Types of birches and their description

Birza rightfully received the status of the “Russian” tree. She is found in all regions of the country. There are many species belonging to this family. Some of them are used for placing parks and squares, others are often found in the wild. Each variety has certain external features and other characteristics.

Features of a tree

Birch is easy to learn about the light crust with black marks, but not all varieties from this family have such a feature. Root system can also be very different. Wood forms are large and massive, leaving deep into the ground. Branched roots lying on the ground surface are characteristic of handicraft species.

Tints of the bark vary from light, almost white, to red and brown. Foliage differs in size and color, but most species at the ends of the leaves have small teeth. Their average width – about 5 centimeters, surface smooth and smooth. With the arrival of spring branches are covered with sticky leaflets. With the arrival of autumn they paint in yellow and shivered.

Flowers wood with serges covered with pollen.

Birch is very important for forest or landing ecosystem. This is a house for many insect species, including caterpillars. Also, its trunk grow many types of useful mushrooms: Podbirovik, Syroezhka, Gruss, White Mushroom and others. Representatives of this family are common not only in Russia and neighboring countries. They can be found in Europe, Asia and North America.

All species are divided into two large groups.

  • Trees whose height varies from 20-30 to 50 meters. The diameter of the trunk can reach up to one and a half meters.
  • Shrubs have more compact dimensions.

Do not forget about the industrial sphere.

  • Birch is famous for beautiful and strong wood. Due to its high strength, it is used for the manufacture of plywood, furniture and finishing materials.
  • Feature found his application in cosmetology and medicine. The substance is obtained from wood with dry distillation.
  • When processing foliage, you can get a natural yellow dye.
  • During the flowering of Bereza attracts a lot of bees. Dusty plants are important for honey fishery.
  • The top layer of the cortex, called bark, is often used as a fuel. He also found his application in needlework.
  • Birch juice is useful for health, and is also the main component for the preparation of syrups and bravery. Poons often feed them bees.
  • Birch leaves, kidneys and branches found their use in medicine. Of them make bactericidal, diuretic and other means.

What are decorative varieties and species?


Tree reaches up to 25 meters in height. It is also called North American Birch. Young trees can be determined by the crown in the form of a pyramid. Over time, the branches begin to descend, and Krone becomes like a bowl. Cora painted in dark and thick color (cherry shade with red tint).

Foliage is large, up to 12 centimeters long. With the arrival of spring branches are covered with a large number of servants. In comfortable climatic conditions, the tree lives long. This species prefers wet soil.


This name of Bereza received due to the original color of foliage. Glossy leaves are painted in purple or burgundy, which does not change throughout the season. The average tree size includes 7 meters. It remarksably tolerate frosty weather and not demanding to the composition of the soil. Grows the tree very slowly. He needs bright sunlight.


View with lush and thick crown reaches a height from 10 to 15 meters. His name Variety received due to the original configuration of the branches. Leaves are shaped rhombus and glossy surface.

Thanks to its original appearance, it is often used as a park decoration, a square or a local area.


This variety retains high decorative qualities for 40 years. The flowering period begins from the end of April and lasts until next month. With the onset of August, the tree begins to be fruitful (fruits in the form of nuts). Chinese Bereza easily tolerate frost and drought. The size of the leaves varies from 2 to 5 centimeters. Shape – ovate-shaped. Best of all the tree grows in a moisturized and fertile soil.


The plane birch, which is also called Asian or Japanese, can be determined on light gray crust without dark mark. Form of leaves combines a triangle and oval. Color – Saturated Green. Maximum height of the trunk – 30 meters.


Yellow or ribbed birch has large sizes. Maximum height – 30 meters. This species came to us from North America, which is why the variety is often called American. Corn color can be different: gray, orange, brown with red tam. Branches cover large leaves up to 12 centimeters. Some trees live up to 300 years. Variety prefers drainage and wet soils.


Shrub Birch, height that does not happen above 2.5 meters. In the wild, this species is often found on the swamps of Siberia and the Far East. It can also be found in the Central region of Ukraine. Oval leaves are covered with reszulany warts. Flowers appear on branches together with leaves in the last month of spring. The kidneys are omitted.


