Medicinal and decorative plants often consider different classes of cultures. However, in fact, these properties intersect more often than it may seem. A striking example of such a combination is just Tamarix.
There is little crops that would have such a number of items. Tamarix is often called:
- salt cedar;
- God’s tree;
- Astrakhan Lilac;
Regardless of the specific name, it means herself-shaped shrubs, which can be not only evergreen, but also dropping foliage. Sometimes Tamarims are not bushes, but quite full-fledged trees. Thin branches are characteristic of them. Tamarisk is covered with red-brown bark. As the shrub of the bark is developed, it acquires a blue-violet color.
His foliage has a gray-green color. When the plant blooms, pink, white or purple flowers of small magnitude appear. They are grouped into splashing scenery inflorescences. From the medicinal properties of Tamarisk note:
- binding and diuretic effect;
- ability to stop blood;
- Power action.
Formally species of the genus Tamarisk are not included in the Russian pharmacope. None of them is used as raw materials for making medicines of any kind. The reason is simple – the study of this plant is small. Therefore, the assurance of a number of sources is that Tamarix has no contraindications, it is impossible to take seriously. Its use for self-medication is categorically not welcome.
In total, the genus Tamarix has, according to various classifications, 57-90 species. Length of leaves can reach 0.7 cm. They are located alternately. Tamarisk foliage stands out by the fact that salt-seating glands are detected on it. Plants of this kind are found:
- in salt marsh;
- in solontsa;
- in desert locations;
- in semi-derangements.
You can see such a pig and in the steppe, and in the tugai forest. Tamaris Natural Area covers European, Asian and African countries. He is cool and can survive frosts up to -50 degrees. The attractive property of the culture is resistance to salt.
It should be borne in mind that in some regions of the world, certain types of Tamarisk are recognized as dangerous for local flora invasive plants.
Start reviewing varieties appropriate From graceful Tamariksa, which forms thin branches. At the flowering time, the plant is covered by a huge mass of beautiful flower. Spanish bushes in height reach 4 m. For them are characterized by thick deburring shoots. On the branches is formed by a smooth bark of brown color with single light brown inclusions.
Leaves have a lancing or a hostile structure. They are characterized by a dense fit to branches. Blossom starts in May. At the same time, creepsy inflorescences are blooming, the length of which reaches 0.05-0.07 m. Bright pink flowers will delight the land owner to the end of the calendar summer.
A branchy view of height reaches 3-4 m. It is characterized by red-orange colored young branches. Roots like bar. With the beginning of the vegetative season, they are covered with a thick layer of small green-blue leaves. Before the dissolution of buds, however, the plant looks no less attractive. His grace is provided by the unspoken buds themselves.
Bloom Branchy Tamarisk falls on June-August and is distinguished by abundance. The length of the pink-lilac belt can reach 0.5 m. When the flowering is completed, the fruit types are formed. They are miniature seeds that have a haggard joke.
For Multi-timer Tamariksa Characteristic of the presence of thin branches. They are painted in a gray or slightly greenish tone. Annual shoots have a reddish color. Leaves are very narrow and very small, no longer than 1.5 cm each; their ends bend towards escape. Pink flowers can be grouped in thick brushes. The length of the inflorescence can reach 0.05 m, they live from June to September inclusive.
Attention deserves I Four Tamarix. In nature, this plant is found in the south of Russia (including in the Crimea) and in the Transcaucasian regions. A characteristic feature of the species is very magnificent and attractive crown. It is formed by shoots with a reddish bark, on the form resembling arcs. Lancing leafy plates have a juicy green color.Blossom of shrub begins in the last decade of April.
In this case, white or pink flowers are formed. Each of them appear Round Form Petals. Culture Suitable for decorating as a city park and garden plot.
And here Small-color Tamarisk fully justifies your name.
This is a low (up to 3 m maximum) Shrub with small pink boutons. It will bloom in May and in June. For plants attractive plots filled with bright sun. The drought resistance of small-bedweed Tamarisk is pretty high. However, still in very dry periods it will have to water.
Young specimens grow very intense. Later growth slows down. I. Enough Tamarisk Meira.In nature, he populates:
- East Transcaucasia;
- North Iran;
- Western regions of Central Asia;
- Astrakhan region;
- Stavropol region;
- Rostov region (but there the species is listed in the Regional Red Book).
Plant height can reach 3-4 m. Characterized by the formation of a reddish bark. The leaves have a stupid curly shape and slightly bent. Side inflorescences are formed on the branches of last year. It is usually provided for reproduction by seeds; Landing material quickly loses germination.
