Gerbers are popular decorative plants of the family of comprehensive. They are bred both in pots and in the open soil. In the cultivation of these plants there are features.
Gerbers are found in the southern part of Africa and in the tropical regions of Asia. Until recently, they were grown only in greenhouses. Currently, potted species and royal varieties appear. These flowers have the following properties, characteristics and features.
- Stems are nozzles, and the leaves are directed book. Flowers are collected in baskets. Petals are narrow, long and tubular. Flowers have different color, but most often there are yellow.
- Gerbera is a bulbous plant. On a high stem blooms a flower resembling a huge chamomile. It usually has a diameter of about 10 cm, under his weight, the stem is very bent. There are also varieties that give smaller flowers – about 5 cm in diameter.
- Mid-Flower (so-called loop) – Yellow, Black or Dark Brown. Gerbera Petals White, Cream, With Shades of Yellow, Orange and Red. The stem protrudes over a dense outlet of the leaves, the bottom is covered with a gentle pile.
- Lightless floral stems hollow. Inflorescences grow on the top of the stem. Flower basket consists of multicolored flowers filling center inflorescences. Duration of the day does not affect the flowering of gerbera. Flowers of potted species appear from early spring to late autumn.
- Gerbers in a flower pot love well-lit places. Nevertheless, the flower should not be exposed to direct sunlight. He, besides, poorly tolerates too high temperatures. In the summer, the temperature is best suited for 20 degrees during the day ??and 17 degrees at night, and in winter, respectively – 12 and 10 degrees above zero. Such conditions will allow Gerber to grow steadily and beautifully.
- These flowers are pretty picky to the composition of the soil in pots. Earth must be lightweight, well permeable and ventilated. The gerberas do not tolerate heavy soil, which slows her growth. Soil mixture should be slightly acidic – pH approximately 5.5-6.5.
- Properly grown and cultivated gerberas bloom for six months (April-October) And even much longer – from the earliest spring to late autumn. Therefore, plants can become a very elegant and beautiful decoration of any interior. In summer, they can also be successfully putting to the balcony, terrace or in the garden, choosing well-lit places for them, but protected from direct sunlight and strengths of wind gusts.
- Gerbera in nature are perennial plants, But in the pots they are often considered as annuals, which we throw after flowering. However, if it is possible to provide a flower in winter with a light room with a temperature of 10-15 degrees, then the plant can be bloated again and fully reveal its beauty next season.
- I wonder what In addition to potter gerberars in the market, you can find varieties suitable for seasonal cultivation in the garden. It can please every amateur of these beautiful colors.
- Potted gerberas buy in the form of seedlings or already blooming plants. At home, gerbera bloom from April to October. They can be grown on solar window sills, on open terraces and balconies, where they can grow alone or be in composition with other vegetation. But it should be borne in mind that because of the special requirements, they must grow in separate containers.
- Gerbera help clean air. Pretty large gerbera leaves are an excellent natural air filter. The plant effectively purifies air from toxins and chemicals obtained from furniture, carpets, paints, cigarette smoke or cleaning products (including benzene, formaldehyde, trichloroethylene). Gerbera leaves are also well moisturized by air, as they have a high speed of transpiration.
Types and varieties
Gerbers are found in the entire colors palette, they are decorative and durable. For several decades, these plants were among the most popular colors. As already noted, previously, their reproduction was possible only in the greenhouses, since they needed greenhouse conditions (the plant comes from the hot regions of the world), and high stems needed to protect against wind and drafts. But since dwarf varieties were also created, they are grown in pots or right open soil. Usually gerbera are classified into two main groups that were derived respectively from two main South African species:
- Zelenoliste gerbera;
- Gerbera Gameson.
Next, from these species there is a separation of plants in the size of flowers, chroma and other properties. Total there are more than 80 varieties. Zelenolistic varieties are distinguished by the fact that they have a rude surface of the leaves. Flowers are narrow-fabful and large.
Gerbers are usually considered annual plants. But if there is a bedroom grade after flowering and fading to leave for one month without watering, and then resume irrigation and feeding fertilizers, then the gerbera will release the stem, leaves and bloom. Although potent mini gerberas have not such large flowers (2-4 cm in diameter), as their relatives from the greenhouse, but this does not mean that they are less attractive and charming. Especially since we can choose from a variety of extremely beautiful varieties of flowers of different colors, including white, pink, cream, burgundy, red, blue, blue, purple, yellow, mix, and also with different inflorescences: single, double, full, needle, hybrid.
Gerbera Gameson – perfect, although a little forgotten, plant. After cutting, her flowers hold up to 14 days. Gerbera is typical of astringe compliance – baskets. This is a perennial plant producing numerous random roots growing at the base or side of escape. Leaves blade, from below, densely. Flowers – typical of a family of comprehensible – collected in the inflorescence of basket type. Petals are long and slightly bent, form one or more curls. Color is very diverse, but the pastel colors prevail.
