What does a cherry look like and how to grow it?

Cherry – Wood plant, few people would refuse such a fruit tree on the plot. It grows very quickly, has a more direct stack (unlike cherry) and prefers moderate climate. However, it is trying to grow a sneaker even in the so-called risky agriculture zones. And, of course, such an experiment needs a powerful information feeding.

Botanical description

Cherry belong to the first magnitude trees. Her crown has a pronounced egg-shaped form, but may strive for cone-shaped. Cherry has two types of shoots – Auxiblasts and Brachiblasts. The young trees are usually brown, red or even silver, and has many stripes. For a long time, brown lentils can be found on the cortex, and sometimes peeling with transverse films.

What a cherry looks like – Botanical Profile Read more:

  • Root system Usually horizontal, but branched vertical roots can also sometimes be formed;
  • taproot The cherry is drawn up strictly in the first and second year of life, and then it is branched;
  • kidney The tree can be generative, vegetative and still mixed;
  • Leaflets The tree has short pointers, their shape is reverseless, elliptical or elongated, a little wrinkled;
  • Flowers White, two-fallen, are formed on the shoots before the decisive of leaves, forming seating umbrellas;
  • Flower 5 petals and 5 cups, one pestle and many stamens;
  • fruit Cherries – busty, having a juicy and fleshy, can be in the shape of a ball, an oval or heart, and in color both white and dark red;
  • seeds have peel, germin and endosperm.

One of the main differences between Cherry Cherry is a pretty bright bark, branches with a mutiot location, light green hanging leaves oval, elongated, with jarbrins. And most importantly, the circle of cherry spread is relatively limited, it grows mainly in the moderate climate of southern Europe.

Life expectancy is not very long, it is recommended to use a cherry for 15 years, although it lives in some cases and all 100. Fruits ripen when the tree is 4-5 years.

She belongs to the skin of the plum, the family of pink. This, by the way, one of the most ancient (proven) bone plants. In height, an adult tree can reach 20 m, and the painting of cherry always depends on its variety. Berry can be yellow, pink and dark red. Two types of cherry exist by type of pulp: Bigarro – so-called a view with a solid flesh and late ripeness, and Gin is a soft flesh and early fruiting. And the name of the “bird cherry” walks in the people, so called the cherry for a long time, once again emphasizing her relatives of the cherry. But in principle, these are different types of one and the same culture.

Cherry is a berry or fruit?

Surprisingly, the discussions on this occasion still do not stop. Fruit from the point of view of botany is a mature fruit with seeds, and the fruits are seeds, and also tropical and subtropical, walnut and, of course, bone. Our fruits have one bone, it means that a cherry is considered a bone fruit (the fetus is known – Kostyanka). From this position it is quite fair can be called fruit.

But since the sweet cherry, and the cherry is small in size, they can be eaten for one bite, and it is more familiar to call them berries. That is, in a folk understanding of a sweet cherry, a berry, in scientific – fruit, fruit.

The variety is selected on request, first of all, it is important when the fruits of the variety will spit, in what period it will be possible to assemble the harvest.

Early

Early varieties are very loved by gardeners, because it will be possible to eat a delicious berry in late May or early June. Popular representatives of this series: “Valery Chkalov” (previously grew in the Caucasus, but now he has been growing successfully in the territories with temperate climates, fruits for the 5th year), “Ovstyenka” (The tree will have a raised spherical crown, medium and rounded berries, juicy and sweet), “Ariadne” (Fruit will be on the 3rd season, the crop will be good and excellent transported, the tree is not afraid of the cold).

And it is not bad to take “April”, “Italian” and “Iput”, “Beauty”, “Beret” and “Annushka” – they all showed themselves in horticultural practice.

Middle time ripening

Fruption will have to mid-June and the first numbers of July. Not very resistant to these varieties to return freezers, but this is their main minus. Popular varieties include: “Gastinets” (Berries will be large, rounded, juicy and very tasty), “Drogan Yeolay” (Sustainable frost and drought tree, not afraid of fungi), “Vasilisa” (good and fresh, and in compote), “Bullie Heart” (Large fruits, pyramidal shape of wood, endurance and stability), “Dolores” (grade tolerate to droughts, and frosts too, the flesh of berries literally melts in the mouth). A good choice will also be “Repa”, “General”, “farewell”, “surprise”.

