Decorative maple: species, cultivation and application in landscape design

“Maple Curry, Carved” sign. It is often mentioned in verses and songs, which is not surprising, as Maple is a very beautiful tree. Therefore, this plant is always in the first positions in landscape designers, and in urban landscaping is quite common.

Most often, we present the maple as a high tree with a thick spreader crown, completely unsuitable for small gardens. But there are many of his species and varieties of compact form, there are even home dwarf representatives.

general characteristics

Maple as decorative culture is valued, first of all, for interesting leaves. And many varieties of foliage have a bright color not only in the fall, but throughout the entire period of vegetation. However, the disseated form of the sheet plate is not characteristic of all kinds, there are beautiful maples. The inflorescences of some of them are very fragrant, which attracts insect pollinkers. In addition, seeds are also original and beautiful. An interesting surface of the bark, the color of shoots, the structure of the crowns, the remaining seed winters – all this allows maples to remain decorative and serve the decoration of the plot and winter.

It should be noted that compact forms are most demanding to soils, moisture content in air and land. But they are resistant to winds, relatively shadow. However, when landing in the shade, species from the decorative color of foliage lose their bright colors. All maples grow pretty rapidly and tolerate transplant. There are and low-spirited frost-resistant varieties suitable for Moscow region.

Types and varieties

The classification of maples is very complex. Given the features of the leaves, inflorescences and fruits, wood structure, experts allocated 17 sections. We list several groups and species that can be recommended for growing in small gardens of the middle strip of Russia.

Ostroland

About this type relating to European, it is worth saying separately, since the most famous Maple in our country belongs to it. This tree (Acer Platanoides) grows up to 30 m and forms a splashing tolten crown. Ordinary species representatives for limited areas, of course, do not fit. But there are several suitable varieties.

  • CRIMSON CENTRY Different with magenta foliage and attractive fragrant yellowish inflorescences. The tree can grow up to 10 m, but at the same time the characteristic feature of “Climson Centry” is a colonum shape of the crown that does not have more than 3 m in diameter.
  • Columnare Also in height can reach 10 m and has a compact coloniforous crown. The reddish tint of leaves, which happens when they dissolve, subsequently disappears. Dark green foliage.
  • Globosum grows up to 7 m. His feature is a spherical crown. But in adult plants, it can acquire a flat form that can be corrected by cropping.

Far Eastern

In the Far East, maples grow everywhere, but they look differently, rather than European or North American.

One of the unpretentious and frost-resistant species is the Maple “Ginnala”. These are small trees (up to 5 m) with a crown having a branch form. Males of this species can grow both as multi-shrubs. Especially beautiful looks like their deep-blast leaves in the fall, when it is painted in bright orange-red colors. The most interesting varieties:

  • Durand Dwarf – the dwarf, grows up to 60 cm, the leaves are small, very branching;
  • Albovariegatum – it is characterized by segmental white color of leafy plates;
  • Pulverulentum – has white specks on the leaves.

On the beauty of foliage and grace the undisputed leaders will be maples of adhesive or fan (a. Palmatum), very popular in Japan. They grow slowly, in width even faster than height, above 3-4 m do not grow. But for cultivation in the middle strip of Russia they have a significant minus – low frost resistance. It is believed that some varieties are able to withstand temperatures up to -29 ° C, but in practice above the snow level, the shoots are frozen.

Japanese style lovers in gardening often acquire the Dissectrum Atropurpureum grade, having carved dark red, and in adult plants – almost purple leaves. For the winter it needs a solid shelter. In the suburbs, such maples are better grown as a person culture. A good replacement for a whimsical maple is a sludid can serve as a maple of falseblides (A. pseudosieboldianum). This is a slim tree with a height of up to 8 m. He has bright green deep-shred leaves on scarlet stiffers.

Decorative also large creeps-shaped inflorescences and fruit-winners, which at the beginning of ripening pinkish-red, and then become light brown.

North American

Magnifier Maple Clentex to Russia from North America (A. negundo) exactly known to everyone because as a weed plant spread everywhere. It is curious that he used to be grown in the Orange. Titting this species primarily because of its unpretentiousness, rapid growth and frost resistance. The decorative qualities of these maples are low, but there are also interesting varieties:

  • Flamingo – low (up to 4 m) wood or shrub, has a motley leaves, green with white-pink segments;
  • Variegatum – grows up to 5 m, differs not only by decorative white-green leaves, but also interesting large fruits.

Sustainic

Some types of maples can form several trunks and look like large shrubs. In addition to the ashenseid, Falsebold and Screens, the bearded belongs to those. Barbinerve) with spectacular purple-red bark, with large maple flowers curled (a. Circinatum) and Tatar (A. Tatarucum), characterized by fragrant white inflorescences. The main advantage of shrub species – they are well tolerated trimming.

Landing and care

To grow maple, you need to choose the right place. Of all these species, the most undemanding are the aslane and Tatar (tolerate even the salinization). Other It is important to plant there, where sufficient illumination and there are no stagnation of groundwater. The optimal composition of the soil when landing: humus, nervous land and sand in the proportion of 3: 2: 1, you can add peat. Most of the types of drought resistant, but the hot summer there will be no moderate.

Multiply male is possible with cuttings, vaccinations (varieties) and seeds. Last way apply most often. Seed seeds in spring and autumn. Collect them better in September when they start falling to the ground.

Spring landing

Collected seeds need to be saved until spring. About 4 months before planning, you need to create conditions for them, reminiscent of the state of winter rest. The planting material is placed in a container with wet sand and put in a cold place (from 3 ° C to -5 ° C), therefore, the process of stratification. Before planting, seeds germinate, soaking them about 3 days in a solution of hydrogen peroxide.

Plant in open ground in the first days of May. If there are no plants with the plants, then the distance between them should be at least 2 m. The more taller grade, the more the interval. Plunge the seeds into the soil about 4 cm.

You can first raise the seedlings on a certain site. The first sprouts should appear in 2-3 weeks, and when the three sheets are deployed, young plants are searched in its place. During the season, the maples grow 30-40 cm, for the whole year – about 80 cm.

Autumnal

Seeds can be planted under winter. In this case, the stratification will occur in vivo. Plants will continue to adapt better, but germination can be reduced due to adverse winter factors: frost, small snow cover.

You can transplant young maples in a year. For them, 50×70 cm landing Pits are digging, with a close-up of groundwater to the bottom of the Drainage: Ceramzite, broken brick or small stones. Fill the pits of the above mixture.

Use in garden design

The possibility of using maples in the country or in landscaping is quite wide. Often they are used as solvents in open areas. Dwarf molds, especially with bright-colored leaves, look beautiful in colleagues and contrast compositions. From shrub maples, well-carrying haircut, excellent alive hedges are obtained.

Interestingly, the possibilities of using plants are not limited to. From their wood make furniture and musical instruments. And the name of the Canadian Sugar Maple (A. Saccharum) speaks for itself, from his juice get maple sugar.

In the next video, the Expert of the Garden Center Greensad will tell about how to properly multiply and plant ostroilt maples.

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