If the rose is the queen of the summer flower bed, the chrysanthemum reigns in it in the fall. This flower, as it should be a reigning person, requires an appropriate attitude. But if you know the nuances of care, you can admire it every year.
Of the many flowers in the garden, the chrysanthemum was one of the first to be introduced. Only roses and lotuses can compete with it. The Chinese were the first to cultivate chrysanthemums – their homeland has the largest number of wild species of this flower, and it is also loved and venerated in Japan. The first garden forms were cultivated 500 years before the new era. But it was not until the 17th century that the chrysanthemum made its way to Europe. In Russia the flower began to be cultivated in the middle of the 19th century. Garden chrysanthemum is still sometimes called Chinese chrysanthemum, breeders of this country have made a huge contribution to the creation of a variety of hybrids of the flower. But it is only one of a large number of chrysanthemums, and perhaps the most decorative, with large flowers and a variety of petal colors and shapes. The classification of chrysanthemums is rather confusing.But the main species are identified and have been known for a long time:
vegetable chrysanthemum– with a long bare stem up to 70 cm tall, with split leaves and solitary single-row baskets of single flowers in white-yellow tones, it is used as a food plant and put in the flower bed;
alpine chrysanthemumA perennial from the Alpine region of Europe, the root rosette of pinnately dissected leaves forms a single flower stalk with baskets of simple or shaped flowers, up to 4 cm in diameter. Suitable for border, bed and potting;
Annual tricolor daisy or keeled chrysanthemum, it branches well, producing stems up to 70 cm high and fragrant flower baskets up to 7 cm in diameter; they may be singular or in clusters of 2-10 flowers; the color combines white, yellow and red; buds bloom from June to September;
Shrub chrysanthemum– an evergreen plant with a single stem at the base, reaches a height of 1 m, the baskets of flowers can be terry, semi-major or quite simple, but always fragrant, the color white or yellow, the plant is heat-loving and in the right conditions blooms almost all year round;
multiflora– spherical bush ideal shape, solidly covered with flowers, from the end of August, from cuttings to flowering plant is only one season of vegetation, chrysanthemum multiflora – heat-loving, in the open ground winters in the south only, but it is well grown in a pot culture, most varieties bloom early;
Indian chrysanthemum– The word “most” applies to this species: the tallest – up to 1.5 m, the largest inflorescences – the diameter can reach 20 cm, the lowest frost-resistance, but this species gives terrific cuttings and serves as the basis for new hybrid varieties.
The most numerous species– Korean Chrysanthemum. they are hybrids, differing greatly in size, diameter and shape of inflorescence: they may have one or many rows of semi-tongue flowers of various colors. Besides decorative qualities, this species has a certain advantage, very important for flower growers in temperate climates – under the right conditions the Korean chrysanthemum thrives well in the open air.
This plant cannot simply be planted and forgotten. It requires full care during the growing season, and the place to choose for it is not so easy.
Where to plant
A place for chrysanthemums must meet a number of conditions:
well lit during the day, otherwise the stems will elongate and flowering will be sparse, only in the south is welcome lace shade in the midday hours;
No strong wind, which can put the stems on the ground and collapse the bush, but also stagnant air is just as harmful;
The plant has the most difficult relations with the moisture of the soil – a shallow root system requires good and regular watering, but stagnant water is categorically contraindicated to it.
The chrysanthemum feels best on a slight elevation.
Optimal – fertile well-cultivated loam. Heavy soil should be improved: on the sq. Add a bucket each of peat and sand. If there is already a lot of it on the plot, ennoble such soil with clay: depending on the dryness of the soil on the sq. m add 2 to 10 kg. Introduce it in a crushed form and not deeper than 5 cm, later it will spread to different horizons of the soil when watering.
All annual species are sown in seed, there are no surprises here. Chrysanthemum Korea and Multiflora propagate well vegetatively, with seed propagation there is a splitting in a number of hereditary traits. The parent variety is repeated no more than 10% of the seedlings. The rest may turn out to be no less interesting, but not similar to the parents. This applies to those seeds that mature on plants growing in the garden, the seeds sold in the store are highly homogeneous in most respects.
