The tastiest cucumbers grow in the open ground. But the middle belt, and even more so in colder regions, is a zone of risky agriculture. To reduce the possibility of failure to a minimum for the cultivation of thermophilic cultures use closed ground – greenhouses. They are guaranteed to produce a good harvest of cucumbers, but it will take a lot of work.
What Cucumbers Need
Like any other crop, they will not grow well if they do not get enough light, water and nutrition. A large crop of cucumbers requires:
Soils with good aeration, neutral reaction, high humus content and regular fertilization – with continuous fruiting during the season, the culture takes out of the ground a lot of nutrients;
Despite the high nutritional requirements, cucumber does not tolerate a high concentration of salts in the root zone, so fertilization should be fractional, but private;
constant soil humidity, before flowering – at least 70%, with its beginning – about 60%, so regular watering is mandatory, and over the entire area of the bed;
air humidity of about 90%, for successful fruiting there should be a lot of carbon dioxide
light day – at least 12 hours, as in the tropics, where the culture is from;
The optimal temperature for growth – 25 to 30 degrees of heat during the day, at night – at least 18;
warm soil with a temperature of 20-25 degrees;
The optimal conditions for cucumbers in a greenhouse are much easier to achieve than in an open field. But it is necessary to start with the selection of seeds.
What cucumbers are better to sow in the greenhouse
It is best to choose parthenocarpic hybrids for protected ground:
they are genetically non-bitter;
yields are much higher than varieties;
no insect pollinators required;
such hybrids better tolerate stress, less disease;
They are malleable and adapt to any growing conditions.
Hybrid varieties of cucumbers – a huge number. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. When choosing, consider how a particular hybrid variety behaves in the specific conditions of a particular greenhouse – the soil, weather conditions, and care options are different for all gardeners. The most advantageous – hybrids with a long period of fruiting, from such plants the harvest can be collected until late autumn.
What’s the best greenhouse for cucumbers
If it is already standing on the plot, the question is removed. When planning the purchase, consider the following:
Height – at least 2.2 m;
The presence of vents for ventilation closer to the roof, so that there are no drafts in the greenhouse;
sufficient volume, in which it is easier to maintain the right microclimate;
A reliable cover that retains heat well;
availability of devices for garter cucumbers.
The best meet these conditions greenhouses on Mitlider with a covering of honeycomb polycarbonate. The greenhouse is located in a well-lit place, orienting from west to east – in this case, each plant receives more sunlight.
How to prepare the greenhouse for sowing
This should be started in the fall of the previous season:
Remove all plant debris;
Wash and then treat all elements of the greenhouse with fungicides.
Tools for washing:
outside – clean water is sufficient;
Inside the means to choose depending on the material of construction and coating – painted metal elements are washed with a solution of baking soda, for wood suit chlorine antiseptic, PVC pipes are well cleaned with a solution of “Belize” in water (100 ml per liter);
film is washed with a concentrated solution of laundry soap and then with water, it is also suitable for glass;
polycarbonate is damaged by alkalis and chlorine-containing substances, it can be washed with a strong jet of water.
fungicides for treatment:
for non-dyed metal use 1% Bordeaux liquid;
wood is disinfected with chlorine-based antiseptic;
film wash with a strong solution of potassium permanganate or 5% copper sulfate;
The glass is disinfected with a 2% solution of formalin;
only strong manganese solution is suitable for polycarbonate.
Pathogens accumulate particularly quickly in closed soil, so the soil must also be treated, even if the plants were disease-free last season.You can go the traditional way and pour the soil with one of the following solutions:
dilute h. l. Manganese solution in a liter of water;
dissolve 400 g of lime in 10 liters of water;
add 100 ml of formalin to the same amount of water;
prepare a solution of copper sulfate from tbsp. l. substance and 10 liters of water.
But the fungicide does not select only harmful microorganisms, it destroys all. The fertility of the soil after this treatment will have to be restored.Therefore, it is better to prefer biological methods:
Dissolve 30 g of Trichoderma veride in 10 liters of water, enough for 3 square meters of potatoes. m. greenhouse;
mix with water 1-3 grams of Mycorad INSEKTO 1.2″ – Enough for 10 square meters of soil.
