Features and varieties of birch by pole

Each person since childhood knows about birch. With this tree, many will accept, fairy tales and folk legends. This culture grows almost everywhere – both in the household territories, and in forest belts near settlements. In the farm, it is used to make bath brooms, berers, as firewood. Birch differs from other cultures of its unpretentiousness, rapid development and decorative characteristics.

Botanical description

Birch Hang – Latin name Betula Pendula, Rod – Birch (Betula), Birch Family (Betulaceae). Culture also has other names – beard birch (Betula Verrucosa), birch crying, birch birch.

Culture has a special vitality – meso-plywood. These include various trees and shrubs. These are plants, the kidney of the resumption of which are located above the ground, height varies from 8 to 60 meters. In special conditions, birch grows up to 35 meters, the diameter of the trunk varies from 60 to 80 centimeters. It has a single trunk and an empty crown, a smooth white bark that can be squeezed with thin layers. Closer to the root trunk becomes black and gray and rough. The trunk of young Berez initially has a brown shade, and closer to 10 years old becomes.

Birch is a one-bedroom plant, that is, the inflorescences of different floors (pestile and sticky) are located on one culture. Women’s fruits begin to appear in spring when leaves bloom. Men’s earring – in the fall. Grow in the beams of 1-4 pieces, during the growth of earrings lengthened 2-4 times. Flowering takes place in June, for 15-20 days.

Branches of the birch of this species – hung. Young stroke of branches that no year, usually has a red-brown shade. They are wart glands.

Kidney Red-Brown Tint Plants, Sticky, with Specific Smell and Resin Taste. Anatomoto-morphological features of the leaves: the length reach the size of 3.5-7 centimeters, in width – 2.5-5.5 centimeters, have a triangular-rhombic or deltid shape with a biconolate edges.

After the leaves bloomed, their surface becomes sticky and smooth. With the front side of a brilliant leaf, a dark green shade, on the back of the side of the surface matte and green. The size of the stuffs is small, 2-3 times shorter than the sheet itself. Regin value Regular.

Birch leaves are used to determine the environmental features (degrees of contamination) of the environment, for this, the method of fluctuating asymmetry is used (these are minor deviations from mirror symmetry). With small deviations, you can judge the effect of adverse factors. For evaluation, a scale with five points is used, where 1 point is the norm, and 5 points is a critical state. Asymmetry in 5 points occurs in territories with a high indicator of transport and industrial emissions.

Culture can grow in such conditions, as it has high dust and gas-casting characteristics. Fruits have an oval shape and small wings. In one earring, the number of nuts can reach 500 pieces. Starting from September and until the end of February, fruits from birch fall.

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There is a fairly intense growth of birch, but her root system is weak. During a strong wind or storms, the tree is most susceptible to match. In favorable conditions, culture can live from 120 to 150 years. Attitude towards the light of birch by a positive is a light-loving culture, sometimes a little shading is allowed.

There is a decorative dwarf view of the birch of the rim – birch on the strain. Such a culture has smaller sizes that can be controlled by forming trimming.

Motherland of growth

Birch Him has a pretty wide range of growth. In the highlands of birch forests can be distributed to a height of 2100 meters. In Russia, the habitat of birch warts covers almost the entire territory of the country – the Urals, Western Siberia, Eastern Siberia, the exception is the extreme north and southern regions. The biggest distribution is in the European part and the middle lane. Over the territory of Russia, culture lives in Western Europe, Central Europe, North America.

Bereza is occurring both in birchings and in mixed deciduous forests. In the steppes forms peculiar “forest islands”. Easy grows in places of fires, on abandoned areas, roofs of old houses, roadside.

The genus of birch is about 40 species, birch has become the greatest popularity. Saplings of this culture are pretty frost resistant, able to survive the temperature to -40 ° C.

“Dalacarly”

The birthplace of this birch – the Scandinavian peninsula, in the European territory of Russia such a variety can be found rarely. Well coexists with other types of deciduous trees. Used mainly for landscaping in Europe. Also, the tree is bred gardeners on their sites.

Culture is light-minded, prefers the soil of the average humidity, does not require a large amount of heat. The main feature and difference between the variety is deeply dissected form of leaves. Dalacarly Birch has an empty crown with hanging branches and direct trunk. Grows up to 20 meters in height. The root system is represented in the form of a rod with thin side roots, placed closer to the upper layers of the soil.

“Purpuria”

Birch “Purpuria” (Purpurea) has an unusual shade of leaves and a conical crown, a dark bark, black and gray. The plant is small and narrow, grows for a long time, has warthogy branches. The height reaches 10 meters, and the diameter of the crown is 4 meters. The form of rhombic leaves, the color is dark red in young varieties, the foliage becomes a dark purple tint.

Grows on thin and sugary territories. It is impossible to allow a similar location of groundwater. Light-minded culture, in the shade she starts green.

Royal Frost

Grade “Royal Frost” has a crown in the form of a pyramid, reaches a height of about 9 meters. Bordeau-purple leaves with a smooth surface, a form of rhombic. White bark, young trees – bronze.