Late

Begins fruiting at the end of July and lasts until September. Variety “KORDORY”, For example, it grows better in the southern regions, a tree with large berries, very actively fertile. “Tyutchevka” To taste, the berries was estimated by 4.9 out of 5, this is one of the most highly productive trees. “Lapins” – Validated variety, but it is good only in the south, it looks very aesthetically, and the fruit is excellent. Also popular “Bryansk Pink”, “Svithart”, “Bryanochka”, “Regina”, “Alaya”, “Stakkato”.

Landing

In areas where the climate is safe can be called warm, the cherry is made to plant in autumn, with a reserve a few weeks before the lamentage of the Earth. In the northern districts, the landing time is reduced to the spring, until the swelling of the kidneys in the tree, you need to have a sorrow. Southern slopes, as well as southeast or southwestern, more suitable for planting cherries. But those zones where soil waters lie high, do not suit. Vertical tree roots can be deepened by 2 m, and a meeting with waters will kill a cherry. Nizans are also undesirable, because by spring there is a melt water.

It is preferable for cherries of loam, enriched with a nutrient composition, as well as sampling soil, but peat, clay or sand – extremely negative option.

And in order for the crosstural plant necessary to the plant, it is necessary to land near the trees of two or three different varieties. Or just land near the cherry, the time of flowering of which is the same with cherries.

Features of planting cherries in the fall.

  1. First you need to prepare a plot. 2-3 weeks before landing, the land will jump, 10 kg of compost (maximum), 180 g of superphosphate, 100 g of potash fertilizers contribute to each square.
  2. If the soil is screamed, it can be lime: In the suction ground, to enter 500 g of lime to the square (can be less), and in heavy loams – and all 800 g. And do it before making fertilizer, as it is lime, and fertilizers can not be made at once.
  3. If the cherry is put in clay, it is necessary to make sand, and vice versa. But they make it a couple of years before landing, when the planting of fruit trees is still plans. Only in such a balanced soil the cherry can subsequently develop.
  4. Pit are made 2 weeks before landing. Depth – up to 80 cm, diameter – 1 m. When digging, the fertile soil layer is discarded in one direction, non-fermented – to another. In the midst of the pits, the count is so high so that he leaves centimeters for the surface to 40. And the fertile land is mixed with a compost, 200 g of superphosphate, 60 g of sulfur potassium and 0.5 kg of ash.
  5. Nitrogen and lime along the landing do not use, as it is fraught with burns for the root system of wood. Part of the upper ground layer (pretty mixed with fertilizers) puffed up near the carriage slide, zaminyat, and on top there are already infrundable soil. It will be smoothed, watered, and then the pit leaves for 2 weeks so that the land is asslaved in it.
  6. When landing, the seedlock is placed in the ground so that the root neck will rise by 6-7 cm above the level of the pit. The roots of the village are unfolded along the holloch, which was added 2 weeks ago, and the pit itself falls asleep earth from the layer below. Seedling need a little shy.
  7. A whole bucket of water is poured into the pit for the soil sedimentation, landing ends. The surface around the tree is rambling, watering, and then around the cherry is formed by a furrow at 5 cm deep, and it feels outside the soil shaft. Soon the soil in the rolling circle will fall, and it will be necessary to plug in it.

In the spring, the cherry will be planted on the same plan as in the fall. Only the site is leaving before winter, pits, with a crossing and compost and compost in them, are also formed in October-November, and the pit in this form stands until spring. After the resumption of snow in the pit makes minudging (and nitrogen), and after a week, the tree will be ready to settle for a permanent place. Right circles after landing should be closed.

Care

He is complex, seasonal and not to say so that it is very difficult.