This is the most common variety in Russia. Name in Latin – Betula Pendula. This species can reach up to 30 meters in height. Bark bright and smooth. Young trees she can smear. At the old birchs are noticeable deep grooves of gray. Flexible trunk is surrounded by hill and long branches. These form they acquire only in old age. Young birch branches straight. Leaves have a wedge-shaped.

This grade lives long, from 100 to 120 years. Upon reaching an eight-year-old, the tree becomes “adult” and changes the color of the crust with a saturated brown on white. It can be found in the woods, steppe and even tundra. The tree found its use in many business activities.

This also includes the following types.

  • Birch Human “Royal Frost”. Tree with high decorative qualities. Leaves painted in dark purple color. Thin white trunk grows up to 20 meters in height.

  • Fastigiat. High trees growing in the form of a candle. The branches are directed up. Leaf Color – Bright Green. The width of the crown can reach 5 meters. Height – about 20 meters.

  • “Laziniat”. Tree with long and flexible branches hanging down. This variety draws attention to the unusual form of leaves resembling maples. Their color is a saturated green. Barrel white, with black marks.


Useful or Himalayan Birch, which is also called “Jacma”. It is not demanding of the composition of the soil and grows up to 10 meters. For full-fledged woodwork need sunlight. Useful birches badly tolerates shadow, but not afraid of frosts. Crown shape – spread. Length of leaves varies from 6 to 10 centimeters. Leaf Color – Bright Green.


This is a rare view that is listed in the Red Book. The color of the bark can be white or pinkish. A small tree reaches 7 meters in height. Fine branches – Brown, Dark. Young birch color branches yellow. Wood of this variety boasts strength and elasticity. The view is not demanding to the soil and quickly adapts to any weather conditions. Leaf color – saturated green.



Nana variety can be determined by shoots with a fly. Leaves in diameter from 2 to 2.5 cm have a round shape. Such birchies are often found in Asian countries, as well as in Alps and Greenland.

“Golden Treasry”

Breata Birch Compact Size. Openwork leaves painted in yellow color. Due to the unique and attractive appearance, designers high appreciate this species. Shoots are slightly raised. This is a multi-stranded birch with a lush crown. This is a very rare variety that adds 10 centimeters every year. The flowering period falls on the last month of spring.

Prefers moderate humidity. The composition of the soil value does not have.


This species is also called malvorosal or low birch. Its maximum height reaches 5 meters. Branches grow strictly. White bark darkens with age, acquiring a dark gray shade. Form Form – ovoid. List length – up to 5 centimeters. Surface covered with small veins. During flowering, the tree is covered with green serges with a yellow chip. The view is wonderful feeling in dry and damp soil. Swamp Bereza badly tolerate frosts and needs abundant lighting.


This is a neat and small tree, which rarely grows above 6 meters. Tree attracts an unusual shape of the trunk. He is twisted, due to which the grade got his name. Bereza can often be found in the Omsk region. This species is very similar to fluffy birch, but it differs in a rounded and more compact foliage. The color of the bark can be different: white, gray or brown.

Far Eastern

Very hardy tree that is not afraid of weather popsicles. Smooth trunk keeps an empty crown. In the height of Birch reaches 30 meters. This species tolerates the shadow, and the young trees shading is necessary for full growth. The bark is painted white with a light yellow tide. Dense foliage of oval. The tree can live to 100 years.


Another view from the birch family, the maximum height of which comes up to 15 meters. Flowers servants collected in inflorescences 2-4 pieces. Cuttings are covered with fine dust of yellow color. The flowering period lasts from April to May. This dusty view is highly valued in honey fishery.

Bearded Bereza

On Latin, its name sounds like Betula Verrucosa. This tree characterizes a lush and openwork crown. Root system well developed. The grade reaches a height of 20-30 meters. Young branches are painted in a brown-red color and covered with resinous warts. Light bark smooth and smooth. At the base, the trunk is painted in dark gray or black. Many varieties of birches grow in Russia.

