Russian gardeners and flower trees have mastered the cultivation of a variety of colors. One of the most interesting specimens is the Dolphinium, which will be discussed in this article.
In all descriptions, it is mentioned that this plant looks like candles formed by the Buds. Depending on the habitat, there are different names, including “Splitter” and “Beliteness”. The popularity of culture is due to the fact that it suffers even very cold times. The name “Dolphinium” is associated with the peculiarities of the chap – it looks like a head of marine dolphin. And the word “sprack” appeared due to the characteristic eyes inside the chashelistic.
No matter how this plant is called, everyone converge in the opinion that It is great for places with student in winter. And moreover, even if a cool summer has come, the plant is guaranteed to reveal in all beauty. This circumstance also makes Dolphinium Survived among the gardeners of the average climatic zone of Russia.
In these regions, there are not less than 90 varieties of delphinium. The time of his life is determined, above all, actual weather. Depending on it, the same plants can live and 4 years, and 8 years. Simple buds in these colors usually have 5 petals.
The middle of the Schovets occupies. Such a combination makes Dolphinium with excellent honey. Culture can be polled by bumblebees or small birds. Coloring flowers diversified. However, most species are decorated with blue either purple buton. Than white plant, the usual odor is stronger.
Flowers are grouped in standing blizzes. Their value is 3-10 cm. Foliage resembles a flower because it dishes on the share to the very foundation. All parts are sharply sharpened. Decorative bush, characterized by fluffiness, can stretch to 2 m in height.
Dolphinium blooms repeated. In some cases, the third bloom for the season occurs, the bushes can be used for cutting. In the gardens they grown mainly hybrid grass, and in natural conditions there can be found in Southeast Asia (primarily in China), as well as in North America. To note: there are separate species originating from African highlands.
It should be borne in mind that Dolphinium poisonous, and toxic substances are found in all its parts. With any work, precautions should be observed. When working with a plant is finished, you need to wash your hands. Dolphiniums on botanical classification are classified as a family of ilok. Dwarf varieties grow up to 0.5 m. Tall varieties reach 2 m. For the dolphinium characteristic of the strong development of the root system.
Shrubs have very branched rhizomes. Gradually, the middle part of these rhizomes dies, and runs on the sides turn into independent plants. The duration of flowering is about 30 days, and its beginning depends on the latitude and weather conditions.
Types and varieties
Dolphinium varieties are divided into two groups: annual and perennial culture. Field species uses very high popularity. Her flowers are sometimes rising to 2 m in height. Inflorescences are formed from the flowers of the terry or simple type. It occurs bluish, white, pinkish and lilac coloring.
Field dolphiniums are grown from 1572, so these plants cannot bring these plants with flowerforms. Field grade FROSTED SKY gives bluish flowers, the middle of which is painted in white tones. QIS Rose Forms Light Pink Flowers. The flowering period begins with the summer, it ends at the beginning of autumn.
In the hybridization of the eastern and dubious varieties of the dolphinium turned out to be “Ajax”. From their progenitors, this culture inherited the best properties. Runs can grow to 0.4-1 m. Dissected leaf plates almost fully match the sedent. Similar to corporal inflorescences are painted in a variety of colors.
Within the framework of the Ajax group, various varieties have been created, including with denselyah-color. The flowering period lasts from July to the first frosts on the soil. As for perennial dolphiniums, they entered the culture in the XIX century. Previously, the varieties of “Barlow” and “Belladonna” were obtained.
Further progress of breeders led to the emergence of perennial colorful plants with a flower diameter of 2 to 9 cm.
Very in demand by gardeners New Zealand Dolphiniums, as well as Martinsky and Scottish hybrids. Released in the farm “Marfino” varieties:
- give rather large semi-world flowers;
- perfectly carry severe frosts;
- Look gracefully.
But the Marfin Dolphinium, regardless of the variety, can not be planted by seeds. Rather, it is possible to propagate it, but without preserving the main valuable signs. Attention deserve:
- “Pink Sunset”;
- “Spring snow”;
- “Blue lace”.