Watering

Usually, the sweetheart needs a three-time watering (meaning three times per season). It is watered before flowering, in the middle of summer and under winter. In the middle of summer, when rains are very little, perhaps you have to pour a tree more than once. Before irrigated, the ripplet round, and after irrigation, the land is molded. In the autumn, the cherry will need moisture-proof watering, which must impregnate the land of centimeters by 80.

To increase the winter hardiness of a cherry, this measure is needed, it will not give the soil to freeze.

Podkord

To stimulate the active growth of the plant, for abundant fruiting, it is necessary to make mineral fertilizers in the rolling sherry wheels in early May: 20 g of urea, 20 g of potassium sulfate, 20 g of superphosphate. But it is done only for those trees who already have 4 years. After harvesting (and usually this end of July), extractive feeding of trees is made – potash-phosphoric.

If the cherry gave an excellent harvest, in August to really feed it by an organic matter: for example, a divorce 1 part of a cowboat in 8 parts of water, or 1 fraction of chicken litter in 20 pieces of water.

Wintering

Adult trees usually cost and without shelter, a rolled circle, closed by peat, will be a guarantee of a normally experienced winter. And even additionally, you can whiten the stack and the basis of skeletal branches of the tree. The young trees for the winter will have to hide. They will assign a sweetheart, wrap burlap (because they will be warm there). But Loutrasil is a very bad option for shelter, as well as other synthetic analogues, which contribute only to the breaking of the plant.

Trimming

It is considered probably the most burdensome moment in all. And cut the cherry every year, right from the first year of life. What do you need trimming: it increases yield, well affects the quality of fruits, reduces the risk of the incidence of a tree. Better, if the pruning happens in the spring, in warm well-established weather, eliminating night frosts.

Other important points trimming.

  • As soon as the tree reached 60-70 cm in height, it can be trimmed. The bottom side twig is shortened to about 60 cm or a little less, the rest – to the level of its cut. The conductor should not be above skeletal branches greater than 15 cm. All branches that the trunk go under an acute angle, delete.
  • Lay the longline of wood for the year is almost impossible. The first tier form usually from the branches, which are located on the barrel on average 15 cm from each other. On two subsequent tiers of branches decrease by one, they must be asymmetrically. The average distance between tiers – 70 cm.
  • 5-6 years of life – this is already maintaining the height of the tree, if we talk about pruning. Level – 3-3.5 m, and the length of the skeletal branches is kept at 4 m. Abundant fruit branches should be frozen, thickening and competing – remove. Broken and frozen branches are cleaned too.
  • If you have to pruning in the summer, it is carried out in 2 stages: After flowering (but at the time of the formation of fruits) and after the harvest managed to collect. Young shoots that stimulate the formation of new horizontal taps undergo.
  • In the autumn, the cherry is cut after the leaffall, and better if it happens with this until the end of September. Without weak and deformed branches, the tree will better postpone the wintering. Annual shorten on a third, littering – by 30 cm. Autumn pruning is usually conducted by a saw, because sections after saws are heal faster.

One-year-old seedlings are impossible in the fall, they are not quite strong, and in winter they can suffer.

Methods of breeding

You can make it seeds, but you can vaccinate. What is minus the seed way, so it is in the insignificance of the result, it is very badly predicted. Therefore, with a generative reproduction, we rush only in the case of a trip, to which the cultural stock will be brought further.

Features of the cultivation of cherries from seeds.

  • Dissoped from the pulp of the bone should be rinsed, dry into the shadow, mix one part to the third with a moistled sand to a third, and half a year to stratify at + 2 … 5 degrees. Do not forget that the soil must be moisturized and mix from time to time.
  • Early spring seeds are sent to the ground, very thick, between the lines of 10 cm. In the Suglinka and Supa Filder, the seeds are plugged by 5 cm. When shoots appear, they are thinning, reducing the distance between seedlings to 3 cm.
  • Behind the sowing is careful: loose, remove weeds, watered in a timely manner. From rodents seedlings. In the fall, they have to dig, select those in which the thickness of the feed base is 5-7 mm, as well as a relatively developed root urine system. And they are already sitting in the nursery (diagram 90×30 cm). The next spring to them will be given varietal cuttings.

