Crocus – This is a decorative plant relating to the bulbous lowest types of perennials from the Iris family. The second name of Crocus – Saffron, This gentle flower blooms early in spring or closes the floral season for garden plants in deep autumn. Bright yellow flower strokes for centuries people used as a natural dye and spicy additive to food.
What it is?
Crocus (Saffron) – This is not only a garden, but also a wild plant, which can be found in the meadows, in the steppes and forests in the Middle East, in Asia, in the countries of the Mediterranean, as well as in Europe. These perennial and annual flowers are chosen for the habitats of the winter-hardiness area for the ranges of their habitat, the plants are well transferring the lack of light and moisture. The description of the plant is pretty simple: externally, the flower looks like a glass on the leg, consisting of several oval petals.
In the wild plant, the plants are in size of low, whereas hybrid forms can reach larger. Each flower has a yellow still, so the plant and got the name “Saffron”, which translated from Arabic literally means “yellow”. It is behind the yellow stilts crocuses are valued from the point of view of the useful application of the plant, while gardeners love these flowers for their beauty and ease of cultivation.
As a rule, crocuses are growing up to 10-12 cm, and their bulbs have a diameter of not more than 3-3.5 cm. Each bulging has protective scales, and also is equipped with a root urine system. Stem from Shafran is practically not pronounced, the main focus of this plant, nature made a flower and a pointed foliage. Flower leaves are assembled into the root rosette, they germinate from a bowl under the cover of protective scales.
From one lows, a plant grows, which blooms a single flower, the diameter of which can be 2-5 cm, and the painting is the most diverse: White, Lilova, Petrade Two-color or with oval stains, Pink, Yellow, Pale Lilac, Cream. Flower in flower short.
The start of flowering can be spring or autumn, it continues at no more than 2-3 weeks.
Popular species and varieties
Crocus varieties are divided depending on the beginning of the period of their flowering. Today, more than 100 varieties of garden plant sowing or bulbous breeding are known to breeders.
These varieties of saffran bloom after the snow in the early spring, when foliage on the trees has not yet appeared, and garden flowers have not yet woke up after winter.
- “Golden Yello”. A common view of a long-term bulbous crocus, which has a selection origin. The plant is used in gardening to decorate flower in early spring. Saffron grows up to 8 cm, the leaves are collected in the root rosette, the stem will be nervous. Sheet shape – linear, beam-shaped flowers, painted in bright yellow. After the end of flowering, the plant forms a seed box consisting of three nests. The variety blooms early, yellow flowers appear in late February – early April (depending on the climatic conditions of the growth region). Loves drainage and nutrient soil with a predominance of a sandy mixture.
- Blue Pearl. Garden saffron with abundant and early bloom. Medium-sized flowers, have a yellow tint in the middle of the base, and the main part of the petal is painted in a light blue tone. With bright sunlight flower looks like white. This species grows up to 9-10 cm, the bowl is formed in diameter up to 4 cm. Blossom starts in mid-March or early April, after snowing snow. The plant can grow well up to 4 years without change of place and at the same time it grows well. The bulbs are planted in August.
- “Flauer Record”. A large-flowered instance that has a glassy flower reaches 5 cm in diameter. Oval shape petals have a saturated purple color. The characteristic feature of the flower is its elongated – up to 4 cm – dark purple tube. Pestik is well pronounced, it grows higher than stamens. Flowering this variety begins at the end of April – early May.
- “Prince Klaus”. This species is famous for its two-color color. The main tone of the petals is bluish-white, it is complemented by the spots of the oval shape of dark purple. The diameter of the glassworm flowers is 4-5 cm, the plant is large, can reach up to 15 cm in height. Flowering time – April.
Saffron of this variety grows in a half, he resistant tolerate droughts and frosty winters.
- “Grand Master”. Large flower with purple blue tint. The height of the plant is about 15 cm. Blooms in April, the flower diameter is large – up to 5 cm in diameter. Outdoor flower petals in structure larger than internal. Plant has good endurance and winter hardiness.