New Zealand varietal group appeared later than all. It combines plants that can grow to 2.2 m. The diameter of the flowers at the same time is 7-9 cm. New Zealand Dolphiniums can relate to both terry and semi-state type. There are also separate plants with a corrugated perimeter of petals.
New Zealand hybrids are not bad to carry even strong cold, and they are very ill. Cut them without problems.
Sortes deserve attention Green TWIST, Sunny Skies, Blue Lace.
As for the Scottish Dolphiniums, they include Blueberry Pie, Morning Sunrise, Sweet Sensation. Scottish varietary group gives terry or superhuma flowers, it develops thick inflorescences.
In some cases, flowers may contain more fifty petals. The height of the bush fluctuates from 1.1 to 1.5 m. Inflorescences in length reach 0.8 m. Coloring flowers can vary.
Scottish Dolphinium attracts the attention of gardeners because it develops for a long time, and can save characteristic signs during seed breeding.
Annual Dolphinium looks attractive and forms high, relatively thin stems. Many flowers are formed on them. For colors can be characterized by purple, blue, pink color. Different annual grades grow to 0.4-2 m. An attractive feature of such a group of plants is atypical geometry and non-standard colors.
IMPORTANT: the annual dolphinium does not have petals, they are replaced by chashelistic. Slap in length is 0.5-4 cm. Netics located inside it are guaranteed to attract insects. But neckers are not limited to, the pair of modest formed by the size of petals is additionally formed. Of these, special eyes are formed (the so-called Stamody).
Among the 40 varieties of annual dolphiniums are plants with gray, white and black flowers. The difference concerns and inflorescences: varieties are distinguished by their volume, density, by synchronization of the dissolution. Annuals are much better than perennial cultures, suitable for novice flowerflowers. Care for them easier and easier.
When growing annual seeds, you can achieve earlier flowering than when using perennials.
An attractive variety of cultural dolphinium is the “magic fountain”. His gardeners are often grown. Beautiful flowers of this varietal group are perfect for the formation of bouquets. The pigstream is very powerful, with blooms up to 2 m. The bloomon itself is formed from small bluish flowers of terry type.
If you water the “magic fountain” only in dry days, it will bloom in June and July. Shared group representatives do not exceed 0.6 m. Such dolphiniums can even move a rather strong cold. IMPORTANT: It should be planted only on dry areas. But in the decorative work and registration of borders, the “magic fountain” is very good.
Also, the gardeners attracts that bouquets from this flower are not withering for a long time.
“Blue lace” – another magnificent variety. His inflorescences are raised above the ground for a height of up to 2 m. They invariably cause delight abundance of purple and blue tones. Sowing greenhouses or warm greenhouses produced in March and April.
Grade “Casablanca” is a long-term dolphinium that grows up to 1.2 m. It is distinguished by expressive harness and attractive white flowers. They relate to semi-world or terry. Diameter can reach 5 cm. Flowers are grouped into loose bullets. Roots from Casablanca are very persistent, and it is not bad to carry the winter in the open soil.
Delphinium of this variety is in demand for landing along the wall or fence, as well as for the formation of single, group landings. It is also often used for the manufacture of bouquets. In a water vase, the inflorescences retain an attractive view of up to 10 days. In the second year of development “Casablanca” blooms in June and July.
Occasionally, under favorable conditions, again blooms in August. Plant height can reach 1.1 m. Flower diameter – 5 cm.
Blueberry Pie – Sort, whose height can reach 1.1 m. Blueberry Pie – one of the Scottish hybrids. Its flowers are painted in a thick purple tone, and outdoor petals – simple blue. They have an attractive looking pistachio middle. Flowerines are quite durable and stable. Blueberry Pie gives thick terry flowers, 5-6 cm. The flowering period begins with half of June.
So that repeated bloom in August took place, you will have to get rid of the suspended shoots.
Sort “Portofino” also deserves high marks. This plant is not too demanding for the characteristics of the soil, painted in pink color of various tone. Such a color in perennial species of the dolphinium is absent, which allows you to significantly diversify plantations. IMPORTANT: In the dry form of the inflorescence “Portofino” retain the attractive appearance. This circumstance will have to taste connoisseurs of the winter bouquet. Mostly grade used as a soliter on a grassy lawn. But you can combine it with other white and blue dolphiniums.
