Experienced gardeners consider compost to their faithful assistant to care for cultures and soil. It improves the quality of the soil, is a good fertilizer and the basis for mulching. Compost without difficulty and special costs can be cooked independently – the main thing is to know where to place a compost pit, how to fill it and equip it. Consider all these moments in detail.
What it is?
Compost is primarily an environmentally friendly material (organic fertilizer), which helps to improve the properties of the soil and feeds the beneficial elements of the plant. The compost mass is made of organic waste, the process of overload turns them into a useful composition. But absolutely rotten waste into compost is not laid in order not to provoke a bad smell. Mature compost smells fresh forest earth, fertilizer is obtained homogeneous, dark (brown) color. It makes a solution for feeding or used in kind.
In the first case, one compost shovel is dissolved in 20 liters of water, insist during the week, then watered garden and indoor plants. In the second – introduce a mass to the soil, while working at the same time: 5 kilograms of such fertilizers are designed for 1 square meter of land. The method of using compost as a fertilizer is very common among gardening fans. They fertilize almost all cultures. True, it is very neatly necessary to feed the roots, tomatoes, watermelons and a melon, because they “recycle” compost for growing green mass, and the harvest will suffer.
And here cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkin and strawberry such food especially love. “Satisfied”, they will give beautiful fruits saturated with a good aroma, with pronounced taste. The compost mulch the soil around the trees, as well as drown in greenhouses and greenhouses. To equip the compost yam is easy, and the benefit is repeated. Methods of manufacturing this special pit a lot, it is desirable that it consists of 3-parts. Compost must be embedded in “Storage” for pushing. In partitions necessarily leave holes for air exchange and ventilation.
The presence of a door or a removable cover is a prerequisite: during the anticipation period, you need to have access to it to periodically stir the composition.
General device and sizes
The classic version of the compost pits is the design of 2×1.5 meters, height is also 1.5 m and 0.5 meters deep into the earth. However, experienced gardeners have their own calculations. They proceed from the fact that In the compost organcient there should be humidity at the level of 55%, the temperature in the center of the composter is not less than 70-80 degrees and conditions for good air circulation. And this manages to provide only with the volume in 1 cubic meter – it means that the dimensions of the composter must be 1×1 m and in height per 1 meter. If the volume is greater, the difficulty will occur with maintaining the desired temperature, and if less, it is not easy to keep the desired humidity.
Designs make closed and open types. More complex considered closed pit. Frame for her do or wooden, or from concrete. If a wooden base is selected, then before this tree passes a special processing to not rot. To create a compost pile of an open type, you need to pull the pit on a small depth, put the walls with slate and put there with foliage, grass and organic. As a rule, the front wall makes either removable or retractable – it’s easier to pick up the mass for the processing of the bed. Well, and it is necessary to have access to having components, if the pit is not filled in initially all.
Access to the contents should also be because it will be possible to interfere with compost. The bottom is not covered by anything to leave the opportunity to penetrate the wives and microorganisms – they will help faster to wander.
For non-proliferation odor, it is necessary to hide such a pit with a tarpaulter, it is also necessary to protect the construction of precipitation.
Where to locate?
Gardeners in the village usually equip the pits for compost on their household plots: in the garden, gardens, close to the house, in the backyard. If there is not far public composters, you can use a common place. You can put the organic to compost directly on the beds where cultures are planted, but, as a rule, special designs are manufactured. According to the requirements of SNiP, the location of the composter should be no closer to 8-10 meters from the residential premises, the minimum distance must be at least 7 meters away from the basements, as well as not closer than 25 meters from water sources.
A bunch should be away from the fence of neighbors – so that they do not cause discomfort due to unpleasant air, it is necessary to comply with the standards of accommodation. When choosing a place for a compost pit, you need to explore the direction of the wind, especially this is important if the site is located within the city. And if you found a suitable place, it is better that it was in the shade – in the open sun, the organic fertilizer will be in the open sun longer.
How to equip a pit?
Do in the country with your own hands the compost pit will not work. You can build it yourself from any rebooting material: slate, professional flooring, wooden pallets, iron or plastic barrels and another. There are factory collapsible structures, and you can make them overhaul from concrete or bricks – such buildings are considered more durable. Next, consider step-by-step instructions for the manufacture of various options.