The height of flowering plants depends on the variety. The diameter of the socket is about 30-35 cm, the length of the leaves is on average 15-30 cm. Stem inflorescence can have a length of up to 50-60 cm. At the same time, several inflorescences appear on one plant.
A relatively large amount of planting material can be obtained in a fairly short time by gerber generative reproduction. Of course, we get plants that differ slightly from each other and require intensive selection. Often this method is used to breed indoor varieties. To get seeds, flowers should be artificially pollin. Gerber seeds are quite large (220-400 pieces / 1 g) and best germinate immediately after their collection. Processed seeds germinate in the dark at 20 degrees for 7-10 days, and about 3 weeks (the appearance of the first real leaves) seedlings should be crossed separately in pots. When 2-3 sheets appear on the plant, you can make a transplant to a permanent place. Date of sowing depends on the method of cultivation and planned date of collection. The period of growing seedlings lasts about 12-15 weeks.
The most common method is the vegetative reproduction of these colors.
- Currently, in vitro (for glass, in a test tube) is an important way to selete greenhouse plants. The method allows you to obtain a large number of identical plants without disease, but this requires special equipment and laboratory.
- Process of work – Remove the maternal plants from the ground and thoroughly rinse the root bulb. Next, you need to cut the sheet plates, to shorten the roots and remove the fission shoots. Knife must cut root on fragments. After decontamination in the solution, for example, the Fundazole, the plants should be planted directly into the target.
- After a careful separation of all leaves and colors, the uterine plants are placed next to each other in the multiplier so that the root neck is 2-3 cm above the ground surface. The soil should be slightly lime and enriched nutrients peat. It is necessary to maintain air temperature not lower than 25 degrees and high soil moisture (80-90%). About 7-10 days from the kidneys begin to grow new sprouts. And about 3 weeks later, when the third sheet appears, seedlings can be collected.
Maternal plants use about 3 months, collecting seedlings three times. From one such plant you can get an average of 20-50 seedlings. Saplings are placed in a permeable and sterile substrate and provide conditions similar to that they were needed to obtain shoots. After 2-3 weeks, the formation of roots begins. The production period of seedlings to their landing on a permanent place takes about 5-7 weeks.
Gerbers can be grown in a one-year or two-year cycle. Plants put in boxes, containers (about 10 liters), plastic bags or directly on the beds. When landing on the bed, prepare a layer of soil with a thickness of about 30 cm.
Landing is held in two times: in summer (June-July) for autumn-winter flowering, as well as in March for summer flowering. Disembarking interval – with annual growing 20×30 cm, with two-year 30×30 cm. After landing, typical care procedures are applied – watering, protection and maintenance of the corresponding temperature and humidity. Special procedures for growing are reduced to the following operations.
- Removal of escapes of inflorescence – It is performed primarily after landing gerbera to a permanent place to strengthen the vegetative part of the plant. It delays flowering, but affects the quantity and quality of colors. Flowers are also removed before the rest period.
- Purification of plants – removal of old leaves, which are gradually yellowing and dry out, which limits the development of fungal diseases. Need to repeat the treatment every 2-3 weeks.
- Rest – used with bilateral cultivation. This suggests a gradual limitation of watering and fertilizer (in November-December) and a decrease in temperature to about 15 degrees above zero.
When landing in June, the biggest crops of flowers are obtained in autumn and winter. From one plant receive an average of 20 colors per season. Harvesting is made manually, carefully twisting the stems at the base.
Grow pot gerberas not easy, Since quite high demands are presented to plants.
- First of all, they love very bright light, but without the impact of direct sunlight, which can burn their delicate leaves and flowers. They are poorly transferred to the shadow and therefore are not suitable for growing on the windowsill overlooking the northern way.
- Gerseers also require a fertile, permeable and slightly wet substrate, which should never be dry or too wet. Flowers do not tolerate cutting and very sensitive to overflows, because in both cases they quickly begin to lose their beautiful appearance. Their leaves dry and yellow, and the plant can even die.
- It is desirable to care for the plant in such a way that there are no drafts that are very poorly affected by its development.
- It is advisable to apply fertilizer because it gives long blossom. It is especially important that it contains phosphorus.
- In order to facilitate the absorption of nutrient microelements by a plant, water used to watering gerberas, can be acidified with citric acid.
- Gerbers growing in the garden must be protected from wind. They require intensive watering.
- After buying, the flowers can be stored for several days in water with room temperature or dry for 2 weeks, tightly wrapped in a foil in a cold room at a temperature of 1-2 degrees above zero.
Diseases and pests
Gerbers should be protected from pests and diseases. Consider the main types of these dangers.
- In the greenhouse where gerberas are grown, a characteristic sweet smell is felt;
- Separate shoots, and sometimes whole plants are withering and dying;
- At the base of the leaves there is a characteristic white foam secretion, changing the color on the brown;
- A large number of fruit flies floats over patients with plants and around the secret.