Pacific Giant Galahad is a perfectly coming plant. This dolphinium in height reaches 2 m. It forms elongated flowers, from half of June to the first autumn days covered with large snow-white flowers.
Sort developers were able to achieve excellent cold resistance (up to -40 degrees). But landing will have to protect the water stagnation, which is dangerous even in relatively warm winter days.
Another snow-white dolphinium is the “royal” grade. Resistant to winter many years of type gives plants, rising to 1.8 m. The diameter of the colors does not exceed 6 cm. Flowering falls on July and August. The magnitude of the brushes is up to 0.5 m, they are decorated with exceptionally large semi-world colors. Painting is not just snow-white, it also amazes incredible brightness.
Judging by the reviews, the “Tsarsky” Dolphinium is perfect for cutting. It will break in the water for a long time and will emit sweet fragrance. Important: In the domestic climate, this plant is mainly grown as a twin.
Seedlings begin to plant in March and in the first days of April. The primary disembarkation is made in May or in the first June decade according to the 50×50 cm scheme. Dolphiniums “Tsarsky” varieties are extremely poorly reacting to an excessive amount of water, and for drying. Mineral feeding should be made strictly on schedule.
Growing equally well in the sun and in moderate shadow Astolat won the attention of gardeners with its atypical colors. It looks emphasized cold, pink tone as if it will turn a light haze. And the radiance is still guessing. Astolat flowers achieve a very large amount. In the center there is a mass of minor petals.
The variety is recommended for gardens painted into restrained pastel colors. But you can dilute and unnecessarily bright, catchy. The height of the Dolphinium Astolat exceeds 1 m. Wait for the appearance of flowers on powerful shoots. It is necessary for half of July. The plant is decorated with openwork foliage. In the first days after transplantation to street land, culture is required to priest.
Finish Review appropriate at Darwin`s Pink Indulgence. This plant gives pleasant terry flowers, divided into three layers. For them, a typical star-like structure and concentration in the form of pink cones. The center of colors is always lighter than their edge. Height reaches 0.9 m. The flowering period falls on June and July. In favorable conditions, it can be repeated in August and September. Warranty to -35 degrees are guaranteed.
IMPORTANT: In the middle lane, repeated bloom is undesirable, because of him the dolphinium may suffer. Winter shelter is required only with harsh frosts in a honest year.
How to grow?
Consider the main subtleties of the cultivation of the dolphinium.
Sress the dolphinium in the garden or on a separate flowerbed in April, May, in the last days of August and in the first two weeks of September. In most cases, in our country, they use seedlings. Seeds need to plant approximately 60 days before the expected landing seedlings in open land. In the middle lane, the optimal moment for the start of breeding seedlings – half of March. In the southern regions, it can be done before (from February 14 to 28), but in Siberia, in the Urals and the Far East will have to wait until April.
Some gardeners in warm localities are trying to immediately grow a dolphinium in the open ground, bypassing the stage of seedlings. But it is still correct to be renounced to reliably protect against frosts and plant already strengthened plants.
It is important and rational choice of territory for landing. She appreciates good lighting in the morning and evening hours. At the same time preferably at the hottest time to provide shadow.
The straight rays of ultraviolet can lead to burnout of very bright petals. Because of this, plants lose their attraction. Large importance is the protection against wind. This is especially true for high varieties of dolphinium, the hollow stems of which break even with insignificant pressure. As already mentioned, you will have to take care of good drainage and not fill the landings.
As for the soil, it is best for a slightly wet loam and sand. They should have a lot of organic matter. Preferred neutral reaction or weak acidity. Before landing for every square. M. It will take:
- 10-20 kg of river sand;
- from 50 to 80 kg of mineral complex compositions;
- 20 or 25 kg of compost (sometimes replaced by humus).
To improve too poor soil, 40-50 g of minerals are placed on 1 square meter and from 10 to 15 kg of genuine organics. Sour lands will have to celebrate. Alkaline sections are delated with granular gray. But on this preparation does not end, We still need to provide 0.2 m drainage.
