Ivy is a plant that can have different “appearance” depending on the species diversity. However, the total for all species and varieties is the presence of lian and air roots, thanks to which the plant is easily climbing on any surface.
Ivy is a clinging plant, which is known to many of his ability to “climb” on the walls of buildings, fences, arches. He belongs to the family of Aralia. Represents Liananide evergreen shrub plant with strong stem and numerous suction roots.
With the German name, the plant is translated as “sit” (indicating the ability of ivy to cling, sitting on the surface), from the Ciestsky – as “cord”. The plant has another official botanical name – Header.
As already mentioned, in addition to the main root, located in the ground, ivy has an apparent air root. Their task is not to receive nutrient elements from the Earth, but to cling to the surface, ensuring the ability of the plant to climb almost any vertical surfaces.
If Ivy “chopped” another tree, at first, until the shoots are young and weak, Ivy serves to some extent to his “partner”. However, enhanced most of the crown, Ivy begins to dominate and swallow the plant.
Air alerts plants have high sensitivity. They are able to make circular movements until possible support will be found. After that, they are sent to the support, cling to it and pull up Lian. In the future, worn assistance and turning them into the spring.
Ivy can be grown as a soil plant – it turns out a lush green “grass”, which rises the earth and winter under the snow.
Despite the unpretentiousness and attractive “appearance” when growing evergreen “Cord” it is important to remember about the precautionary measures. This is due to the fact that the plant contains toxic substances. Especially high their concentration in the fruits. After you watered or abrupt leaves, in one word, in contact with the plant, it is necessary to wash your hands with soap, plant care should be made in gloves.
Flowering ivy falls at the end of August and continues until November. Inflorescences – Inspection Yellowish Green Umbrellas. Flowers are male, rim and female. The first 2 species can be found by the presence of 5 stamens. Women’s flowers have from 5 to 10 barbecue nests.
Flowers are noticeable mainly on old shoots, only adult plants are blooming at least 7-10 years old. The north the heder is grown, the more later it will be her bloom. Apartment varieties almost never bloom.
The plant has three or five-particle leaves of dark green color with heart-shaped base. In adult plants, they are more oval. Matte leaves attractive in appearance. They are located on a flexible stem very close to each other. it allows a heder to form a thick carpet.
Botany highlight 2 types of leaves. Dark green color, large leafs are formed on vegetative stems. Flowering branches have smaller sheets of leafy plates. Their form is more oblong, elongated. Differs and shade of leaves – they are painted in a softer “grassy” green.
The appearance of the leaves can change slightly from different varieties of plants. Gardening and professional landscape designers are especially valued by leaves, having bright pronounced bodies and white or cream spots covered with white or cream. However, such varieties are characterized by a more capricious temper – they are more demanding in care, need a longer lighting day.
The flowering period is replaced by fruiting. Fruit ivy with small “peas” with a diameter of up to 1 cm, finally maturing already in December.
By this time, they acquire iscin-black color and are able to preserve on the bushes throughout the winter.
Distribution in nature
Habitat Heders are territories with warm and humid climates. In the wild, ivy is widespread in Eurasia. In Western European countries, the plant grows in floodplain and light forests. Twigs climb on trees, sometimes the crown is the fatteny trunk. In the glades, you can detect a carpet from a fluttering ivy. Zaroshi plants can be found in the Caucasus and in the Transcaucasus. Favorite places are beech forests, various thickets, stony slopes.
In Russia, Ivy is not found in the wild, it is cultivated as an evergreen “view” to decorate parks, country and country sites, public buildings. In addition, varieties that are suitable for growing in room conditions.
Ivy has 15 species that, in turn, include many varieties. However, despite such a rich variety variety, all of them are combined by common signs – the presence of crawling clinging rods with air roots.
For the decoration of the household site – the creation of green hedges, decorating unsightly walls of buildings is recommended to use decorative varieties Headers.
For landing in open ground or cultivation as a pot plant, usually choose ivy. The most popular species – Tauride, Fine, Miniature, Winter, Ombimited.
An unusual “appearance” has a Canary variety, which is home to the Canary Islands. This is a volatile plant with dense hearty leaves. Their feature is color – it is green and white.