According to Finnish technology
Finnish compost cooking technology lies in the continuous production of high-quality substrate. You can purchase ready-made compartments for the storage of the organic or make yourself. The essence of the method is as follows: Fill the boxes are consistently, and then, removing the finished fertilizer from the first compartment, it is shifted to it semi-prepared compost from the second compartment, in the second – the contents of the third, which after emptying is filled again by waste, and so on.
Usually, to obtain a mature fertilizer from the organic waste, no less than 2 years is required, and with such technology, the process is significantly reduced. In compliance with all the rules on temperature regime and humidity, after 4 weeks after booking, the biomass can be obtained a high-quality substrate. Composters on Finnish technology should be 1 cubic meter. They need to support the moisture content of the content within 60% at a temperature of at least 70 degrees (you can up to 80 degrees). In purchased devices there are mounted sensors for measuring temperature and humidity.
For the manufacture, it is better to use wooden boards themselves, having previously treated them with a special solution so that they themselves do not rot on the process of rotting organic substances. One of the cheap and convenient options is a compost pit on Finnish pallets. Do not forget to correctly apply the dimensions for such a composter: 1x1x1 m.
This is a very important point, because in a smaller body of the organizing can dry and turn into a duch, and in more – it can simply burn from excessive heat.
A pit from Schifer will serve for a long time, and it can be very simple, drowning into the ground around the perimeter of slate sheets. For a more capital structure, slate must be clogged with a laid wooden frame. It all depends on whether a constant compost pit is needed or temporary. The design can also hold metal pipes, but if it has wooden supports, then they periodically need to be strengthened, processing the antiseptic, or to produce their full replacement, which will require great effort.
Wooden can be the lid of such a device, which also need to be processed for longer operation. With the help of the same slate, the container is separated into two or three parts. There are those who consider slate not a very successful material for the manufacture of a device in which the compost ripens. In their opinion, the organizing agent in the slate design will be much longer to be angry, and therefore it is not the best option for the basis of the compost pit.
You can make a compost pit from anything, but, according to the majority, still the ideal basis for this tree is considered. And in order to build a compost box quickly and without special embezzlement, you can use pallets. They are available at the price, and will not need to spend money on more expensive boards and bars. Only you need to immediately purchase a special means for protecting wood from the effects of soil and organications, as well as paint to improve and the appearance of the design. It is necessary to paint the box at the end of the assembly, but the antiseptic processing is produced at the very beginning (follow the instructions). Collect the compost hole after a complete drying of the wood: you can equip each wall with a size of 1×1 m separately, and then to collect all the sweep boards to the bars.
On the front wall you need to make the door with a height of at least 30 centimeters, attaching it with loops. Do not forget about the partitions – there must be several. When the design is collected, the bottom should be made on the bottom, and it is necessary to leave the gaps between them. In the summer, in the heat you will need to water the contents of the box – the gaps between the horses will perform their function.
The roof is better to make a duplex so that one slot is deaf, and the second is on the loop. This will allow freely download raw materials (waste and other organic) to transform fertilizer.
Computer pit can be created from conventional red brick, silicate white or chamotte. Pass the design in three walls, in the masonry leaves small gaps for air inflow. By the way, bricks are optional to fasten cement mortar.
This design then easily can be disassembled and move to another site. Be sure to provide an additional compartment for throwing and turning the content in such a pit. You need to make a roof from a suitable material, preferably with a comfortable handle.
Durable, reliable and durable pit for rotting organics make concrete rings. Such a well can be slightly inserted into the ground or put just to the soil. It can be folded in it, even feces, dry foliage – will come out high-quality compost without excess costs. Such a pit can be covered with a film, or make a lid of wood. The only negative of such a design is that it’s inconvenient to get ready to get ready-made fertilizer. In a concrete basis, it is not possible to make the door or a removable panel.
Who has old iron barrels or other metal structures, you can “break” waste in them. Only you have to cut the bottom on both sides, then set the foundations on a flat ground surface. Such containers are treated with black paint for better penetration of the rays of the Sun and maintain optimal conditions in the composter. The inconvenience is that it is necessary to raise a barrel scrap to get ready-made fertilizer.