The bellyness is planted with seeds, fission with roots or cuttings. The vegetative method is most effective maintaining varietal qualities. Important: Do not buy seeds from little-known suppliers. Seed material will have 20 minutes to disinfect in pale mangartan or special preparations. After this processing, the seeds must be laundered under the jet of water.
Then you will remain soaked for 24 hours. A small amount of “epin”, “zircon”, aloe or honey juice add to water. Departing seeds, wrap them into a wet fabric and stratified in the refrigerator. The procedure is carried out exactly until the seeds proceed. Next, the bundle is kept on the sunny window sill for several days (in the dark, phytolammes are illuminated).
For growing pots apply Universal or intended for succulents soil. With independent preparation of soil, it should be 60 minutes to disinfect in the oven. The soil laid down in the tanks is slightly tamped. And here the seeds themselves are not recommended, they are just put on top.
Additionally, the seeds fall asleep with a small layer of soil mixture (sometimes it replaces vermiculite). Practiced with plastic lids or transparent food film. You can expect shootouts about the tenth days. For a complete guarantee, it is necessary to examine the crops from 6-7 days daily. Subsequent cultivation of seedlings occurs at a temperature of from 18 to 20 degrees.
For the growing season 1 Dolphinium flower should receive 65 liters of water. But if it rains a little, once every 7 days under the bush pour 20-30 liters of water. Pupile watering (cutting its volume) during the folding of inflorescences. Categorically unacceptable and surface watering, and irrigation of the stem or leaves. If late autumn dry, enhanced watering will help the plant survive winter.
Trim Dolphinium It is necessary to achieve the height stems 0.3 m. Shirling them, which began to bloom, copies retain a couple of stems, and earlier – 4 or 5. Soliters are cut off all side shoots. But with a group mixed landing should be left.
Before the winter onset, remove all the blooms above 0.3 m.
As soon as the bloom ends and dries foliage, Stems need to trim 0.3 – 0.35 m above the soil. Empties inside the shoots should be deceived by clay or coat a garden boiler, otherwise the penetration of moisture can provoke rotting. Waiting for a minor winter, it is required to bottom cover the bushes with a layer of straw or a spruce noodle. It is necessary before the start of winter to dug and the channels around all plants.
Black spot is treated spraying Tetracyclined solution. Usually the tablet preparation is bred in 1 liter of water. Puffy dew can be eliminated by fungicides, best among them showed themselves “Topaz” and “Fundazole”. Ramularity get rid of ramuleryosis standard antifungal agents.
When infected with annular spotting will remain only to dug and burn the plant.
Usually spracks determine the root division. For this take three-year or four-year copies. In any other age, the plant will transfer the procedure worse. In the fall, it is carried out at the beginning of the ripening of seeds. In the spring it is necessary to wait for germination of fresh foliage.
Roots carefully removed from the soil, saving more. Dellets should be done so that each other escape and sleeping kidney persisted on each. Care before the beginning of autumn should be thorough. Before the onset of winter, the shelter will need. Cuttings for breeding take only on top, harvest them in the spring.
On every cutlets there should be a little root fabric. Rooting occurs in a sandy peat substrate. Be sure to use a transparent cap. Wait for the result 5 or 6 weeks. Transfer to the place of stable cultivation is made in the spring.
Examples in garden design
Dolphinium is usually used in mixlers. In this case, heterogeneous varieties take, and each of them is planting a large group. Since the gibbyness has big shoots, it will be able to serve as an excellent background for low decorative species, such as chamomile or phlox. But the same plant is suitable for an ensemble with high cereals, lilies, jasmine or barberry. Another option is small varieties of annuals to put in the center of the mixboarder along with:
- exotic poppies;
The spurr of the middle growth is mainly used as the focus of the middle of the flower beds or in high Rabata. Very low plants recommend planting on a curb or flowerbed. Also they are advised to design containers, rocaries or rocky gardens. You can combine all existing varieties of dolphinium with roses.
Gardeners can safely choose any of these options – it will still be charming.
About how to grow a dolphinium from seeds, look in the following video.