- “Edvance”. Botanical grade with flowers high up to 8 -10 cm yellow-purple painting. Flowering is a single and short, amounts to 1-2 weeks, begins at the end of March – early April. The plant grows up to 15 cm in height, not afraid of frosts, drought-resistant, not demanding about the presence of abundant light. In one place, this crocus can be fully developed for 5, and sometimes 6 years old, well smaller.
- “Vangaard”. Safran’s large grade, which grows up to 15 cm, flowers are large up to 10 cm long, outdoor petals of white, and internal – pale lilac shade. Flowering one-time, its duration is no more than 10 days, buds are revealed in March-April. This variety has a bright pronounced aroma and saturated green longitudinal foliage.
- “Tricolor”. Miniature variety of hybrid saffron growing in garden conditions. In height, this variety grows not more than 7 cm. Blossom starts immediately after the snow cover. Flowers small, bluish purple shade, inside there is a white and orange-yellow ring. Blossom continues no more than 14 days. This perennial grows equally well both on the sunny side and in the shade.
Spring crocuses are one of the first to open the flower season in the garden and please the eyes at the time when foliage, grass and flowers have not yet gained their weight.
In addition to primroses, the varietal lines of the garden saffron includes Ossennuncumber varieties. Depending on the climatic conditions of the region, crocuses bloom from September to December, even despite the fact that the leaves in the plants were intimidated in the summer.
Some varieties of autumn crocuses are presented below.
- “Kochi”. Autumn sort of garden crocus blooming at the end of September – early October. Foliage during flowering does not grow, large flowers, have a bluish-purple painting with dark streaks. The grade tolerates the winter well and quickly expands.
- “Holocellum”. Blooms from September to October, a flower of glassy, medium sizes, shades vary and can be red with a purple tint or lilac-lilac. Flowers’ strokes have fringe. The plant prefers well-moistened soil and grow pretty quickly in one place.
- “Pretty”. Beautiful blooming long-term saffron, flowers that have a pale purple with purple streaks. The flower diameter is quite large and is up to 8 cm, flower height – 8-10 cm. Flowers on one plant can be a lot, up to 7-10 pieces. Flowering, depending on the region begins since September or in October. Resistant to autumn soil freezes.
- “Cartwright”. During flowering forms fragrant bluette-lavender shade of flowers. For this plant requires loose nutrient soil. This variety has a subspecies called Albus. Flowers are also formed in the autumn period, but have a white color.
Such crocuses are well taken out in rockers or mountaineers, the variety has bright colors of yellow-red stigs.
- Zonatoatus. Multi-year crocus grade, which blooms in September and forms pink glassworm flowers with bright yellow core. The stamens of this variety have a special tartness and can be used as spices. The height of the flower is small, only 3-4 cm, and the diameter is much larger and at disclosure is about 6 cm. The plant is average, it grows not more than 10 cm. During flowering, saffron makes a pleasant fragrance. The root rosette of the leaves has a dark emerald color.
- “Beautiful”. This variety has a feature – it begins to bloom before all the other Ossennets-driving fellow. Plants are formed flowers of white, blue, lilac or lavender shade. The plant is large, up to 20 cm, and grow pretty quickly, occupying a large space. Blossom starts in September and lasts 2 weeks. This variety looks effect on the background of conifers or decorative foliage of shrubs.
- “Sowing”. Occupies a special place among all other crocuses, as it is a valuable raw material from the point of view of medicine and cooking, and is also used as a dye. This species of saffron is grown not only in the garden, but also on an industrial scale. Flower stilts are rich in large quantity of coloring pigments and essential oils. The flower contains the coloring component of the crocine, perfectly soluble in aquatic environment and used for textile and food staining, in addition, this saffron is used as spices when cooking meat or fish dishes and rice.
To date, thanks to the selection, a large number of various varieties of crocuses. Among such an abundance, each flower water will be able to choose the type that he likes to decorate this beautiful colors of his garden.
Landing and transplanting
Before planting saffron bulbs or transplanted on a new place, the flooded plants are necessary prepare soil for them. For the plant, a nutritious and light soil substrate is preferred, which will be well to pass water and have looseness due to the content of sand and compost in it (or humus). Crocuses do not like wetlands or peeled soil compositions, and the fresh non-dried manure is harmful.