Much easier is the device from the auto strokes. You need only 4-6 tires for the formation of cylinder-holes, and so that the air is circulated, plastic tubes are carried out through the rubber. Compost pits are in the finished form, they only need to be installed and learn to use them. Speech about the biothet – this is a special kind of compost pit. This factory device is able to recycle in fertilizer even waste of people’s vital activity. It has a compartment for a mixture of peat and wood sawdust. After visiting such a toilet, a person simply turns a special handle, as a result of which waste is evenly falling asleep by wood-peat composition.
Such a composter will also receive small portions of food waste, which will also be filled with a special composition and “wander”, turning into organic food for plants and soil. As soon as one drawer is filled with, it is cleaned and insert another. The compost obtained in this way has a high concentration, so when using it, it is stirred from the ground, a sandy mixture or additionally diluted with peat.
How and what to fill?
Food waste is layered by layers, alternating, for example, potato cleaning with foliage, then you can throw apples collected in the fall in the parressadic, and throw them. For composting, raw cleaning of berries, fruits, vegetables in the raw form, but, for example, potato skins and tomato waste should not be greater than 20% of the entire compost mass. You can add tea and coffee residues, onion husks, eggshell, other food waste, as well as a straw, fresh grass, ash.
To make the finished composition more saturated, the components are stirred with manure or chicken litter. In the absence of such a compost, it is necessary to fill in a small amount of salt. It is not recommended to add to the total mass of weeds. They make individual heaps, cover them with a film, and they reap separately – this is a guarantee that weed grass does not fit again on the plot. But the twigs, the roots of coniferous and conventional trees are finely crushed and added to recycling into useful feeding.
What you can not make?
It is forbidden to put in the compost “patient” vegetation affected by mildewing dew, phytoofluorosis, various pests and so on. Throw or instill separately the excrement of your pets – For composting, this is an unsuitable material primarily due to the possible presence of worms in them and parasite eggs. If this is not a special device for compost, such as a dry lad, then in the usual pit it is not worth throwing and human feces. Cabbage waste is also not recommended to fill compost pits: with rotting this culture gives a strong unpleasant smell.
It is not recommended to throw meat waste and bones into compost – it can attract rodents, as well as provoke the appearance of bad smell from the compost drawer. The fact that long does not decompose – plastic, rubber and metal products, tissues from synthetic and the like – also not suitable for composting. Do not give in to the rapid decomposition of the sawdust, so they are also subject to processing.
In addition, they pull out nitrogen from the compost, so it is better to abandon their “participation” in the formation of natural fertilizer.
How to speed up rot?
Having laid a compost yam, you should not wait for a quick result, you need to patience. The natural processing process of organics in fertilizer lasts at least 1.5-2 years. But there is another way: acceleration can be provoked by special means. This method is especially relevant where the warm period lasts very long. Specials are several. Add to compost, for example, “Tamir”. With this drug, the process of composting can be completed after 15-20 days after bookmark.
It contains a large number of bacteria and microorganisms responsible for the decomposition of waste and garbage of an organic type. Such compost will differ in consistency from the usual, but it will give in the soil that the plants will be favorable. And “Tamir” and other similar drugs are applied by the same scheme: each layer is sprinkled and watering from above, and if a bunch is already formed, a deepening is made in the center and the powder and liquid falls back.
I can stimulate the processing of the organications not only by complex drugs, but also, for example, yeast. It is necessary to make a solution of 1 liter of water, 200 grams of sugar sand and 1 tablespoon of dry yeast. In the compost pile, deepening and pour the yeast composition there. Formed mushrooms will quickly make their job. Permanent moisturizing by herbal solutions, solutions from chicken litter, as well as ordinary water, periodic sporing of compost forks – All this also speeds up the process of its maturation. If the ferment mixture add a bit ready-made compost, it also contributes to a more rapid fertilizer production process.
Do I need to close for the winter?
Is it worth covering a tight lid on the winter tightly with a lid, the question is controversial for gardeners, because some believe that if not lid, even though it is necessary to cover it with a film, others – that, in general, do not worry about this. Agrarians-professionals emanate in this matter from the fact that the correct laying of compost when it is ripening should give a temperature inside a heap within 70 degrees of heat, so the film does not need to be covered, especially since a bunch “will not breathe” with such shelter.
But if not a film, how to keep the winter such a temperature? Agronomas are recommended when forming a heap to add sphere between layers, lime, phosphates. And in the frost to keep warm, experts advise to cover it with a good layer of soil, and on top to “wrap up” with snow.
About how to independently make a compost pit and get a good humus, look in the following video.