How to make a hydraulic on a mini tractor with your own hands?

Hydraulics – technical system operating through the impact of fluid pressure on other elements of the system. In the process of exposure, kinetic energy is produced, which is converted into mechanical energy, resulting in a useful work of a particular mechanism. The hydraulic system is equipped with various agricultural aggregates, such as mini tractors. With it, it is controlled by various attachments.

In the design of any tractor released by the manufacturer, there is a given system. It can be refined and optimized for their needs. The homemade mini tractor must be equipped with hydraulics, which will allow the use of techniques with maximum return.

Constructive features

Hydraulics on the mini tractor works on the same principle as all other similar systems. It has a hydraulic pump that blows the pressure in the system and forcing liquid to move. It connects to the source of the filler, which is the expansion tank. This node is driven by transferring torque from a diesel engine by belt or mechanical bond with shaft or transmission.

Although the system is called hydraulic, it is filled with oil. It has a smaller boiling point, a suitable expansion coefficient and serves as a lubricant for moving parts of the mechanism.

Flexible hoses with enhanced walls are used to transfer fluid on the system. All their connections are sealed and strengthened. On them, under the influence of pressure, the oil enters the water distributor with a floating position, and then into the hydraulic cylinders performing the role of pistons. Pistons make a mechanical work that moves the corresponding attachment equipment.

Some modifications of hydraulic mechanisms involve integration into the wheel hydraulic system. This installation complements the tractor brake system, which facilitates the use of brakes, especially in homemade agricultural machinery. Hydraulic jamming can also be used to facilitate steering, acting in this case as a hydraulic. These features of the design of the hydraulic system of the mini-tractor make it possible to control the operation of all attachments, our own nodes of vehicles and effectively carry out the tasks.

In order to assemble the hydraulics on the mini tractor with their own hands, you will need composite parts of the mechanism produced at the factory using special equipment:

  • hydraulic pump;
  • hydraulic distributor;
  • fastening hoses;
  • hydraulic cylinder;
  • Other composite parts that cannot be made at home.

The listed items can be purchased in the store in a complete collection or dismantle with the old specialized equipment, the rest of the fixing construction design and assemble with their own hands.

Required toolkit

In each case, you may need your own set of tools and materials required for assembly. Their main kit:

  • welding machine;
  • Bulgarian;
  • drill;
  • drill;
  • taps for cutting threads;
  • set of wrenches.

The list can be supplemented with paragraphs depending on the assembly conditions.

Required details:

  • hydraulic pump;
  • hydraulic distributor;
  • Hydrobac;
  • transmission belt;
  • hoses and their attachments;
  • hydraulic cylinders;
  • bolts and nuts;
  • clamps;
  • Oil filter;
  • Various fasteners whose name is due to each specific case.

The main components are shown in the photo.

How to do?

Work on the creation of its own hydraulic system for the mini-tractor begins with the design of the future design and settlements aimed at optimizing the ratio of resources spent and the efficiency coefficient. The power of the tractor must correspond to its intended purpose, and the technical characteristics of the hydraulics system nodes are proportional to the loads applied to them.

Insufficient oil pump power or low coefficient of permissible load on the hydraulic cylinders can lead to a rapid failure of the entire system or individual nodes. The overall level of these indicators will increase fuel consumption and other resources, will create an imbalance of the system. To compensate the difference in the technical characteristics and balance of the balance, additional names are set: the second pump, the hydraulic cylinder and others.

In the drawing, it is necessary to reflect the design of the carrier frame, which will include a space for the pump, distributor, pistons and other additional elements, as well as a hydrocepiece. In this case, its configuration must be optimized in such a way that the distance from the output motor shaft to the nearest transmission point of the hydraulic system was minimal.

The pump is installed as close as possible to the leading shaft. The tank with the working oil is located above it, which causes the free flow of fluid on the pump blades and reduces the leakage coefficient of useful mechanical energy. A filter is installed between the liquid tank and the pump. His presence extends uninterrupted operation of the entire system.

