All gardeners can potentially use information about what the soil loves grapes. Attention should be paid not only to the acidity of the soil, as often think. It is also necessary to think about clay and other soils for grapes, about events to improve the quality of land.
What should be the composition?
The practice of viticulture has long and confidently answer this question. Grape loves the soil, which is composed of stone, minerals, clay, sand and organic inclusions. But at the same time, on too dense soils, this plant develops very badly. Clean sand is inclined to freeze in a cold, even if it is not too harsh frosts, and in the usual time moisture in it is not delayed. As for trace elements, in the ground for a vineyard must be present in noticeable quantities:
Hydrogen indicator (better known to non-specialists as an acid-alkaline balance) is also very significant. Normally for grape pH can be from 4 to 8. A strong primer use hardly reasonable. The root system of the plant in this case is experiencing problems, poorly absorbs substances from the external environment.
You have to use reinforced fertilizer doses, which is not only uneconomically, but also harms the environment.
But not everything is so unambiguous and straightforward. Indicators should be varied depending on the type of plant. For American varieties you can choose a soil in crumb. European and Asian varieties feel better at the pH of 6 or more. Maximum accurate information can be found only from the description of specific varieties.
Choosing the type of soil
Before digging a pit under the grape landings, you need to make sure that the soil is really suitable. This plant definitely prefers rocky, sandy substrate. Must be gravel inclusions. An important requirement is air permeability, since the root system is assumed to aerate. On the rocky-sandy sections, other cultures grow badly, but the grapes feel it wonderful, he is warm and cozy. Loose land containing crushed stone or gravel helps to develop a serious root system. It forms a large number of suction roots.
Chernozem, on which other cultures grow beautifully, for vineyards hardly fit. If there is no sufficient amount of sand and rubble, they are not exactly suitable. It is worth remembering that the vine does not grow in the territories with an impermeable subsoil. Therefore, it is steadfasting it on the swampy sites, there is nothing to think on a solid stone substrate. It will not be possible to dilute the productive vineyard and in Solonchak. Clay land heavy and dense, badly skip both water and air. Bushes will develop badly and slowly. And even if they develop, count on a decent harvest will not.
How to improve the soil?
Regardless of the type of soil, they can be optimized. The main emphasis is on the increase in nutrition. Thanks to special additives, roots are formed more active. Too dense clay diluted with additives of large sand fractions. Useful at the same time put another 20 kg of lower peat per 1 kV. M. Otherwise come when working with Suglink. It is laid in the sand of a large fraction in the volume of 20 kg. Requires the same number of peat. It is impossible to do without compost. But it is already used less, only 5 kg per 1 m2. Purely sandy ground change completely, as it is practically useless. Sacks must be sealing and make a nutrient. For this purpose, apply:
clay or high-quality black soil;
Preferably enrich the Earth try the organic substances.
Manure from goats, horses and sheep is preferable for clay and soglinka. Manure pigs and sheep will help to cope with the lack of sandy soil. High concentration of nitrogen in bird laying makes it use very carefully. Such fertilizer is desirable to insist in water diluted 15 times, from 10 to 15 days. Each bush will need to use 3 l of a finished solution.
You can also cook peat compost with humus (3 shares via 1 share, respectively). The mixture is insteaded from 5 to 8 months. It must be used in the amount of 3-4 kg per 1 kV. M. It must be borne in mind that with the constant use of such a soil improver in the vineyard oxidizes. Weaken such a negative effect help:
a piece of chalk;
Useful to apply Mulch. It is usually used as a straw, wheat bran either sawdust. Such slow fertilizers will detain moisture and increase the looseness of the Earth. They will raise grape bushes with useful substances. Flowing mulch is made by a layer of approximately 5 cm.
Often, green fertilizers are recommended for grapes. In the aisles, the bushes are planting legumes (including peas), rye or mustard. This will enrich the top soil layer. During the growing season, it is useful to water the bushes with a solution of ash (concentration of 0.5%).
With the help of such a solution, not only improve the quality of the Earth, but also successfully reflect the attacks of pests, illness.
We must not forget about mineral feeding. So, in the spring months recommended the use of nitrogen and potash-phosphoric compositions. With the onset of summer it is necessary to abandon nitrogen mixtures, and the phosphoric potassium leave. In winter, in the snow, complex fertilizers are scattered. There are some more nuances:
White grape varieties are favorable to the organicer than to minerals;
Red varieties do not tolerate fertilizer by humus;
When growing wine varieties, it is necessary to diligently avoid breaking.
Conditions in which grape vines develops, depend not only on the chemical composition and structure of the soil. It is important to take into account how relief is affected. It is useful to break the vineyards on the slopes, because there the water is not stuffed. At the same time, the slopes are unequal – the South or South-Western side is best suited.
From growing such a culture in lowlands, even if the soil is formally compliant, it is better to refrain.
Grapes of the Moscow region, the Leningrad region and neighboring regions are often encountered with swamped sour soilsand. Before planting, they need not only to dry and bring acidity to the norm, but also to increase the nutrition. Volga black soils are characterized by a balance of balance towards larger alkalinity. Therefore, they need to be neutralized, but otherwise nothing has nothing to do. Sad plots prevail in the southern regions of Russia. They will have to lay a combination of peat and organic. However, the softness of the climate allows you to compensate for the traditional sand problem – winter freezer.
Siberian and Ural territories are also used to grow grapes. There on any earth, even when choosing a frost-resistant variety, you will have to securely cover the landing with the onset of cold. But it will not be necessary to deal with the characteristic pests of the vine. They simply will not survive in the harsh climate. And also need to pay attention to that any type of soil in Siberia and in the Urals requires the same approach as in other regions of the country.