is relevant for children two years and older. If the child has problems with speech impairment, it is better if they will pick up a speech therapist. However, parents can play them with their child in a fun and exciting way. As an example of these games is the “Pendulum” game in which a child is encouraged to move his tongue left and right, touching the edges of his mouth.
Another game of the same series is “wind force”. This game improves exhalation strength, several players can participate in the game, and it has a competitive principle. Paper, origami-style, make birds or animals and put them on the edge of the table. Participants, two or more, stand in front of the figures and blow on them at the presenter’s signal. An obligatory condition for the players will be not to puff up their cheeks while doing this, an adult will be watching carefully. Another rule is that the figurine must be moved in one breath, and it is forbidden to do more than one.
A game for children four years old. Helps increase vocabulary, memorize sounds, and stimulates speech attention and thought processes.
Players line up in a line and the leader tosses them a ball, either one at a time or in random order, with the need to name words. The task of the player who catches the ball is to answer the word opposite in meaning to that named by the leader: “far – close”, “high – low”, “beautiful – ugly”, etc.p.
Complete the word
The game is also designed for four-year-olds and is aimed at the development of speech attention. The game requires pictures with pictures of different objects. An adult shows the child a picture and says the beginning of a word, for example, “mouse”, “cat”, “ma-cheek”. When the baby finishes saying the words, the adult should clearly say it in full
Step into three words
The game has a competitive nature and is designed for participants aged 4 years. The players line up with their backs to the wall and their task is to get to the opposite wall as quickly as possible. The leader asks everyone a question in turn, the maximum number of answers is 3. One correct answer – one step forward. If a player gives one or two answers, his progress naturally slows down.
For example, – “who lives in the sea – fish, jellyfish, octopus”, “which animals run fast – hare, horse, cheetah”, “what can you put in soup – potatoes, rice, onions”. The winner is the first one to reach the wall opposite.
This game will be relevant for five-year-olds, when they should already be learning sounds and word composition, identifying phonemes by sound, being able to pick up definitions, and working on increasing their vocabulary. Only games, at this age, can make the material for speech development classes memorable.
The adult names an adjective, and the child’s task is to name 3-5 nouns given the genus endings. Example:
loud – sound, laughter, shout, shot;
loud – music, speech, trumpet;
loud – mooing, rumbling, declaration.
Colors of this world
This game for five-year-olds is competitive in nature. The presenter names the colors, and participants take turns naming objects in the world around them that have that coloring:
white – snow, ice cream, rose, light;
Black – coal, soot, night, screen;
red – tomato, sunset, snowbird;
orange – tangerine, carrot, fox;
green – leaves, cabbage, garden, grapes;
yellow – lemon, duckling, apple;
purple – lilac, eggplant, bruise.
The leader gives a chip to the child who says the correct answer. The winner is the one who gave the most correct answers and got the most tokens.
Race against the clock
For this game must be selected in advance thematic pictures depicting the creatures or objects that have the ability to move. The pictures are shuffled and shown to the child in pairs. After looking at the picture, the player must answer the presenter’s question, – “Who will outrun whom??”. The answer is taken in the form of a complete sentence, – “the horse will outrun the turtle”, “the hare will outrun the ant”, or “the plane will outrun the bicycle”.
Matching words according to the characteristics of the object
The game is relevant to six-year-old children, when the games are designed to help assimilate and reinforce knowledge of how words are formed, how nouns and adjectives agree, continue the development of abilities to think logically and express thought by speech, using analysis and comparison.
Played by several participants, their task is to name words based on a named attribute. The words are called one by one by each player; whoever fails to continue is out of the game. The winner is the last one left. For example, the following sequence:
What is wooden – table, chair, door, bench, closet;
Soft – pillow, crib, chair, kitty;
What is sweet – candy, sugar, raspberries, chocolate, cookies.
A six-year-old child must think of a way to change a noun into an adjective in a combination of words:
buckwheat porridge – buckwheat porridge;
Carrot juice – carrot juice;
pumpkin puree – pumpkin puree;
pea soup – pea soup.
A group game for six-year-olds based on the competition principle. The organizer names a word, and children try to rhyme it, for example: house – tom, cat – mouth, bark – seagull, gnat – cat, potato – okroshka. For each correct answer a chip is given to the player. The winner is the one who has collected the most tokens.
Complete the phrase
This game is designed for seven year olds. At this age, it is important to learn phrasal speech, to gain the skill of creating sentences of varying degrees of complexity. The child should be taught to select synonyms and learn to adjust the speed, volume, and emotional background of speech based on the circumstances.
The child must complete the sentence offered, for example:
The smoothie is thick, and the compote is … liquid;
the rock is hard, and the grass is … soft;
The knife is sharp, but the spoon is blunt;
Grapes are small, and plums are … large;
The lake is deep and the stream is … shallow;
milk is white, and coffee is … black;
Today the weather is sunny, but tomorrow it will be … cloudy;
From the bed in the vegetable garden, the potatoes are raw, but in the frying pan … fried.
Searching for a syllable
Individual game for children 6-7 years old. For the game, you need to think in advance and write down one, two, and three-syllable words. We name them to the child and ask him or her to divide them according to this characteristic, at the end the child should name words that begin with one letter.
For all their apparent simplicity, these games can have a very positive impact on children’s speech development. The main thing is not to be lazy and involve children in speech games, taking into account their age.
The article is based on the books: Vygotsky L.s. “Thinking and speech,” Kosinova E. m. “Logopedic games and exercises for the formation of correct speech”, and materials of the work of teachers and educational practices of the staff of the Children’s Home “Solnyshko” RK.