Flies feed on sweet discharges and at the same time contribute to the spread of pathogenic microorganisms for neighboring plants.
This is one of the most common and dangerous diseases of Gerbera. Losses can be more than 60% of plants. Symptoms arise from the start of planting plants and before the liquidation of plantation.
- Sick plants, despite the desired amount of water in the substrate, lose natural shine, yellow, black and dying. At air temperature below 18 ° C leaves change color to red. The pathogen develops in the substrate, where he infects the foundation of escape. It is twisted and dies. From infection to the appearance of symptoms of the disease usually passes 2-6 weeks, depending on the age of plants, such as substrate and environmental conditions.
- The sheet still looks healthy, but when trying to pull out very easily separated from the root system. The development of the pathogen is promoted by an organic substrate with a high peat content, as well as its high humidity and a temperature of 25-28 degrees.
- Pathogen spreads through water during watering or by soaking in containers. The spread of the pathogen can also occur if there is dust in air flow. The source of the causative agent can be an infected substrate used for planting plants.
False mild dew
On old leaves there are small oval watery spots. Over time, the stains rapidly increase their size, changing the color to yellow-brown. Highly infected leaves yellow and die away. On the underside of the sheet plate, a thin layer of the pathogen dispute is visible. References are transmitted by air flow or insects to neighboring plants, infecting them. The development of the pathogen promotes high humidity, wetting leaves when watering and a temperature of 12-22 degrees (optimally 15 degrees). A few days after the contamination disputes are formed.
Symptoms appear on the upper side of the leaves in the form of spots or white mildew. Soon, the stains are connected to each other, covering the entire surface of the sheet plate. Symptoms of the disease in the form of the described plaque may appear on the blooms and sections of the bowl. Flap is formed from mycelium and fungal dispute. Allocated disputes by air flows are transferred to neighboring plants and infect them. The development of the mushroom contributes to the moisturizing of the leaves during watering, fluctuations in air humidity in the greenhouse and the insufficient amount of light. Usually, from the moment of infection until the argument is 5-7 days. With a high degree of severity of symptoms of the plant disease, there are slow growth, flower stems are not lengthened, and very often broken at the site of infection.
On the surface of the leaves, single, dark brown and round or oval spots appear on the surface. Black mushroom disputes are formed on the surface of the spots. During irrigation of plants, disputes are transmitted by air flows or insects to neighboring plants, spreading the disease even further. The development of mushrooms contribute: high humidity, high plant density and wetting when watering. The main methods of treating gerbera are the removal of extra leaves, damaged inflorescences and spraying plants with antifungal and anti-infectious means.
Shoot leaves need quite extensively. Herber room manufacturers recommend to delete even one third of all leaves. This procedure stimulates the growth of new young leaves and colors.
Pliers and Tlla
Dry and favorable temperature conditions contribute to the rapid appearance of pests, such as a web tick and aphids. Therefore, in summer it is recommended to conduct intensive air irrigation. It is necessary to maintain high humidity. But try not to spray water directly on the plant. On the wet leaves of Gerbera can begin to grow pathogens of mold and other diseases.
Compositions with Gerberry
The great advantage of Gerber is that they are not associated with a specific event or symbolism. These are films of universal use. They can appear in all events – from wedding bouquets to funeral compositions. And no one will blame us for using this flower. It is also worth mentioning that the varieties with large inflorescence are ideal for large compositions (for example, on a flowerbed), since to fill the large space a relatively small number of plants.
Bouquet of gerberas
Red roses tell us about our deep feelings, Lilnies are a symbol of innocence and shy. Herbera is difficult to compare with a rose, but it is impossible to refuse. In addition, the flower itself is a sign of the highest respect and admiration. It makes Gerber bouquets in demand as a gift for teachers at the end of the school year or doctors for help. In general, they are quite a decent gift for all those who deserve our special recognition. That is why these seemingly inconspicuous flowers so willingly choose for bouquets that we give someone in special cases.
Ideal Wedding Flowers
Respect and admiration – it is also the exceptional importance that gerbera is very often choosing as a wedding bouquet. Also, even if a young couple does not know the secret coloring language, the beauty of Gerber will give newlyweds a lot of joy. Beautiful Flowers and Fresh Fruits in a basket – a fantastic idea if you want to make a big impression and surprise. Lilies and gerbera are an aromatic mixture that thanks to fresh fruit will acquire a unique character and emphasize their beauty. This gift can not only admire, but also taste (of course, edible part of it). Feel free to choose a flower composition with fruit.
This is a basket with gerberas, sprigs of roses, carnation and ivy. Charming the favorite beautiful sense of colors and be with them with all my heart. They will definitely understand and will perceive your bouquet with joy.
Gerbera in Gord
Typical for potted flowers are leaves growing as it were from under the ground, which from the bottom are covered with smallpox. The crown of colors closes at night and opens in the morning when gerbera feel daylight.
How to properly care for Gerbers at home, see the following video.