Among the branching type of Tamarisk, 3 main varieties are distinguished:
- Rubra (distinguished by elegant red-purple flower);
- branchist Pink Cascade (decorated with light pink flowers);
- Summer Glow (characteristic raspberry inflorescences of big density).
The loose Tamarisk is found in the north-west of the PRC and in Mongolia; It can also be discovered in the north of Iran. Alternative name – Pink Tamarisk. The variety cannot be higher than 5 m; for branches is characterized by a gray or green color. In the upper panicles are noticeable by busy inflorescences. The duration of flowering is about 2 months. Winter resistance of plants is very different depending on the variety and type.
Rules of cultivation
Choosing a place
To plant Tamarisk in the garden, regardless of the chemical composition of the soil and its mechanical structure. But still advised to give preference to soils with neutral or alkaline value of the hydrogen indicator. For this culture, the abundance of sunlight is very important. If such a condition is provided, you can count on the full bloom of the plant even on dense clay. Problems that are often forced to refuse to landing other cultures, do not matter for Tamariks; It is only necessary to take into account the winter hardiness of a particular variety.
Regardless of the region, it is better to plant a plant on the southern border of the plot. Walls of houses and household buildings will come for covering from the wind. Sometimes there is enough ordinary shrub for this.
Sometimes you can meet the mention that Tamarisk can be planted even after the end of the leaf fall. But it is necessary to take into account yet that this is a plant of southern origin, and can severely suffer from low temperatures. Normal adaptation in open ground it successfully passes only with a spring landing. With the onset of the vegetative season, you need to wait for the moment when the round air will stably warm up the zero of degrees.
In the suburbs, as in other regions of our country, Tamarish theoretically can be planted and in the spring, and in the fall. But still it is a fairly cold area, and therefore in it the spring period is preferable. In the Urals and Siberia strongly advise the cultivation of Tamarix first in the form of seedlings.
Direct transplant it in the soil is not an idea. Sitting seeds to seedlings are made at the end of winter or in the first days of spring.
Soil for seedlings and planting material We need to buy only in specialized stores. On ordinary city markets often sell low-quality goods of this kind. Saplings will need to be grown for 2 years. Only on the 3rd year the time comes to transplant them into open land.
Preparation of soil
Abundant blooming of culture will be possible only with certain efforts from the flower. On the selected platform create a good drainage layer. For a plant, which in nature will populate the desert and sandstones, stagnation of moisture is extremely destroyed. Excess soil acidity can be suppressed by lime.
To improve the soil containing a lot of clay, you will need to plant Tamarisk simultaneously with the addition of humus or compost. It will bring the structure of the Earth to the ideal. The more denser the earth, the worse it will pass the water. Therefore, you will have to dig a deeper landing pit, increasing the drainage layer at the same time.
Use for dilution of dense soil riding peat undesirable, because then the earth will be very sharpened.
As already mentioned, you must first dig a hole in which the sufficient amount of drainage will be located. Above it, it is laid out soil with additive humus or compost. From this soil, a holmik is formed, which will be supported for a seedling. Roots cautiously paint so that they look at the sides. Height picks up such that the root neck is outside.
The pit falls asleep and the land is slightly adjusted right in the process. After the end of the backfill all the soil will be tamed. Too strong tamping is not welcome. Between landing pits from 1 to 1.5 m of free space.
The width of the excavation should be at least twice as much as the width of the plant with a clock soil.
If during the soil landing was raw, it will be correct to refrain from watering in the first hours and days. But in the next 10-15 days it is necessary to control the land in the attractive circle not examined. This plot covers mulch, and shoot a little shorten. Cuttings should be cut by 0.02-0.03 m. In the future, regular watering the beader will not need.
The fact is that He has very deep roots. They themselves will ensure the plant with the necessary amount of moisture. It will come stable even on the hottest day. Because the gardeners are completely released from the need to water Tamarix in the summer.
Only with very hot and dry weather, 10-20 liters of water are poured periodically on an adult plant; Young seedlings are quite 3-5 liters of liquid.
Tamarisk in nature populates very scanty lands. Therefore systematically give him fertilizers do not have to. The very first feeding is held for the next year after disembarking, in spring. At this moment use humus and compost for mulching. Such feeding is enough until the start of flowering.