All biological preparations work at temperatures above 12 degrees Celsius, it should be taken into account when treating. If it is cooler outside, it is better to postpone the work until spring.
Reference.“Trichoderma” – a preparation based on a fungus of the genus
“MYCORAD INSEKTO 1.2” – is a biological insecticide based on Beauveria bassiana fungus, which is an entomopathogen that causes disease in insect pests. Moreover, when the agent is applied, the microbiological processes in the soil are activated, and the amount of available nutrition for plants increases. Hazard class for humans – 4, it is a low-hazard substance.
Experienced gardeners recommend changing the soil layer of 15 cm in the greenhouse annually or at least once every 3 years. They do so because the monocultures planted year after year remove the same nutrients from the soil, depleting the. Pathogens and pests accumulate in the soil. Replacing soil is a labor-intensive operation, it is not within the power of every gardener. An alternative is to treat and prepare the soil properly.
Preparing the soil
For cucumbers, it must be not only fertile, but also warm. There are several ways to achieve this. The best option – a warm bed. They start doing it in the fall, and finish in early spring:
Along the length of the entire bed dig a trench two bayonet deep, if you do not intend to replace the soil, the top fertile layer of 15-20 cm high is put aside, the rest of the soil is removed;
at the bottom of the trench put coarse plant residues – any wood in a layer of about 20 cm;
On top stack the haulm, leaves, straw, weeds weeded, as many as you can get;
In this form the bed overwinters;
In early spring, the thawing of the soil can not even wait, lay a layer of fresh manure 20 cm thick on top of the plant residues;
It is sprinkled with ash, so that fungi do not grow;
sprinkled with hot water;
Fill the soil with fertile soil – a layer of thickness of not less than 20 cm, so that the roots of plants are not burned;
cover with foil and let the bed warm up.
Two weeks later, the seedlings can already be planted. If it is still cold outside, the greenhouse can be heated additionally
Manure is not available to everyone. Alternative – organic bed. In the fall, dig the same trench as in the previous case, and fill with plant residues: down put dry – hay, straw, dry grass, on top – green: the haulm of plants, stems of annual flowers, weeds without roots and seeds. Each layer is interspersed with fertile soil. To make the organic bed work, it is spilled with a composting agent: “Baikal EM”, “Shining” for compost, “Compostin” (diluted and applied according to the instructions).
This kind of seedbed preparation is very labor-intensive. For those who can’t afford it, there is a sparing option.
In the fall, the soil is recultivated, contributing to each sq. A bucket of humus or decomposted manure, you can replace it with mature compost, 2 tbsp (2 ml) of dung. l. double superphosphate, 1 – potassium sulfate (do not replace with chloride). On heavy soils, an additional 2 buckets of sand.
In spring, when loosening the same area, add tbsp. l. Ammonium nitrate, and on sandy soils – and fertilizer MagBor according to the rate on the package. Dig holes 1.5 bayonet deep, in each hole add picked nettles, dandelions, some celandine, filling a third of the hole. Grass is chopped with a shovel, covered with ash and a handful of humus, mixed with soil. Cucumber seedlings are planted in wells. As it rots, the green mass will release carbon dioxide, warming the roots and giving them nutrition.
Sowing cucumbers with seeds in the greenhouse is irrational, planting seedlings allows you to get a harvest much earlier. Algorithm of cultivation:
Treated seeds in 1% manganese (soak for 20 min and rinse), a solution of “Fitosporin” – act according to the instructions, or other antiseptics;
soak in a solution of biostimulator – “Eipin”, “Zircon”, “Energen”, as stated in the instructions;
germinate until nesting between two layers of damp toilet paper, placed in a transparent container with a lid at a temperature of about 28 degrees;
pots of capacity of 0.5 liters are filled with substrate for cucumbers or self-cooked mixture of peat (3 parts) and humus (1 part), the soil is moistened;
Sow one sprouted seed in each pot to a depth of 2 cm;
Create greenhouse conditions, putting a bag on the container, the seedlings are kept at a temperature of about 28 degrees;
After their appearance exhibit containers to the light (if lack of lighting include phytolamps, bringing the daylight hours to 12 hours), the temperature is maintained at 18 degrees during the day and 14 – at night;
In 5 days it is increased by 2-3 degrees;
seedlings are moderately watered with warm water;
In 2 weeks begin hardening – take out into the fresh air in sunny weather, cover with non-woven material, time spent outside gradually lengthening;
during the cultivation of seedlings give one fertilizer – 20 g of complex fertilizer per 10 liters of water.