Seed sowing and seedling care
In February or March, prepare shallow boxes or containers (height 6-8 cm) and fill them with soil, bought in the store or prepared independently from greenhouse soil, which must be sifted, humus and top peat, taken in equal quantities. Such soil must be necessarily decontaminated by steaming or burning.
Containers are filled with prepared moistened soil, and then do different things:
If the seeds are small, on top of the soil lay a thin layer of sand, moisten and spread the seeds, without covering with soil;
Spread coarse seeds on the soil surface and cover them with a 7-9 mm layer of moistened sand, which can be replaced by vermiculite.
Create a greenhouse effect with a plastic bag and keep the crops until sprouting at 23-25 degrees, remembering to ventilate daily and remove condensation. If necessary, the substrate is sprayed with a sprayer. Further care:
As soon as the seedlings appear, the containers are placed in the light, the package is not removed completely, but removed daily, gradually increasing the airing time. After a week it will no longer be needed.
Potting into individual cups is done when the chrysanthemums have 3 true leaves. Soil – the same as the one used for sowing.
After picking, the seedlings are sprayed with a solution of “Epin” to relieve stress. The temperature in the room is lowered to 16-18 degrees. If necessary, backlight the seedlings.
Plants are regularly watered with a solution of complex mineral fertilizer every 14 days.
The seedlings are ready to be moved into the ground in about a month and a half.
Seeds can be sown directly into the ground in mid-May. Spread them to a depth of 1 cm 3-4 pieces with a distance of 25 cm between the nests. Excess seedlings can be replanted.
Chrysanthemums can be propagated by bush division, by dugging and cuttings. In the latter case, the result will be better: such plants are resistant to low temperatures and diseases, more lush and abundant blooms.
The best rooting cuttings are cut in spring, but winter cuttings can also be used – at the end of January or February. The stem of these plants will be higher. Chrysanthemums grown from summer cuttings may not get stronger before wintering. When propagating Korean chrysanthemums by cuttings, wait until the shoots grow to 15 cm in spring. To propagate the multiflora chrysanthemum, you will need an over-wintered sprout. Sometimes, sprouts are also prepared for Korean chrysanthemums, then the cuttings can be cut earlier.
How to make a uterus:
In the fall, transplant the selected plant in a pot of such volume to fit the entire root system, cut off the ground part, leaving stumps of 5 cm, they are dried, the leaves are removed;
They sprinkle the soil with a solution of “Phytosporin”;
Until the temperature drops to -2 degrees, the plant is kept outside, then transferred to a cool cellar for wintering, where the temperature is maintained from 2 to 10 degrees, and there is no dampness, but also not too dry;
During the winter, do not allow the complete drying of the root ball – once every 2-3 weeks it a little humidify or just fill the surface of the pot with snow;
At the end of February or beginning of March, put the nursery stock out in a bright window so that the root shoots can grow;
At this time, moderate watering and feeding with a soluble mineral complex fertilizer is required.
The process of cuttings is the same for all types of chrysanthemums:
sterile tool cut off the shoot length of 7-8 cm – for early cuttings and 5-6 – for late, at this time its base is already woody and not suitable for propagation;
If the shoot is long, it can be divided into several parts with 3-4 internodes;
leave 2-3 leaves on the cuttings;
the cut can be treated with a rooting stimulant, but practice shows that even without it the rooting is good;
Prepare a substrate is well permeable to water and air and place it in the cuttings in a layer 5 cm thick, on top of it lay a layer of sifted and washed sand of the same thickness;
immerse the cuttings obliquely in the sand so that the base was at the border of contact with the substrate;
If you plant them in winter, stick to a distance of 5 by 5 cm, in spring – 4 by 4;
maintain a temperature of 15-17 degrees, the substrate should be 2 degrees warmer;
Water regularly, but moderately;
Lighting is required full, in winter with backlighting;
The cuttings are placed in a mini greenhouse under the film;
It is removed when the roots begin to grow;
With the emergence of new leaves plants are planted in separate containers, and then begin feeding solutions of complex mineral fertilizers.