Views with round and carved leaves, elongated and round crown, white and colored cortex are found in natural conditions, as well as in artificially created parks. They differ not only on external qualities, but also by other characteristics.

For example, the Wood of the Siberian Birch is often used in the field of sawn timber. Also Mastery Mastery Original crafts.

Rare species


The growth of Birch “Pendula Purpuria” varies from 10 to 15 meters. Krone narrow, but loose. Its width is from 4 to 5 meters. The trunks of young trees are painted in a brown tone with a red sampling. As they grow up, it darkens to dark gray or even black. At the base, the bark retains whiteness. The branches are covered with small leaves with a length of 2 to 3 centimeters.

At the beginning of the spring, the leaves have an original purple color, and with the advent of autumn they change their color to red, brown or bronze. In some cases, shoots with green foliage may appear. Better remove them. View tolerates winter frosts and loves sunlight. The composition of the soil can be any. Thanks to high decorative qualities, it is often used in landscape design. Specialists recommend landing this variety in small groups, 2-3 pieces.


Another rare species that refers to tall. Maximum height reaches 30 meters with a minimum value of 25 meters. Good grows in lung soils. Bereza tolerates freezing without any problems and loves sunlight. The diameter of the trunk reaches more than one meter. Large leaves. Form – round or a little elongated.


This species received this species at the expense of the crust. Tint may vary from red to yellow and even gray. Compact tree grows only 5 meters. To date, this kind is threatened with a complete disappearance. Now the tree can only be found in Kazakhstan.


Grow up to 25 meters. In some sources, this species is called “Black Birch”. In the wilderness, it grows on the territory of the Far East, China, Korea, Japan and Mongolia. Leaves of standard oval shape painted in a thick green shade. Wood use for coal production or handmade crafts. Korean Bereza grows remarkably in a wet environment. She also loves sunlight.


This tree enchants expressive appearance. Long and flexible branches are covered with thin and neat leaves. Bereza is often found in Russia and on the territory of the Scandinavian Peninsula. It is not afraid of frost and other weather popsicles. The height of the tree varies from 10 to 20 meters. In favorable conditions, the tree lives to 150 years. ZAnd year the tree grows by 35 cm. The average diameter of the barrel is 60 cm.

This species is wonderful for greening parks, gardens and other sites.


Dauria Bereza lives about 100 years. During this time, it grows up to 25 meters. The view is very demanding for the composition of the soil and loves light. Barrel diameter – 0.5 meters. Leaves standard oval shape. In natural conditions, Bereza can be found on the shores of rivers, drained slopes and worses. The branches are widely stretched. Barrel painted in dark gray or black.

How to choose for garden?

Many types of birch families are perfectly suitable for registration of the local area or other territory. Trees retain attractiveness throughout the season. Some varieties change the leaves color several times in the year. You can also choose varieties that change the color of the bark as we grow. Low or high, spread or elongated, with a standard or unusual colors of foliage and bark – different varieties are attractively looking at the site. During flowering, trees are fascinated by a lush color and a thin aroma.

In the warm season, birch gives the landscape the puff and brightness. As soon as autumn comes, and the leaves change the color, the garden becomes bright and charming. To create a pacifying atmosphere, it is recommended to make a choice in favor of trees with green foliage. Many designers choose birchs with thin and hurried branches that smoothly swing in the wind. Low, whipping barks on the ground birch will look great and as a single element of the landscape, and in compositions with other plants.

Before you choose a birch grade for your garden plot, you need to carefully study multiple species, compare their features and characteristics. Some varieties are remarkably tolerated frosts, so they can be planted in the northern regions. Others love abundant sunlight, because of which they need to land only in the open plot. If you want a tree to attract a large amount of bees, make a choice in favor of dusty varieties.

Be sure to pay attention to the sizes of the tree. It is height, stem diameter and crown width. High varieties often plant on spacious areas. They will also wonderfully look along the shore or boulevard. For small gardens or private territories, it is better to choose compact trees that will look great in small groups of several pieces.

Also consider the composition of the soil and the level of humidity. Some varieties are unpretentious to the type of soil and are remarkably suitable for landscaping in any territory. Others grow only in certain types of soil.

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