Start sowing 25-30 days before planting seedlings in the ground. If the seeds are encrusted – they are sown dry.
Sowing directly into the ground: the seeds are sown in moist soil, keeping the distance between the plants about 40 cm (in case of doubtful germination 2 times less), and between the rows – 80-90. Depth of embedding – 2 cm. Excess seedlings are plucked.
Before planting seedlings measure the temperature of the soil – at a depth of 10 cm it should be at least 14 degrees. Usually cucumbers are planted, keeping the distance between the rows – 90 cm. The distance between the plants depends on what method of formation will be used in the future:
If the plants are led in one stem, removing all the stems, you can plant cucumbers from each other at 40 cm;
With the standard method of formation, the distance between the wells should be greater – at least 60 cm;
If the plants are led on a trellis, but leave all shoots, there should be a meter and a half between them.
Keep the distance between the cucumbers, not only because they need sufficient room for nutrition, but also to avoid overgrowth. If the entire space of the greenhouse is densely occupied by leaves, diseases can’t be avoided.
Holes are dug to the height of the cup – deepen chunky seedlings should not. Before planting, they add a handful of humus, a tbsp. l. ash and a small amount of starter fertilizer – a pinch, but they should contain a full set of micro and macro elements, all mixed with the soil in the hole. So that the plants assimilate nutrition faster, it is better to prepare a solution of fertilizer according to the instructions, it is good to add humates to it. Consumption – 0.5 liters per hole, which was previously watered with clean water.
The fertilizer “OMU spring” works well. It contains the optimum content of micro and macro nutrients for cucumbers, plus humic acids. One bag is enough for 50 holes. To protect plants from diseases at planting, they add 3 tablets of “Gliokladin” on each, placing closer to the roots, but not deeper than 8 cm – useful fungi need oxygen. This is a preparation based on trichoderma, it works throughout the season.Experienced gardeners add to the hole:
A handful of onion husks soaked for 2 hours in warm water;
Inexpensive fish or waste of its processing, 50 g is enough – it is an excellent source of available to plants phosphorus, calcium, potassium;
A cup of finely chopped green nettles;
potato peels dried in winter and boiled with boiling water – one cup per hole.
It is not necessary to add everything at once, use what is available.
After planting, the soil around the plants is crimped and watered again, so that it covered all the roots, mulched – not a thick layer of organic, as cucumbers grow it is added, or just dry earth. If the weather is hot and sunny, it is better to protect the plants for a few days with a light non-woven covering material.
Care for cucumbers consists of watering, feeding, shaping, creating a comfortable microclimate, treatment against diseases and pests.
Leaf plates of cucumbers evaporate a lot of water. The more sunshine the plants get, the more transpiration and photosynthesis increases. Watering schedule (per square meter per year). m):
Before the beginning of fruiting – 2-3 liters, gradually increasing the rate;
With the appearance of greens – 6-7 liters.
To ensure that plants do not experience a shortage of moisture, especially in hot weather, it is better to water daily. A drip irrigation system is ideal. Water is heated to a temperature of 24 degrees, you can do it in the sun.
For cucumber undesirable as a deficit of nutrients, and too high a concentration of them at the roots. Therefore, fertilization make fractional, for hybrids of intensive type – weekly, for others – 4-5 times per season. Fertilisers alternate between organic and mineral nutrients. In industrial cultivation, a small amount of fertilizer is given with each watering.Feeding schedule :
At the initial stageLeaf mass is growing, so the plants need nitrogen most of all, the rest of the macro and micronutrients – to a lesser extent. Of organics they use infusions of poultry manure (diluted 15-fold) or cow manure (diluted 10-fold), green fertilizer from fermented grass – 1 liter per 10 liters of water is also suitable. The first feeding is carried out 2 weeks after planting, per plant use 0.5 liters of solution. Organics can be replaced by water-soluble mineral fertilizers, diluted and fertilized according to the instructions.