The grade “Glouiron de Marengo” belongs to decorative, which, by the way, grow very quickly. A variety of “gray”, the birthplace of which Afghanistan is considered, characterizes a gray raid on green leaves. Pronounced decorative properties possesses ivy colchis with motley leaves. However, in the domestic climate, he grows very slowly, optimal for him are still areas with a softer climate.
Interesting “appearance” possesses Ivish Irish. It has a dark green with light veins leaf plate. Starids can be light gray or light green, and cuttings – purple. Finally, the leaves themselves slightly bent up.
Irish ivy very quickly applies and easily “climbs” to a height of up to 6-20 m.
For growing in the open ground, you can consider garden species. The appearance of this ivy varies depending on the age of the plant. At the same time, the garden species has many varieties that differ in the shape, size and color of the leaves.
In the western part of Russia, in the Caucasus and in the Crimea, widespread is widespread. It is interesting that it is also called English, apparently, because of the widespread spread in the Gardens in English style.
It grows in deciduous forests, whose trees crowns give a thick half. At the same time, ivy, an ordinary wilderness looks like a climbing plant with rolled stems, which flies the trunks and crown of trees.
If ivy grows in mountainous areas, he clings to the ammunges-roots for the mountainside, so the mountain range turns out to be completely seen by LIIANVMI. In the middle lane of Russia ivy, if it is saved for the winter, then only under the thick layer of snow. Caucasian, Crimean and Carpathian types of ivy are characterized by high cold resistance. Interestingly, such varieties can be renovated in more northern areas, but in this case they have a noticeable growth rate.
Ivy ordinary also has its own varieties. Among the most popular can be distinguished by several.
- “Brilliant-golden”, A distinctive feature of which are green-golden leaves of small sizes.
- “Small” characterized by small sizes with sheet plates having small three-trap shoots. Characterized by strong branchism.
- “Palmate” – The plant of this variety can be found in a five-eyed “foliage” of a dark green color with lighter veins.
- “Twisted” – ivy characterized by a slow growth rate. It has small leaves, gear and wavy around the edge. Because of this, it seems that they are wavy.
- “Triangular” – sheet plate heart-shaped, three-band, because of what in shape it resembles an inverted triangle with non-surgical angles. Some leaves themselves.
- “Smolder” – five-fluid shape of dark green plates.
- “Three-color” – Leaves are a mix of white and green shades of foliage. In the fall, they acquire a reddish tint, in addition, on the plant appear red shoots.
Heder Helix is suitable for growing in room conditions. It has dense leathery plates of a dark green shade. Leaves are dressed with lighter veins. There are spelling varieties Heders Helix.
Depending on the grade of the leaves, there are from 3 to 7 blades.
Features of breeding
Multiply ivy can be 3 ways.
With this method, you need to cut small shoots with air roots and root them in the soil of 2-3 cuttings. You need to select cuttings with leaves and pressing roots (at least – with a formed node). The sizes of the roots – 10-14 cm, cut them under a sharp angle. The lower leaves (if any) are removed near the cut, and the slice itself is desirable to be treated with a special increase in growth stimulator.
Next, the cuttings are rooted in the ground. Soil – a mixture of deciduous earth and sand. First, the cuttings are rooted under the film, which is open once a day. As the cuttings are rooted, the film is cleaned, and after 1.5-2 months they are ready for landing in an outdoor ground.
It is better to use odd cuttings, as young green shoots are worse rooted. In addition, under the slightest adverse conditions (for example, a nightliness of temperature) cuttings in most cases die.
Cooking cuttings optimally at the beginning of spring, although you can do it during the summer. But in the fall cut cuttings is not recommended, because ivy is preparing for wintering.
With this method, cut and strong Ivy escape with 8-10 leaves is taken. It is pressed in the sand so that only leaves remain on the surface. After 1.5-2 weeks in the sand from the air roots, a full-fledged root system will be formed. After that, the escape should be carefully removed from the ground and cut into a cutting. Each cutlets must have at least 1 sheet and roots. Cuttings can not be rooted in water, and immediately fall into the ground or pot.