When Tamarix is covered with buds, half of the usual portion of fertilizers contribute to the ground. Use for such a feeding mixture of phosphorus and potassium. It is from them that the fullness of the support of the flowering bush depends. With the approach of winter, the rolling circle is covered with a mulch from compost and humus.
In addition to supplying plants with nutrients, such a layer will help prevent the root freezing.
The main role of this procedure is to fully form the bush. Unlike irrigation and feeding, trimming for Tamariks is vital. They can excellently survive haircut. Because the gardeners should be taken for the secateur without the slightest oscillations. When the plant is screamed (leaves the leaf fall), it is necessary to cut all the patients and breaking the shoots.
You will have to clean, of course, and the whole dry, deceased pig. Forming trimming is designed to shorten the running out of the main contour shoot. Shrub crown thoroughly align. Be sure to proper overly thick accumulations of branches, otherwise they will damage each other and suffer from infections provoked by the lack of air. When winter is completed, it is required to remove shoots that have not survived the effects of cold, snow and icing.
The main problem often interferes with a multiply of Tamarix in a seed way, is very small time to gently. For 3-4 months, they lose the ability to give seedlings. Even worse, the situation where the conditions for the development of the “desert guest” of non-thorough. Of course, plant seeds in the fall and will be a bad idea. Preparation of seedlings is happening:
- In containers with covers or a glass layer are put wet soil;
- There are fresh seating in this soil;
- Seeds pressed a bit, but they follow that they are not closed from light;
- control the humidity of the soil and maintain it at an acceptable level;
- After the formation of shoots, the shelter is removed and the container from the pallet with water is removed;
- Keep seedlings on the windowsill, waiting for a stable warm time;
- Tamarisk plant in the garden for reassembling;
- At the age of 1 or 2 years transplanted the village to the permanent site.
Tamariks seeds use predominantly breeders. They thus bring new varieties and improve culture characteristics. Much easier in everyday goals to root a plant with cuttings. It is recommended to use winter cutters (January) cutting. At the beginning of the year, the shrub is in a hibernation and calmly survive the procedure.
Sometimes use and weapons. You need to select candidates for them when examining overwhelming Tamariksa. Best Option – Lower Warm Branch. It must be tried to hurt and attach to the ground, and then sprinkle to the soil. The land in place, where it is planned to root the grain, is systematically moistened; Under such conditions, you can succeed by the end of the summer.
Diseases and pests
Tamarix almost never sick. Pests, too, with rare exceptions, hurt or fly out by side. Only occasionally they are moved to the bushes of a deserted shrub from other plants. Because the main cause of the diseases of Tamarisk is consistently incident to the gardener. Or ignore basic requirements when landing and leaving.
Among the ailments for Tamariks are especially dangerous fungal diseases. Like other cultures, they appear primarily on the background of raw, drooping weather. Do something with it (except for special treatment) is impossible. But it is possible to initially plant a plant into the most dry and warm-up. Landing recommended systematically inspecting to detect problems in a timely manner.
Sometimes inexperienced gardeners Tamarisk is perplexed. If it winterizes in a fitted state, and winter is pretty good, the top will still die. In this case, development will begin again, from the root. This behavior of a shrub (annual recovery from the non-leaking level) for him is completely natural.
When compliance with the conditions of the bush, it does not even turn yellow, almost never, and painful symptoms may be associated except with excessive landings.
With damage to fungal ailments, the first condition for success is to limit the irrigation. All the injured parts covered with gray spots burn. Use them somehow can not be used. Tool before work and after it carefully disinfected. From all fungi and harmful insects need to use specialized drugs.
The most important measure of prevention is the avoidance of the reasons why Tamarisk may get sick. It is searched in a timely manner if there is an excessive population of plantations. Strictly observe the requirements of agrotechnics. Diligently limit watering and support the drainage layer in good condition.
It is impossible to break the usual prescriptions on the frequency of fertilizer and their number.
Application in landscape design
Good result Tamarix gives only when using a clear landing scheme. This plant is widely used in original landscapes. Thanks to his impressive beauty, you can make a solitary fit, and mixed planting. Tamarisk grows perfectly on gradually collapsed slopes. In addition to external decoration, it will stabilize them.
Grebenchik attractively looks in alpine slide. An excellent neighbors will be the lowest bushes of other species. An alternative solution – seating of bushes separately, combined with the design of the surrounding space with decorative details.
Moderately high Tamarisk forms an attractive combination with lavender. But high specimens are better suitable for Japanese, minimalist and other strict styles.
About the features of Tamariks look next.