Now it is difficult to imagine a florist who would not want to have garden roses in his homestead or garden plot. A huge variety of forms, colors, structure of flowers, fragrances, as well as the duration of flowering leaves no one indifferent.
Although existing today 2000 varieties of roses are divided into groups: floribunda, tea-hybrid, rambler, groundcover, grandiflora, miniature, bush, claymer and others, but the technology of planting, care in many moments the same. And for a garden rose to show all that it is capable of, it needs proper care.
Choosing a place, soil and planting
Since the rose has higher requirements for light and heat, you need to choose a sufficiently open sunny area for planting, which should not be blown away by constant cold winds. The walls of various buildings, a fence, a pergola, a pergola, as well as quite dense plantings of shrubs or low trees can serve as a protection.
You must be sure toTo focus attention on the fact that the water in the place for planting should not stagnate at any time of year: neither during snow melting, nor during floods, nor during prolonged precipitation. Because it quickly leads to the death of bushes.
Groundwater in the selected area should be at a depth of 1 to 1.5 meters. Where groundwater is higher, either make high beds or equip a drainage system of trenches.
Most often the length of,the depth and width of the planting hole varies from 0.4 to 0.6 meters, Depending on the size of the root system of the seedling or ground ball for container plants.
Before planting(about a month in advance) the soil is turned over with a variety of fertilizers (mineral and organic), which are evenly distributed over the surface. Usually for this use fully decomposed peat or humus, sand, superphosphate, ash and bone meal. Depending on the acidity (pH) of the soil, lime is introduced.
The roots of seedlings also need preparation before planting. They are thoroughly examined, the broken, dried out and shortened to 35-45 cm.
Then the root system of the seedling is immersed in a solution of heteroauxin (a stimulant for root formation) and incubated for 12 to 24 hours. Plants in containers are watered abundantly the day before planting.
When planting roses, care must be taken to ensure that the root tips are not bent, and that they are evenly distributed throughout the volume of the pit. The planting hole is filled with good garden soil or a mixture consisting of turf soil, sand (river sand) and peat compost, taken in the proportion (1:0,3:1).
Container roses are simply removed from the container, lowered into the hole and covered with soil. However, if the roots at the bottom of the container are strongly intertwined and entangle the ground ball several times in a circle, they are straightened out, trimmed a little, and only then planted.
Seedlings are planted so that the root neck of the bush is at a depth of 3 to 5 cm. And this is after watering and topping up the sagging soil.
The best planting time is autumn(from September 10-15 to October 15), especially in southern regions. In the area of the Moscow region, and this is the middle belt of our country, planting roses should be carried out in the spring (late April – early May).
After watering, the area around the bush is covered with a layer of peat soil or decomposed leaf mulch.
When planting, the distance between polyanthus, tea-hybrid roses can vary from 25-30 to 40 cm, and between rows – from 55 to 70 cm. Floribunda roses are also planted.
Miniature hybrids and patio roses can be planted every 15-20 cm, and the distance between the rows should always be at least 40 cm. The distance between the climbing roses can vary from 0.8 to 1 meter.
In the first year of lifeThe shrub begins to form. This is especially true for vigorously growing shoots, which are trimmed by 1-2 cm. The buds that emerge should be pruned almost immediately so that the plant does not waste its still small powers on flowering.
From the second half of JulyLet the buds develop until almost full blossom.
For the full growth and development of roses, regular fertilizing, watering, pruning, loosening the soil and removing weeds. In grafted roses, make sure to remove root shoots coming from the briar rootstock.
Fertilizing roses begin in the second year of life, and it is timed to certain moments in the development of the plant. The first fertilizer is applied in spring, when the shoots begin to sprout. The second fertilizing is done during the emergence of the buds. The third time garden roses require fertilization at the very end of flowering. Fertilize the roses a fourth time before the branches begin to harden.
For the first feeding mineral complex fertilizers with a slight predominance of nitrogen and an addition of trace elements are usually used. The same fertilizer is good for the second feeding. But it is worth remembering that from the second half of July it is not worth adding nitrogen to fertilizers. For the third and fourth applications, therefore, phosphate-potassium fertilizers (e.g. NPK) are best.
Roses need regular watering throughout the growing season. But in periods of flowering and intensive growth, as well as in hot and dry weather, the volume of water used for watering is increased by one-quarter.
Pruning is of great importance in the cultivation of roses, which is done several times a season. This includes bush formation, shoot growth and flowering quality, which is mainly due to spring pruning. Summer pruning helps in the regulation of flowering (removal of wilted flowers and set fruit with seeds). Autumn pruning prepares bushes for winter.
Roses of various groups undergo different types of pruning. Curly and park roses usually only have the branch ends shortened, since their flowering shoots appear at the top and middle of the branches. This is a variation on slight pruning.
Moderately short pruning (5 to 7 buds left on the branches) is done on remontant roses.
But short (strong) pruning is carried out on tea-hybrid, miniature, polyanthus varieties and on roses belonging to floribunda group.
If you graft roses onto wild roses, you must make sure to remove the shoots that grow from the rootstock’s roots. The same briar shoots appear on bent roses.
In roses belonging to different groups, the level of winter hardiness varies greatly. And so they need different shelters for the winter. For example, ground cover roses, floribundas and miniature roses need quite light overwintering cover. Less winter-hardy tea-hybrid and some varieties of climbing roses in the Moscow region need more serious sheltering.
In the middle belt of our country, as well as in regions located in the north, garden roses begin to be covered from October 15-20, when the very first frosts come. First remove all the young green shoots and leaves on the plants, and then trim back a little of the woody branches.
Before pruning, bushes are sprayed with either Bordeaux liquid (1%) or copper sulfate solution (3%). And then a sturdy and rigid frame, about half a meter high, is set over the plant, which can withstand a large layer of snow. Then it is covered with a special insulating material that does not let moisture through, and then cover it with cardboard shields from the top, and then – with polyethylene film. Such an air-dry cover prevents roses from getting too cold and too much moisture during the winter.