To reproduce this method, you should take a long and durable branch of Ivy, to make small cuts on one side and doubt these places to the ground. So that the branch of the roots leaves, it must be fixed on the ground with special brackets. As soon as the branch is rooted, the brackets are cleaned, and the branch is “cutting” to the brass. The latter are transplanted to the right place.
An interesting fact – although Ivy and forms a seed, he does not multiply seeds.
This is due to the fact that the plant from the seed does not preserve the maternal properties.
Nuances of care
Despite the fact that Heder is a light-affiliated plant, it does not tolerate excess heat and dry air. First of all, it depends on it, whether ivy will form a green carpet or will inhabit, barely reaching the meter in height.
Ivy does not like the hot sun, optimally – give the sun to warm green leaves in the morning and evening, And during the dining heat, the plant is better to priest. In the apartment in the cultivation of ivy, you need to maintain a suitable air humidity. Care for the hetero with green leaves is easier than for spelling.
The optimal temperature for growing green “carpet” – 18-20 degrees, in winter – 8-12 degrees. The plant can carry the temperature fluctuations, is not afraid of drafts.
To avoid excessive influence of sun rays on the leaves will help the choice of the right location of the plant. Ivy shadowed plant, so it can be planted on the northern, northwestern sides. This, by the way, is convenient, because sometimes it is not easy to choose plants that will come down at such a place. However, if you choose Peppermond Grade Headers, remember that they are more demanding to light.
Ivy belongs to moisthed plants, and in addition, has air roots that are easily overwhelmed in the heat. That is why watering should be abundant and frequent. When determining the frequency of irrigation and water volume, it is necessary to focus on the state of the earth coma. Optimally if it is always moistened. However, it is important to avoid moisture stagnation, because it will lead to rot from the roots.
In winter, if the plant is in heated room, the frequency of irrigation remains almost unchanged. If Ivy winter in a cool room (winter garden, basement, veranda), then watering should be cut.
If ivy is grown at home, then in hot summer days, as well as with the onset of the heating season, it is necessary to regularly spray the leaves and space around the plant with water from the spray. If possible, use air humidifiers. If the air temperature is less than +20 degrees, then you can not worry about air humidity, it itself will be appropriate.
Ivy very gratefully answers the fertilizers. The main thing is to make them right. In the spring-summer period it should be done every 14-16 days. Fake feeders for room deciduous plants.
In winter, the growth of the plant, though slows down, but does not stop – it also needs feeding. At this time, it is enough to make fertilizer once a month. Although it is more correct to navigate the conditions of “wintering” ivy.
When the Heder fertilizer is re-published, he will sign about this yellow and fallen leaves.
Young plants should transplant every year. Better to do it early in spring. 4-5 Summer Header is considered an adult plant and needs a transplant once every 2-3 years. Ampelny species (it applies to them and ivy) have a surface root system, and therefore do not need deep pots.
Much more important to make a drainage layer using the small and medium fraction of gravel or clamzit. It will save the plants from the caution of water in a pot. As for the soil, I witch in this matter is undemanding. You can use a finished substrate for decorative-deciduous plants.
For the preparation of soil with their own hands, you can mix leaf and turf, peat and sand. All “components” are taken by one part. Another “recipe” – taken in the same quantity of turf, humus, sand. In a word, Ivy feels well in a weakly acidic loose substrate.
To get a lush carpet, storms ivy should constantly cut. Cut should shoot without leaves, dry leaves. It is necessary to do it during the period of active growth (summer-beginning of autumn). For better branches, you can also pinch a cutlets of young shoots. In the spring, it makes a trimming of too long, sticking wrestlers, shorting them by a third. Cut parts can be used to root in water, and then in the soil.
Soil Header for winter should be mulched to avoid its freezing. For this, peat or humus. On low borders, the plant can be covered by foliage of nuts, apple or oak. It is important that the shelter is not too dense and overly warm. Shoots still have to “breathe”, otherwise they prohibit and rotate. Spring shoots unfold without using robber, otherwise you can damage the plant.
Possible diseases and pests
Despite her unpretentiousness, Heder can get sick. In most cases, this is due to improper departure. TAK, excessive watering, resting period and abundance of fertilizers lead to the fact that the screens begin to take off – the leaves are yellow and fall.