Plants that bloom in the spring period, planting in the ground can be in the fall, already in September. Those grades that bloom deep in the fall are planted in the soil not before July. The depth of the landing well directly depends on the size of the bulb. Small bulbs are placed in the wells to a depth of 2 or 3 cm, the average can be planted incurred by 5-6 cm, and very large bulbs are planted to a depth of 8 or 10 cm. During the plan, it is necessary to observe the distance between the lows of 5 or 10 cm.
Every 4-5 years, saffron need to transplant to another place. This is necessary so that the flowers in the plants are not crushed and retained their varietal properties.
To accommodate crocuses, the place in the garden can be found everywhere – This is a rocky rocarium, new-fashioned mountaineering, border or slatkat, a rolling circle near the trees, space between shrubs. Crocuses can be placed in suspended pots or floor porridge. Since these plants bloom first, they will not interfere with other plants, no foliage of trees or shrubs. Having finished its cycle of flowering, the lows will save their strength until next year in sleep mode, so they will not need the light of the sun at that moment when other garden plants are rotated.
Before starting landing work, you must perform Processing of crocus bulbs. Preparation lies in the fact that lows are disinfected in a solution of fungicidal preparations (“Sorrow”, “Fundazol”, “Vitaros” and T. D.) or ordinary manganese. After disinfection, the bulbs in the growth stimulator – “Epina”. Such preliminary preparation of planting material will protect plants from diseases and viruses.
The bulk of fungicides is prepared by dissolving 2 ml of the drug in 1 liter of water. This amount will be enough to prepare for landing 1 kg of crocus lows. The time of exposure of the material in the solution is at least 30 minutes. Crocuses have a feature to quickly grow up, so they need to land evenly throughout the territory allotted for this purpose.
Features of care
For favorable growth and development of the plant It will take potassium and phosphorus.
If you want crocuses to form large buds, you need to feed them with phosphoric components. And in order to form strong viable bulbs, you need to introduce potash elements.
- Initially, the filtering for saffron makes early spring, when the first sprouts appear, while the ratio of potassium and phosphorus take 2: 1.
- The second time it is necessary to make feeding at that time when buds are formed.
- For the third time it is necessary to feed the saffron after flowering when the flowers are completely taped. Second and third feeding the ratio of potassium and phosphorus take 1: 1.
During vegetation need to follow not only for full nutrition, but also moisturizing soil substrate. Overlapping should be avoided, but also drought, despite the resistance to it crocuses, should not be permanent. The soil must be moisturized regularly and moderately.
It is recommended to perform a good watering as sprouts are germinated, and then wet the earth as soon as it starts to push.
After completing the flowering period, it is necessary to wait for flowers and foliage completely dried. Only after that moment the lovka can start digging up to transplant or save until spring. If the transplantation is not planned, the bulbs leave winter in the ground, while the plant is cut dry leaves and flowers. If in your region, winter is very harsh, then for successful wintering, saffron can be covered with a spruce noodle.
In the case when the bulbs are necessary, In July-August, they are digging out of the ground, you choose viable specimens, and from underdeveloped bowls get rid of. Material for landing is required to be stored in a ventilated place, where the air does not heat up above 20-22 degrees of heat.
The most common method of breeding saffron is its Growing from the bulbs. Material for landings are obtained in the middle of summer. Making mass reproduction by dividing lows every year, so plants will be constantly rejuvenated and formed viable children.
Saffron can be grown using seeds. This method of breeding is long and complex, it is rare among the gardeners. After a viable seedling grown from seeds, it will take place in the soil, crocus blossoms will have to wait for almost 5 years.
The reproduction of saffron of seeds is as follows:
- Pre-seeds are prepared by soaking in the disinfecting solution of manganese potassium, and then in the preparation that stimulates growth;
- Sowing seeds produce closer to October or in March-April;
- The seeds are seeded in a moistened mixture of sand with soil, while no strong blowout is not required, the planting material is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate;
- Next, the greenhouse is covered with glass and put for 3 weeks in a cold place, for example, in the refrigerator;
- Then the greenhouse with seeds tolerate into the room to the window sill with good lighting;
- When the first shoots appear, the soil must be moistened with a sprayer;
- After the seedlock is strengthened, it is diverting and seed to grow into small flower pots.