When the first flowers appear, Carry out the second feeding – a herbal infusion or complex mineral fertilizer.
With the onset of fruiting, cucumbersespecially need potassium, it is responsible for the transition of plastic substances from leaves to fruits, but nitrogen and phosphorus are also not to be forgotten. Of organic fertilizers, grass infusion is suitable – it contains all the elements necessary for plants. Mineral nutrition – potassium nitrate or ash. It can be simply scattered between the plants and incorporated by surface loosening.
Watering schedule (per square meter): last wateringDo closer to autumn, so that the fruiting of cucumbers does not stop. For it choose an organic.
No less important are additional foliar feedings – they are an urgent help for the plants. Nutrients are absorbed instantly and give a quick effect. But foliar feeding activity doesn’t last long. So they need to be repeated every week. And they are vital when the soil is cold and the plant roots do not perform their function – supply nutrients.
Indications for foliar feeding – deficiency of any food element. If there is a lack of nitrogen – plants are pale, greens have a pointed shape. With a lack of potassium on the leaves appears brown border, the fruits become pear-shaped.
Foliar feeding is carried out in cloudy weather, wetting the leaves of plants and stems from bottom to top, with special attention to the underside. The smaller the size of the drops, the better the plant will absorb the nutrition. For foliar feeding use macro and micronutrients, the latter – in chelated form, all of them should be well soluble in water.
Non-traditional ways of feeding cucumber:
Ammonia solution – for watering under the root and spraying dilute 2 tbsp. l. in 10 liters of water, it’s a source of nitrogen and a good insecticidal agent;
Every 14 days, feed fresh, not boiled and not pasteurized milk, diluted 5 times, and if it is very greasy – 10 times, for root feeding use half a liter per plant, spraying such a mixture – a good prevention of fungal diseases;
Twice a season, spend feeding with a yeast solution – in a 10 liter bucket of water dissolve 2 tbsp. l. sugar and 10 g of dry yeast, after a few hours of fermentation in the sun, the mixture is diluted in the proportion 1:5 and poured under each cucumber bush 200 ml;
Chlorella suspension – a unique fertilizer, immunostimulant and disease control agent, can be applied weekly for watering, starting at flowering – a liter of suspension diluted in 20 liters of water for root feeding, 1 liter of chlorella per 50 liters of water – for spraying.
Ash contains a lot of potassium, a little less phosphorus and almost all trace elements. It alkalizes the soil, It is very important for cucumbers. Use ash several times a season, sprinkle the beds and cover with surface loosening. Feeding, as well as watering, should be the whole bed, the surface system of the cucumber is well spread to the sides and occupies its entire area.
Creating a microclimate
Cucumbers like high humidity. To adjust it upwards will help to spray the plants, but it should be carried out only in the early morning. Cucumber plants need a higher concentration of carbon dioxide in the air. It can be achieved by installing several buckets with a solution of cowpea in the greenhouse. When the solution for feeding is ready, it is used as intended, a new portion of manure is placed in buckets. Cucumbers need airing, but without creating draughts.
Mulch is not only a way to keep the soil crumbly and moist, but also a way to reduce the labor required to care for the plants. Mulch the cucumbers after planting with any organic matter, and then from time to time add it so that the layer retained its thickness – from 5 to 8 cm. It must not touch the plant’s stems.
If cucumbers are not mulched, a good aeration is achieved by surface loosening after each watering.
Gartering and gartering
In the greenhouse, cucumber is led only in vertical culture – on a trellis or with tying to a support. Gartering is carried out when the plants have the sixth leaf, sometimes earlier, if the cucumber lies on the ground. Tie a twine to the trellis, lower it down and fasten it under 2-3 leaves not tight, leaving room for thickening the stem. As it grows, it is wrapped around the twine under each leaf in a clockwise direction. At the same time begin to form. All the forces of the cucumber plant should be aimed at fructification. But in the first stage of cultivation undeveloped roots are simply not able to feed all the emerging stems and ovaries.