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Birch of this species is light, but a small shadow is allowed. The atmosphere of the atmosphere is unstable, but freely dwells on different compositions, acidity and density of soils.

It is preferable to plant on letters, loams, drained, weakness and moistened to moderate soils.

“Krimson Frost”

Culture reaches a height of 20 meters, crown coverage – about 6 meters. Birch “Climson Frost” is a branched, leaf fall, fast-growing tree. Leaves have an oval-ovoid shape, pointed up, color – magenta.

The variety depends on the lighting and “flourishing” only on well-lit territories. Does not require constant watering, moisture is needed only in dry periods. Culture of frost resistant.

“Laziniat”

The main differences of the variety are Crohn in the form of oval and rugged gear leaves. In the height of “Laziniat” grows up to 12 meters. White trunk, young shoots – brown.

Enough frost resistant, but the young trees can be moderated to a year. Light culture. Prefers a loamy and sampling soil, not tolerate soil waters. Unstable to poor atmospheric conditions.

YOUNGII

Youngii Birch on a strain – a small-sized tree (dwarf), has a hot crown in the shape of an umbrella. Branches of varieties hang down and get to the surface of the earth, they need periodic trimming. Grows fast – up to 100 centimeters per year. Stammer cultures dependent on vaccination. Life life – up to 120 years.

White bark, in young age – brown and resembles Olh. Triangular leaves and pointed at the ends. The root system is well developed, but is located at a low depth.

Frost resistant. During the winter period, it can damage various rodents.

“COSTS DVARF”

Birch “COSTS DVARF” (opened in 1978 in the USA) – a grade of miniature sizes with an openwork crown, the leaves are like a fern. They have a strongly dissected form, sizes reach 5 centimeters.

The main difference of culture is a dwarf form. The height of the tree does not exceed 1.5 meters, width – 1.8 meters. Grow can in the territories with almost any soil. Very frost resistant and light-cup, although it can make a small shadow.

Other

  • Long Trunk – Listful grade with an umbrella crown. The height of the tree reaches 10 meters, the crown width – 5 meters. Large-size leaves with a glossy surface, can be up to 10 centimeters. Bark of white color.

  • “Crisp” – Birch height is no more than 8 meters. Deep-shaped deep leaves, light green. Lightweight and frost-resistant culture. Easily takes dry periods.

  • “Grazilis” – This is the most elegant and openwork from all risite forms. Height reaches 10 meters, but grows quite slowly. For 20 years, it grows about 5 meters. Frost resistant, not afraid of drought.

Landing and care

Birch is a hanging, growing in the city, rarely lives more than 150 years. But thanks to the right landing and care, age can reach 500 years. To grow a tree on their own, it is necessary first of all to take into account the condition of the soil. It must be moistened and have a good drain layer. In no case should there be groundwater nearby. Droughs Culture is not afraid, but in dry weather it needs timely watering.

Seed landing occurs immediately after their collection.

For germination, special conditions are not needed, enough cool and well-lit greenhouse. Seeds are stacked on a piled mulch soil. After the seeds sprouted, they are placed in individual pots and clean it in a cool place. In the spring, when frosts are over, seedlings are planted into open ground. If the culture was planted immediately into the open ground, then the sapling can not be transplanted with a new place for two years.

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Birch warts unpretentious in care, the highest moment is sufficient lighting. Distance between shoots should be about 4 meters. Water tree immediately to the root. Polyberry after disembarkation should be often held, but in small portions of water.

In order for in the future, Krone Birch did not discard too much shadow to the site, it is formed by a secateur and scissors. To the tree had a molding form of the crown, it can be instilled. But since it is difficult to do it yourself, it is better to buy in the store already graft sapling.

Reproduction

Birch reproduction by the result can be held in two ways.

  • In nature The plant is so lively that it can germinate in place, where the fire happened once. Reproduction usually happens in open areas, seeds from female inflorescences. Fruit tree starts only for 10 years of life. Feed seeds 2 times: one piece in autumn, second – spring.
  • Artificial reproduction Used for decoration. To begin with, the seeds give mature – it is possible to determine this by how intensively the earrings. Ripening lasts until the autumn.

Diseases and pests

Pests begin to appear on a weakened tree – it can be Runtifiers, birch sponge, whale, chaga. And Chaga parasitis only on live birch. Raids Silk Street Caterpillar, Trubber Trucks, May Zhukov usually subject to leaves.

The tree bark for many insects serves as a special place to lay the larvae – such a process also harms a tree.

Usage in landscape design

Birch Handy decorative varieties is very well combined with various rocks of trees and shrubs. For example, with coniferous cultures You can create an interesting contrast – in the fall of birch pleases, and the needles will remain green.

The most popular of decorative cultures is strambed birch. Her branches grow strictly down and periodically need processing. Crown can be given the most interesting forms.

Beard birch used for landscaping territories – Forest parks, Alley, private possessions.

Read more about Birch by History See in the video below.

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