Saffron cultivation does not require any special skills and devices. This exciting occupation can be carried out even in an apartment. Safran’s germination can be coincided with the holiday in winter or spring. So that the lows gave sprouts at the same time, before planting they choose them with the same in size, then not only growth, but also flowering landings will be friendly and simultaneous.
If you put crocuses in roommates, That literally after 21-28 days the plants will bloom, it will last depending on their variety, but on average will be 10-15 days. After completing the flowering of crocuses, watering must be continued until then, when foliage and flowers themselves do not completely dried – it is necessary for the bulbs to flow and grow.
After dying the above-ground part, the lows are digging and placed on storage, after giving them to dry 10-12 days at room temperature.
Diseases and pests
Like any living garden flowers, hybrid saffron is sometimes subjected to disease. With the most common kinds of diseases should be familiarized.
- Diseases of viral nature. It is manifested in the fact that whiteish spots are formed on the flowers, which lead to the deformation of leaves and petals. Carrying viruses can insects. So that the spread of the disease has not become massive, from such a plant it is more expedient to get rid of everything to keep health with other copies, while the bulbs, as a rule, remain healthy.
- Diseases of fungal etiology. The beginning of the manifestation of fungus can serve heat and high humidity. The disputes of mycelium penetrate the bulbs and amaze it. The bulb becomes sluggish, wrinkled, and under her scales there are spots of pink or white colors. After lesion, the tuber can no longer recover and germinate, so such material needs to be destroyed. Buddles near growing crocuses after digging need to be disinfected by manganese, dry and only then remove.
- Chlorosis disease. Manifests itself the fact that the plant begins to yellow foliage. The reason for this may be a lack of absorption of iron elements, damage to the bulbs or not enough good soil drainage.
In addition to diseases, crocuses may suffer from the invasion of garden pests. It may be not only insects, but also rodents.
- Mice, krota. These residents of the garden, Roy are their moves and holes damage the root system of crocuses. In addition, rodents love to burst on the bulbs and often even drag their entirely to themselves in Noura. After such an attack, the flower dies. Can be saved only if the bulb is not completely destroyed. To do this, it is necessary to dig a bowl and sprinkle as a row or crowded charcoal area of damage. Next, the bulb give a few hours to dry out in the fresh air, and then again fall asleep her land. To save crocuses, you need to put traps from mice and not to leave the dermal within a radius of 3 m from landing these plants, as in the turne mouse make their nests.
- Butterfly Crawler. These insects postpone their larvae in the soil. Caterpillars for food do the holes in the bulbs and eat the roots. While the caterpillars did not move into the step of the pounding, they can be destroyed by insecticidal preparations.
- Ground slippers. They tend to multiply in clay soil substrates. To dare slugs from crocuses, gardeners are recommended to pour a layer of coarse-grained river sand around the lows, through which the slugs will not pass. In addition, special garden drugs are used to combat slugs.
- Defeat Tley, TRIPS. In the invasion of malicious insects, the above-ground part of the plant is affected. Foliage yellow and twisted, flowers are poorly developing. Plant spraying insecticidal solutions are used to combat garden insects.
To prevent diseases of crocuses or the invasion of pests, it is necessary to carefully inspect them during the weeding and watering. In case of detection of patients with instances, immediately take measures to cure or remove from flower.
Beautiful examples in the landscape
- Decorative crocuses among the first sprout after the winter in the flowerbed, as soon as the snow cover comes with it. They are a real garden decoration and are used in landscape design.
- Crocuses can be grown as plants for the design of a curb, as well as with their help, you can decorate the stony slopes where only viable copies of ampel plants can grow.
- Saffron blooms early, this feature is very valued by gardeners when flowers please the eye after a long winter.
- During the awakening of crocuses of rivals in the garden, they have no – other flowers are still sleeping, so Saffron is considered primrose.
- Crocuses planted on the lawn decorate the garden and create a spectacular spectacle until a new green grass starts breaking through.