The vaccination of the plant on the stock occurs 1-2 weeks before the start of the deposit. If we prone with this, the cut on the stock will simply oxidize, and nothing is taken (successfully at least). In the role of a collection, the seedlings of the cherry ordinary, the root pig of the cherry. The vaccination is made on the annual or two-year-older, and also on the root cherry process of 20 cm from the surface.

The varietal lead is successful with the help of an improved copulating: and inhibition, and the sample is cut in so that the scyed cut length is 3 cm. On both cuts, it is further performed by another incision no more than 1 cm, then inhibition and shutting the cuts “in the lock” to form a fixed element. It can be wrapped with a scotch or special ribbon. Cuttings for this procedure are taken short, with two kidneys.

Before you make a cherry cherry, cuttings for some time soaked in water from melting snow. Everything is carried out, of course, only sterile tools.

Diseases and pests

Cherish diseases are relatives with the illness of the cherries, and in this list are mostly fungal diseases.

  • Klaasternosporiosis (people called holey spotty). Amazing almost all parts of the tree. Leaves become dark brown, with very dark fade. On the place where spots are formed, the leaf fabric crumble, the leaf becomes a holey, foliage leaves ahead of time. In this case, cleaning the wounds, disinfection with copper vigorous, treatment with garden borants. Even before the blown of the kidneys, it is necessary to process the site “Nitrafen”. And then make another processing, but already burgundy liquid (immediately after flowering). Third processing should be followed after 3 weeks. Final – 3 weeks before the collection of fruits.
  • Moniliosis (Gray rot). In the plant, the flowers hit, dry out the fruits, branches. If the increased humidity of the air is noted, gray pads with fungal disputes appear on fruits and barring. Wood processing by burgue liquid after flowering, and still the same – after harvesting. All the affected must be removed and burn.
  • Cockclock. This fungus more often attacks cherry leaves, less often appears on shoots, cutters or fruits. And it is usually developing in rainy days. Manifests itself with red-brown spots on the leaves. With a serious defeat, secondary growth of shoots is possible, which delays the duration of the fruit. Before the kidneys dissolve, it is necessary to spray a tree with medicine with copper. During the bootonization period – “Horus”, and then after the flowering “Horus” need to repeat. After 2-3 weeks, the affected branches must be removed and burned.

As well as a cherry can attack drums, brown spotty, mosaic rod, pass, fruit rot. And if with fungi somehow therapy is settled, there is no special treatment for viruses yet. Because all hope for the right agrotechnik.

Interesting Facts

Maybe someone did not know that the cherry is an excellent honey. Unlike the same cherry, she is more thermalized, therefore grow in Sochi, for example, or in the Crimea, she will like more than anywhere in the middle lane of Russia.

10 more interesting facts about the cherry.

  1. Researchers argue that this cherry occurred from cherry, and not vice versa.
  2. Berries (or fruits) of this tree in diameter can reach 2 cm.
  3. Cherry varieties are not so little, but only 1.5 dozen, indeed, actively cultivated.
  4. Sometime resin cherry served to people with something like chewing.
  5. In the fruit of plants a lot of antioxidants, anticancer components.
  6. After thermal processing, the useful properties of the fetus are lost, therefore it is better to use a sinner in a fresh form.
  7. But it is better not to swallow bones, even by chance, there is a toxic substance.
  8. If someone put a goal – to abandon sugar, a sweet cherry will help. Total 100 g of fruits per day, and to sweet, really, it will be less pull. Here is such a “bell” characteristic of fruits.
  9. After muscular pain associated with intensive workouts, eat delicious berries very therapeutically.
  10. July and August varieties can be dried, turn into candied eggs, use for jam.

There are many arguments in favor of growing cherries not even in such sunny regions as Uzbekistan, for example, but also in a more capricious suburbs. But often one is enough – this is the taste of fruits that is not enough with what they will compare, they want to enjoy more often than a few year old days.

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