There are several ways of forming:
In 1 stem – remove all the stems that appear in the internodes, some gardeners pluck and ovaries in the bottom 5 axils, but if the plant is strong and nutrition is sufficient, they can be left, this method is most suitable for superbunch hybrids – “Siberian garland F1”, “RMT F1”, “Bunch Splendor F1”;
standard method of formation – plucking in the first five internodes all the ovaries and cut stems, then up to a height of 1 m leave on a side shoot 1 cucumber and one leaf; from 1 m to a half leave already 2 ovaries and 2 leaves; above you can leave already 3-4 leaves and the same number of ovaries.
When the plant reaches the trellis, you can do different things:
Wrap the stem twice around the trellis and put it down, after the third leaf prick, when the shoots that have grown from the left internodes will not reach the soil by about a meter, they are pruned;
The main stem threw over the espalier and prick after 20 cm, growing out of the axils prick after 50 cm from the axil of the last leaf to leave the shoot continuation, prick it when it does not reach the ground at 80-100 cm
As soon as the shoot reaches the trellis, untie the lower knot, lower the stem down so that it forms a ring, it can be put on the ground or tied to the bottom of the stem, the tie is renewed, the procedure is repeated weekly, depending on the growth of the plant.
If it is possible to provide the cucumber with sufficient nutrition and a good microclimate, it can not be formed at all – the growing stems are distributed over the trellis so that they do not overlap each other. In this case, plants are planted at a distance of 1.5-2 m.
Prolong fruiting will help an additional stalk from the lower internode, it will become a replacement shoot. Tie the stalk to the main stem.
When the cucumber in the lower part of the stem is ripe and plucked, the leaf that fed it, the cucumber no longer needs, it is removed. The lower part of the stem gradually becomes bare. But do not cut more than two leaves at a time. All operations are done with sharp, sterilized tools, preferably in the morning hours and in sunny weather. The stumps after pruning should be minimal. If there is a risk of spreading the disease, they are dabbed with greenish or powdered with crushed charcoal. Formation is a creative process, each plant must be approached individually.
Pests and diseases
A long period of continuous fruiting limits the gardener in the choice of means to combat diseases and pests of cucumbers. All chemicals have a fairly long waiting period, and the greens are best harvested daily. Overgrown fruit strongly inhibits the growth of the rest. Unsuitable crops will have to be thrown away. To avoid this, choose biological remedies and pay special attention to prevention.
Insect pests, diseases and ways to combat them are presented in the tables.
Name, nature, method of infection
How to fight
Peronosporosis(false powdery mildew), caused by pathogenic fungi, the source of infection – spores, active in wet weather
Small speckles are replaced by angular spots of light yellow between the small leaf veins. They should be as small as possible after pruning.
On the underside of the leaf appears spores in the form of a fluffy plaque of white or gray. Leaf edges curl.
Spraying with “Phytosporin M” three times every 10 days. Twice sprayed “Gamair” with an interval of two weeks.
2 treatments “Trichoderma Veride 471” at the beginning of flowering and with the appearance of the first fruits.
Of folk remedies is a good prevention – spraying with diluted milk or decoction of onion husks (250 g per bucket of water, boil, infuse for 2-3 days, strain). With severe damage – systemic fungicides.
Anthracnose, Caused by several races of the fungus, which are viable for up to 2 years, the pathogen spreads in high humidity.
Appearing on the leaves, the soaking spots are rounded and yellowish-brown in color. Gradually increasing, they become brown, the central part is light, the leaf veins are not limited to the spots.
The stems are covered with elongated spots of yellowish-brown color, the fruits appear depressed areas saturated with water, from the black dots in the center stand out fungus spores pink or orange.
Leaves are sprayed with manganese solution and pollinated with ash or mustard powder. “Fitosporin-M” and “Gamair” will help to delay the disease, treat according to the instructions.
Only copper-based fungicides can cure plants completely. Treated twice or sometimes three times with a break of at least a week and a half.
Prophylaxis measures are seed dressing, disinfection of the tools used, crop rotation, removal of plant residues in autumn, and soil treatment.
Sclerotiniosis or white rot, Cucumber mosaic is caused by fungi that remain in the soil for many years, spreads in cool, wet weather
At first, wet spots, and then a white fluffy coating on the affected part of the plant. It starts from the base of the stem.
