Modern breeders brought many varieties of apple trees with good resistance to many diseases. Despite this, insects are progressing, which learn to adapt to environmental changes.
That is why the preventive treatment of apple orchards is so important, especially when the gardener expects to get a rich harvest for sale.
Early handling duration of apple trees depends on the region. In the south of spraying, it can be carried out in early April, and sometimes at the end of March, it all depends on the weather. In the northern regions, for the beginning of such work, May is best suited. For spraying, choose a wonderful windy day with a temperature above zero. It’s not scary if night was minus, the main thing is that in the afternoon the air warms up to 4-5 °. It is very important that after spraying it rains.
For the whole spring you need to spend 2-3 spraying with intervals 2 weeks.
What can be processed?
For spraying apple trees in spring used both fungicides and insecticides. Choosing an insecticide, pay attention to how it works. Systemic preparations will not help (they should penetrate the juice of the plant, which the pest will eat and die). In our case, there are no leaves yet, and insects only wake up. Therefore, it is important to use drugs with contact action.
Besides, It is better to use a means with a wide range of action, that is, against various insects, as well as ticks. In this case, it is not necessary to study the effect of drugs on each other and the laws of preparation of tank mixtures. The pathogens of plant diseases are also successfully winter in the garden, and with the help of an eradication spraying, their number can be significantly reduced. At this stage, it is possible to successfully deal with a pair, you can prevent moniliosis.
From pests and from many diseases, including from rotten fruit by classical drugs to eradicate problems Iron (copper) vigorous and urea. It is believed that copper sulphate has a wide range of action and has an impact on almost all pathogens of fungal diseases. For spraying, we take a large concentration – 3-5% (300-500 mg per 10 liter of water). Also dilute urea in high concentration – 5-7% (500-700 g per 10 liters of water). Commercial fungicides can be used, diluting them in high concentrations. For example, those in the composition of which there are copper oxychloride, copper sulfate, diphenoconazole, propiconeazole, ciprodinyl.
Often, gardeners are processed Bordeaux liquid. Insectofungicides are well helped, among which “DNOH”. It is worth it for ten liters of water using 50 grams. Apply before the kidney tree appeared, and not more often than three years. A good preparation in this group is “nitrafen”. On the same volume of water will require 200 grams of funds. Of the large number of fungicides presented in the market, “Phytosporin” received great popularity. Ten liters of water will require only 5 grams.
Copper-based sprays – This is the main product used to combat a wide range of fungal and bacterial diseases affecting apple. Copper fungicide violates the enzymatic pathogen system and prevents the dispute to germinate. Apple passage, European ulcer, fiery and brown rot – It is only a few diseases affecting the trees with which copper fungicides can fight.
As a rule, they can be used 24 hours before the duty of harvesting, they are non-toxic for bees or birds, but toxic for fish and other aquatic organisms.
If you need to apply an insecticide, then it is necessary to choose among such means as “Confamid”, “Calypso” and “Intavir”.Also from malicious microorganisms, antibiotics are widely used:
Insecticidal soap contains long-chain fatty acids that are less toxic than chemical insecticides. It helps to fight various common garden pests, including ticks, tolets, whiteflies, trips and grasshoppers. Such a means is safe for use around people, pets and for nature as a whole, but it can harm the useful insects, such as lazybugs and lace. This non-toxic insecticide must come into contact with insects to control their reproduction. Soap destroys the protective coating of the insect, its cell membranes, as a result of which the pest is dying. As soon as the insecticidal soap dries out, it is no longer toxic and quickly destroyed in the environment. The tool can be applied on the apple tree until the harvest day.
There is one more tool – Bacterial insecticid, intended to defeat only certain types of pests. It does not harm useful insects, controls the larch stages of butterflies and moths that feed on the fruits and leaves of the apple. Some funds are aimed at mosquito larva. It is used as spraying, after the target pest will eat bacteria, it stops feeding and dies for several days. This insecticide is non-toxic for mammals, people, birds, fish, bees.
There are effective methods of combating fruit not only by specialized means. Folk remedies helps to get rid of insects, and such treatment at an early stage turns out to be quite effective if you observe the concentration. Among the most effective substrates from pests – Nima oil and garlic infusion. They scare insects, thereby protecting the tree.
Also used salt, which is pre-dissolved in warm water. A bundle of salt is put on the liquid bucket. Salt solution spray the tree completely, capturing branches and foliage. Through the resulting film disputes spreading fungal diseases, it is difficult to break into an apple. The only drawback is such a means is easily washed away under the influence of precipitation.
Degtyar meal – Perfectly suitable for spring processing. He has a sharp fragrance that scares not only tool, but also other insects. Moreover, spraying with this agent helps an apple tree to restore damaged fabrics. To prepare an effective tool from such a soap you need two liters of water to take two pieces and dissolve. The resulting mass is bred in proportion two liters of soap for ten liters of water. The concentrate in this form is diluted again, per liter of soap on the same amount of water. The resulting solution is sprayed on the apple. Processing repeat every two weeks.