Through the strengthened sleeves, the pump is connected to the hydraulic distributor, which is equipped with controls. There may be several depending on the functionality of the hydraulics. Since to maintain pressure in the system, the oil should continuously circulate according to it, the distributor adjusts the direction of its movement and feeding to cylinders, and also cuts the flow at the moment of idle operation. The controls of the distributor are special levers supplied by the manufacturer with it.

After mounting the distributor, the installation of hydraulic cylinders to the working part of the frame is made. These elements can be represented by special piston blocks intended for use in the hydraulic system. In other cases, they can be made independently of oil-type car shock absorbers.

Hinged equipment is installed on the tractor in a bundle with hydraulic cylinders – moving parts of the system transmitting mechanical effort to it. The design of fastening mechanisms is determined by the type of equipment, its actual configuration and the nature of the target work performed with it.

The collected hydraulic system must be equipped with technical nodes and insulation tools that require mandatory installation. Among them can be noted:

  • drain node in hydrointentness;
  • Pressure discharge valve in the tank;
  • pressure sensor;
  • valve locking device;
  • Drain from the pump and the hydraulic distributor;
  • Filtering elements of fine cleaning at the inlet in the hydraulic cylinders;
  • Sealing rings, washers, gaskets, nuts, clamps.

Before starting work, configure the entire system.

The working circuit of the hydraulic equipment for the mini-tractor is shown in the diagram:

System operation

Mini Tractor Hydraulics Management Instructions

The management of the system is carried out using a lever (s) in a bundle with a hydrodistributor. The main (their) function is the change of the positions of the adjustment valves of the distributor, the pressure supply to the desired section, disconnecting the circuit of the fluid circulation from the end nodes of the unit.

The simple hydraulic system includes three positions of the control lever:

  • Neutral – oil circulates separately from the pistons;
  • Piston Spread – the pressure makes it take the highest possible position;
  • Piston pin – pressure is reset, vacuum created by the leaving fluid pulls it by returning to its original position.

At the time of the movement of the piston (her), attachments makes the work provided for by its production.

Any hydraulics system is equipped with mechanisms for starting and off hydraulic pump, fixation of positions and emergency (manual) control.

Prevention

To ensure efficient operation of the tractor hydraulic system, it is necessary to comply with the rules of operation and timely maintenance.

In the course of working with equipment equipped with hydraulics, it should be regularly checking its nodes for faults. The occurrence of a small-scale breakage inevitably leads to the failure of the rest of the system. When it is detected, it is necessary to immediately apply all available means to eliminate it:

  • Do not allow an excess of the laid load on the hydraulic pump, hydraulic cylinders, oil hoses and other nodes;
  • Avoid the indicators of excessively high pressure, if necessary, timely reset it or select a suitable adjustment valve;
  • To maintain stable operation of the hydraulic mechanism, it is important to change the / top of the liquid in a timely manner: its insufficient amount will lead to a decrease in the efficiency of work and the rapid output of the unit failure;
  • All operations for maintenance and repair of the system are performed when the tractor engine is turned off (on the “cold”) after pressure discharge.

Table of common malfunctions of hydraulic systems and ways to eliminate them:

Malfunctions and their causes

Remedy

Malfunction: Low-pushing hydraulic cylinders or its complete absence.

Cause: Fell the oil level in the system.

To add oil.

Used oil with unsuitable characteristics.

Replace oil to suitable.

Filter of oil or hydraulic cylinder.

Replace or wash the filter element.

Availability of air in the system.

Throw the system – remove air, reveal the point of its penetration and eliminate.

The presence of fluid leakage through worn oil.

Replace seals to new.

Violated the operation of the discharge valve, pressures – occurs in the open position.

Rinse / blow valve. Replace if necessary.

Fault in the valves of the hydraulic distributor.

Replace valves or their parts, if necessary, replace the block completely.

Leaks in the docking nodes of the system.

Check for leaks, found eliminate by compression, tightening, installation of clamps, replacement.

Malfunction of piston or hydraulic cylinders.

Check the hydraulic cylinder for pressure leakage. Replace seals, piston. If necessary, change the node as a whole.

About how to install hydraulics on a mini tractor with your own hands, see the following video.

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