If you planned to grow the volatile varieties of ivy, and the leaves suddenly became green, probably the plant is not enough light. The lack of lighting says the increased distance between the leaves.
The appearance on the leaves of the brown “dry” rim testifies to excessively hot and dry air, moisture deficit.
Rarely ivy can affect pests. First of all – by the paw. In this case, on the shoots and the inner side of the sheet with the naked eye a web is noticeable. Leaves can be covered with silver dots – these are traces of insect bites. Ivy itself begins to stick and fad.
It is possible to infect the thyroid. In this case, black points appear on the plant.
As treatment, as well as prevention measures, you can use insecticides for garden plants – “carbofos”, “Aktara”, “Aktellik”. Dosage and frequency of spraying by each drug you need to look at the package.
Ivy refers to the oldest decorative cultures, which indicates its cultivation in ancient Rome. This or that species is found almost every continent.
Referring to evergreen plants, Ivy symbolizes immortality. However, such a interpretation is not the only one. Ivy is also associated with fertility – it’s not for nothing that he decorates the rod and wreath of God Dionysia. Predated image of a climbing plant decorated cups and vessels for wine.
This liana is also a sign of faithful and devoted love. This is indicated by the legend of Tristan’s lovers and Isolde, on the grave of which grape vine and ivy rose and wondered.
Also ivy was considered a plant that helps women keep youth and beauty. It was included in the wreaths, walked into the hairstyle. It was believed that the twig, laid on the chest of a sleeping girl, will extend her youth.
Similar attention to the plant led to the fact that he often “appears” in dream books. See evergreen twigs – to success and health. Girls such a dream promises pleasant meetings and unexpected surprises.
Accordingly, dried ivy – to disease and failures.
It is proved that the plant purifies air and reduces the content of pathogenic microbes by 30-40%. That is why it is recommended to breed it in office and industrial premises, as well as on facilities near factories, plants, highways.
Heder introduces positive energy to the room. It is believed that it gives energy and strength, and indecisive people – self-confidence. However, when growing plants at home, it is important not to forget that it is poisonous.
In times, Avicenna ivy has gained even more popularity, which is associated with his therapeutic properties. However, if you turn to the ancient literature, it can be found that with the help of evergreen leaves Odyssey got rid of his wounds. In the Middle Ages, Leonardo da Vinci spoke about the healthy properties of Ivy.
Modern medicine for a long time did not recognize the medical properties of the heders, but recently the components are used for traditional therapy (for example, “Prospan”, appointed with bronchitis, cough) and in homeopathy. The plant has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and tonic properties, heals the wounds.
Liana are also used in cosmetology – as a component of creams and other compositions for combating cellulite.
Consider the most interesting and frequently found options for landscaping of household plots ivy.
It combines well with a stone, brick, wood. One of the advantages of the plant is the ability to save Earth, because ivy is used for vertical landscaping.
Plant easily climbs on any surfaces, with the exception of completely smooth surfaces made of glass and metal. In this case, it is better to consider the system of supports for Ivy. In the hot regions, Ivy can damage too white and light walls that strongly reflect light. The shoots will be faded.
Heder is widely used for roof gardening. By the way, such a “coating” has not only aesthetic, but also practical function. Wall from ivy protects against overheating in summer heat and prevents strong heat loss in winter.
If ivy is grown as a soil plant, it can be combined with a maple, birch.
Due to the highly developed root system of the latter, it is usually difficult to choose the “neighbors”.
Well combined plush with low shrubs (especially volatile or purple shades), strambed roses. In the spring (and autumn) Heder acquires a reddish tint, which allows you to combine it with primroses. The reddish palette specifically makes the tenderness of the latter.
For landscaping fences and fences, as well as in the shaded places it is better to use Irish ivy as more winter-hardy.
Low-resistant to low temperatures is characterized by Karpathian ivy. However, it does not form a solid bedspread, so it is better to apply it to decorate individual elements.
If there is a task in a short time, hide the unsightly surface of the buildings, create a living fence, then use garden ivy. It quickly grows, forming a lush green cover. Against the background of such a living hedge, bright bushes look great.
In the boxes outside the window or small containers on the open veranda, dwarf varieties are attractive.
Ivy’s care secrets See next video.