Although they are perennials, Korean chrysanthemums and multiflora need to be replanted at least every two years: the shoots creep away from the center of the shrub by 30 cm, the middle is stripped, and flowers only appear at the tips of the stems. If the plant is not replanted further, it may freeze during the winter, as the roots grow closer and closer to the soil surface. Transplanting is very good to combine with propagation. In spring, the bush is carefully dug out and divided into parts so that each has three to four shoots and a good root system.
Propagation by grafts
This method is suitable only for frost-resistant varieties:
In the fall, dig a trench near the mother bush;
Fix the stems that are bent over to the ground with staples and cover them with a layer of soil about 20 cm thick;
In this form the bush overwinters.
In the spring, each shoot grows its own roots, they are separated and planted in a permanent place.
Transplanting in the open ground
In the open ground seedlings are planted at the end of May. In order for it to better take root, carry out hardening. Plants are moved out into the fresh air a week before planting, protecting them from direct sunlight. The time spent outside is gradually increased.
Preparation of the soil
The earth is recultivated in advance, adding per sq. m:
A bucket of well-digested manure or compost, fresh manure should not be used;
Complex fertilizer at the rate on the package;
for species that prefer neutral soil, they need ash – 1 cup per square meter. m.
The fertile layer for chrysanthemums should have a thickness of about 40 cm.
Algorithm of transplanting:
Dig holes according to the size of the root system at a distance of 30 to 50 cm, depending on the variety;
Sprinkle them with a solution of a rootstimulator;
Plant out the plants without submerging them into the ground;
shade with a non-woven material;
mulch the soil.
For planting, it is better to choose a cloudy day. If plants are planted in the fall, all flower stalks are removed, leaving half the length of the stem.
For full development and lush flowering, the chrysanthemum needs regular watering, taking into account the natural moisture of the soil at the time, feeding, pruning shoots to form a beautiful bush.
With chrysanthemums, the rule is true – “better not to water than overwater”. If the lack of moisture it will hardly, but survive, then the excess can destroy the plant – the roots are highly susceptible to rotting. In dry weather, water 2-3 times a week, during flowering moisture is required less. Watering water is taken warm, pour it not at the base of the shrub, but around it, not getting on the leaves.
Chrysanthemum needs full nutrition, including micronutrients. The optimal content of macronutrients in the fertilizer mixture – NPK: 5-10-5.
If the holes in the spring for planting were well filled – added a handful of humus, st. l. Ashes and a pinch of complex mineral fertilizer, during the growing season will require only 2 fertilizers – the first at the beginning of the formation of buds with a full composition of nutrients and the second – at the end of August or early September only phosphorus and potassium.
Second year chrysanthemums are fed monthly in summer and fall, but starting in August only with phosphorus and potassium fertilizer.
Chrysanthemum multiflora is genetically inherent in the correct geometric shape of the bush in the form of a ball. They are pruned once after planting by removing the top of the central shoot if it is too long. Korean chrysanthemums will also need a second pruning: remove the upper part of the shoot with 2-3 nodes. This is done 3 weeks after the first one. Lateral branches are pruned when they reach 15 cm. The process is completed two months before flowering.
Bushes for wintering should be prepared in advance – after flowering, cut shoots, leaving stumps of 10-15 cm, treat plants and the soil under them with a solution of fungicide, mulch a thick layer of organic material height of 30 cm. Do it with the onset of cold weather, so that the plants do not shrivel out. Remove the mulch in spring, so the soil warms up more quickly.
Chrysanthemum multiflora can overwinter in the open ground in the middle zone only if it is planted in an elevated place and the plot is guaranteed not to be flooded by melt water. But even in this case, she will need a dry covering:
Mulching the soil with a layer of 10 cm;
Lapnik on top of the cut shoots;
If the risk of losing the plant in winter is great, it’s better to do the same with it as with the uterine plants, which are prepared for propagation.
For Korean chrysanthemums, mulching and covering with lapnuts will be enough.
Diseases and pests
Perennial chrysanthemums are threatened by gray rot, powdery mildew and mold. They most often develop in wet years and in areas with poor ventilation. Treatment with fungicide solutions at intervals of 7-10 days will help in controlling them.
Slugs are removed by hand; insecticides and akaro-insecticides are used against aphids, spider mites and earwigs.