The nature of the Crimea is famous for its unsurpassed beauty and greatness. She fascinates and inspires. Pine Black Crimean – a bright representative of the coniferous family, growing in a subtropical climate. Many sources indicate the second name of this type of pine – Pallas pine. In the second half of the twentieth century, the seeds of the wild black pine, growing on the Crimean Peninsula, was replaced decorative, which can often be seen on cottage sites, as well as in park areas.
Crimean pine has a lush crown, height can reach 34-36 meters. Adult samples of 30-40 years old have a height of up to 30 meters, and the diameter of the trunk is up to 1 meter. The entire surface of the trunk is covered with rather deep longitudinal furrows. The bark has a black and brown color, but closer to the top of the tree it brightens, and the furrows become less noticeable.
The needles of the Crimean pine is significantly different from the usual – it has rigid curved needles of a dark green color, the size of them – from 14 to 18 cm in length, and thickness – up to 2 mm. On the branches of the needle grow pairly up to 5 years. Crimean pine bloom falls on May. Young shoots have a purple-blue color 10 cm long. They look like tightly located diamond plates, which over time become light brown. Cones can grow both one one and 2-4 pieces.
Young pines are distinguished by a fluffy area of the branches in the form of a pyramid. After a certain time, the lower branches die off, barrel. The remaining branches begin to grow in width. The crown shape may vary depending on the natural conditions.
Soil to grow pine suits any, even stony. To natural conditions, the tree is unpretentious – it is well tolerates both frosty and arid weather. For year, the tree can grow by 25-30 cm.
Powerful Palass pine root allows you to withstand the strongest wind and drought.
However, the wood is not suitable for acidified soils, as well as those in which moisture is often delayed. Decorative appearance makes it popular in landscape design.
In order for the young Crimean pine to close on the site, you need to choose a seedling not older than 5 years. Planting a young tree should either in the last days of April or August. If the pine was planted in the fall, then on the winter period it must be hidden, right up to April. In principle, if the young pine was planted in the right time, then in the insulation she will not need.
You can also sprout Pallas from seeds. Cones for this can be collected yourself, or buy in special stores. Due to the fact that pine matches in the fall, the seeds should go just at the end of the season.
Cones dried so they reveal. Before landing, seeds are placed in water to cut out, those that surfaced. It is only necessary to use those that they caught. They are well dried and stored in a cool dark place until the landing.
Those who decided to decorate their plot of Crimean Pine, should be familiar with the main rules for planting a seedling:
- A landing place should be well lit by sunlight and fenced from the wind;
- The pit is digging about 1 m deep into the ground, the cervical neck must be on the same level;
- gaps between trees should be at least 1.5 m;
- In clay soils, it is better to do drainage;
- In the dug hole, it is necessary to establish a drainage system from sand or stones (20 cm density), as well as to fall asleep there a small amount of humidiation and nitrophosphate (20-30 g per hole);
- Next, you need to place a sapling in the prepared deepening as soon as possible, as the long-ended pine root in the open air will lead to her death.
Tips for care
Growing Crimean pine at the cottage, the main thing is not too pouring a young tree with water, since an excess of moisture in the soil can lead to the rotation of its root system. In the first two seasons, pine is recommended to irrigate 2 times a month. For better penetration of moisture in the soil it is necessary to explode (approximately 10 cm).
Periodically (2 times a season) in the soil of near young pines introduce nitrogen fertilizers (approximately 25-30 g per square meter). After the tree is 4 years old, additional bait stops.
Pine minerals you need gets from a coniferous rug, which is formed from fallen needles.
Mandatory pruning of a pine grown at home, not needed, only those branches that began to dry out are needed to shorten. Correct the crown of wood can be in early spring. So that it was lush and thicker grew, you can make her pitch.
Dusty air does not affect the Crimean pine as the other landscape plants, it is only sometimes to sprinkle a dilated tree with ordinary water.
In winter, it is recommended to insulate a pine, wrapping it into the burlap, and root roots. This procedure is necessary if the air temperature is below 15-18 degrees, otherwise the insulation is not required.
In the middle lane of Russia (Moscow region, Nizhny Novgorod, Ufa and T. D.) to plant Crimean pine worth less than 3 years not recommended, Since due to strong frosts, the sapling, most likely will die. Another feature of the cultivation of pine in this type of climate – plant landing in the autumn period.
Pallas pine reproduction occurs with seeds. We need at least a year so that the young tree is stronger to transfers it to the open land plot.
The first step in the cultivation of the Crimean pine is the preparation of land and pot. We are needed loose nonsense soil and tank with drainage hole. Top to the soil need to fall asleep peat, it will help to prevent the formation of mold. The level on which the seeds in the pot are placed – 1-3 cm. When shoots appear, it is important to ensure that the plant is always provided with the necessary amount of light and moisture.
On the open plot, the young plant can be planted when he has already been 1 year old. However, it is better to wait for a pine to be 3-4 years old, especially if it is assumed to plant it in a climate with strong frosts. Thus, the risk of the death of the plant significantly decreases.
The growth process of the Crimean pine is quite a long, as its life cycle – up to several centuries.
Possible diseases and pests
There are a number of diseases that can be infected both a young pine tree and an adult tree: roasting cancer, fungal disease – rust, trunk rot, or roots. If the pine yellower or opal is a clear sign that she fell ill. In this case, it is not worth the time with the purchase of special means for the treatment of wood, since late help can lead to the death of the plant.
The prevention of diseases of the Crimean Pine is the spraying of the plant by fungicides in the spring and autumn periods, as well as careful care.
Root system of the young Pillars Pallass is susceptible to hydration from the May Zhukov. To prevent the appearance of beetles, the well, in which it is intended to put a seedling, you need to carefully examine on the presence of larvae. In the case of their presence, a pit should be treated with special means – insecticides.
No less malicious insect is a croroede. It makes tunnels in the trunks and branches, which prevents the normal flow of moisture and minerals. As a result, the tree begins to rapidly dry, which, in the end, leads to his death. The presence of brown flour tree on the trunk – one of the main symptoms of the pest appearance. Prevention is the processing of Crimean Pine at the beginning of spring “BIFETRIN”.
Insect pests also include silkworm caterpillars (silky worm). They feed on pine needles. For the entire period of growth and development of wood they can eat up to 600 khuminok. To get rid of parasites, the tree is treated with “accutelle”, “desisis” and other similar means. To prevent the appearance of these pests, the trees are sprayed with these drugs 2 times a year.
Usage in landscape design
This type of pine is a decorative version of the wild wood, whose seeds were in the mid-70s brought by English Botany Peter Pallas from the Crimean Peninsula in England. This variety is quite rare, it is included in the Red Book, so the illegal cutting of Pallas pine is punishable by law.
Recently, Crimean Pine has become popular in landscape design. It is not surprising, because it does not only have a lush and rich green crown, but also a thin coniferous aroma, as well as aesthetic appearance. Such a tree perfectly fit into any design of the country area, as it looks well both alone and in combination with other types of decorative plants.
Most often these beauties are planted in the parks or on the alleys, as they practically do not need to care, Plus, it creates additional protection against sunlight, and a thin fragrance is perfectly relaxing and gives peace of mind.
About the peculiarities of the grinding of the Pine Crimean look in the following video.