After removing the damaged parts of the plant, it is sprayed with iodine with milk (a liter of whey or milk, 30 drops of iodine tincture per 10 liters of water), coat the cuts with a mixture of wood ash and ground chalk, which is slightly diluted with water to a pulp state. All these treatments
These treatments will help only at the beginning of the disease, but fungicides will be needed as the disease develops.
Cucumber mosaic, is a viral disease, the causative agents live on the plant hosts, transmitted by sucking insects, most often aphids
The edges of young leaves become curled, covered with mottles, reduced in size, internodes become short, the plants are stunted in growth, the fruits are deformed.
Spray with 0.03-0.035% “Farmayod” solution several times a week apart; the preparation can be poured under the root according to the instructions.
Preventive measures – destruction of insect pests and perennial weeds.
Green mottled mosaic, The nature is viral, the pathogen can be found on the seeds on the infected plant residues, transferred from plant to plant during forming operations with non-sterilized tools.
Leaf veins lighten, young leaves twist on the old leaves – light or dark green, yellow or silver speckled spots appear, plants are stunted.
Treatment as above. Prophylaxis – timely removal of plant remains, heat treatment of seeds before sowing.
Fusarium , Nature: fungal, remains in the soil up to 15 years, appears in cold rainy weather.
The disease begins at the base of the trunk, which turns brown and then turns white or pinkish. Wilt – one or more, wilting.
At the initial stage of the disease are effective “Fundazol” and “Fitosporin M”, with its development – no treatment.
Prophylaxis – seed dressing, removing plant debris, watering only with warm water.
Root rot, fungal, sometimes bacterial (blackleg) in nature, spreads with soil and seeds.
The central stem thins, cracks, turns brown or yellow, the roots turn brown and soften, the lower leaves turn yellow.
If the disease progresses – the ovaries do not develop and wither.
Trichodermin, “Gamair” and “Alirin-B” are effective at the initial stage. If the disease progresses, “Previcur” is used.
The cucumber stem and the top of the roots are covered with chalk, ash or ground coal, the stem is dipped so that it gives new roots.
Prevention – watering only with warm water, stepping back a little from the stem, seed dressing, disinfection of greenhouses.
Prophylactic treatment with biological preparations reduces the risk of disease development.
Appearance and damage
How to fight
Slugs and snails
Slugs and snails belong to the gastropod mollusks, the latter have a well-developed shell.
They like to eat young leaves, and they don’t disdain fruits, if they can reach them. The damage is clearly visible.
Manual collection. Traps made of light-tight materials, followed by collection and extermination. Spiny mulch materials. From chemical means “Grom” works well.
Small insects with a pear-shaped body, live in colonies.
There are many kinds of aphids, potato aphid, leaf aphid and peach green aphid harm cucumbers. These insects not only suck the sap from plants, causing chlorosis and curling leaves, falling ovaries and flowers, but also carry viruses – the causative agents of dangerous diseases.
A sooty fungus parasitizes on their sweet secretions, reducing fruit quality.
To kill it, infusions of wormwood, garlic, onion husks, ashes are used. Arrow and Fitoverm proved to be good contact biopreparations.
“MYCORAD INSECTO 1.2” Causes aphids to develop a deadly disease that is contagious to others.
Ants carry aphids from plant to plant; they need to be combatted.
Small insects with whitish wings. A dangerous sap-sucking pest. Leaves turn pale and may completely wither, plant development is slowed.
At the initial stage, to inhibit the reproduction of whiteflies will help to spray a solution of 1 liter of milk, 50 g
Tincture of marigold and 2 tablespoons of sugar, after mixing the remedy is diluted by half with water and immediately applied. MIKORAD INSECTO 1 is effective.2″.
If you apply “Fytoverm”, several treatments will be required.
These tiny insects are hard to see with the naked eye. But traces of their activity in the form of punctures on the leaves are clearly visible in the light.
If you can see cobwebs on the underside, the number of insects is high. Mites live on the underside of the leaf.
If folk remedies – garlic infusion (crush 200 g cloves, insist 2 hours in 10 liters of water, spray), powdered mustard infusion (200 g per 10 liters, insist 12 hours and spray), to deal with pests can not, plants are protected by “Bitoxibacillin”, “Fitoverm”, “Agravertin” or “Spark-bio”.