Negative action on insects has Salok. She not only scares them by the smell, but also helps to prevent the appearance of some diseases causing rot. In pure form, this tool does not apply, half-liter divorces on a declined water bucket.
Use the diesel fuel is early in the spring when there is no kidney.
Stages of spring processing
Spraying an apple tree in spring to the dissolution of the kidneys – an event that can not be missed. Thanks to such treatment, apple trees are provided with the necessary protection against insects and diseases. Spraying is necessary at least 4 times during this period and there are several reasons:
- Most pests have a different time from hibernation;
- fungal diseases appear not only with the arrival of heat, but later, after a couple of months.
At first, the apple tree is required to spray on bare branches, then when the appearance of greens, then when swelling the color and the last time, when they are formed. Dosage in each case is calculated individually, taking into account the recommendations of the manufacturer of the insecticide.
In different regions and climatic conditions differ. This is one of the reasons why you need to focus on the weather. Splashing the mixture begins when the kidneys have not yet blocked, and there must be all the snow, and the air temperature does not fall below + 5 s.
When the kidneys still sleep, and the branches are naked, the first processing of apple trees is carried out. It is necessary to destroy the dispute who left fungi. They easily tolerate wind.
For processing suitable:
- Liquid, composed of copper cunery and carbamide.
Copper, which is part of the majority of spraying, kills fungal infections. The advantage of using the carbamide is that it is also a fertilizer.
Usually, the second time apple tree spray when on the street already from + 10 to + 15 s. On average, it goes about 14 days from the first processing. The kidneys swell, the green cone begins to form and insects slowly go out of hibernation. To help the tree, at this stage, use insecticides and fungicides. One drug is necessary to combat diseases, the other – with pests.
It’s time when the attack makes a color. His task to penetrate the flower of the apple tree and postpone the eggs there. When the larva appears on the light, it will suck the juice from the bud, which will never reveal. To combat pest, such drugs are well suited as:
- Bordeaux liquid (1%).
Processing is necessary when forming buds, but before they reveal. Fruit – insect with whom you have to fight during this period. She puts out on the fruit of eggs, due to which the gardener in the future receives the diesel apples.
Bordeaux liquid at this stage does not benefit, so it is replaced by insecticides. It is necessary to process not only a tree, but also a plot around the trunk.
Last processing is necessary after the applender garden dropped its color. Fits “Aktara” and “Sorrow”. On 10 liters of water, 2 grams of each drug is necessary.
To successfully deal with diseases and insects, which most often harm the fruits on the apple tree, you need to identify a specific problem. From the part it may seem that apples on the tree are infected with the disease, when in fact, damage is due to the attack of birds or insect pests. Typically, the disease begins on shoots or foliage, before spreading to floral ovary and fruits. Trimming on a regular basis and the usual monitoring of the state of fruiting apple trees, especially while the vegetation period lasts, help in the fight in the first stage, before the first signs of diseases and insect lesions will appear.
Before purchasing sprays and other drugs that help in combating diseases, It is worth examining the reason for which the problem appeared. When the gardener understands that it was the reason for the appearance of ulcerations, discoloration of foliage or damage to shoots, then he has a good chance to get rid of the disease.
Experts give their advice in the fight against apple trees.
- In the spring, before leafy kidneys dissolve, it is necessary to spray from diseases such as the passage and spottedness of the leaves, as well as insects – turcoous beetles and leaf-racing caterpillars. Processing immediately after the feet of flowers and before closing the cups is made by fungicidal sprays.
- To cure an apple pass, regularly clean the apple tops and burn the infected foliage that contains fungal disputes. This event will help to stop the progression of the disease and prevent its transfer to other apple. Liquid soap spray trees, thus preventing the appearance of fungal lesions. Repeat processing in a week.
- The best way to treat black rot – remove from the site and burn the fallen foliage and fruits that were infected, remove the bark and the ulcers that appeared and keep the territory under the apple tree clean. The fungicidal spray is best suited, which contains copper, also use lime sulfur for further control.
- Due to the fact that malievous dew wintering in fallen leaves is strongly recommended to prevent further dissemination of the disease, clearing the ground from the fall. Wet conditions favors the development of the disease, so it is necessary to provide good air circulation when landing new apple trees. A good treatment option is to spray the trees of lime gray. Crossing the Whiskers of the Whiskers – Another great solution to combat this disease.
If the gardener saw signs of one of the common fungal diseases on foliage or apples, then Immediately need to take the first steps to combat the problem.
- Old foliage that falls under the tree in the fall, must be burned. Only so you can reduce the likelihood that fungal disputes will spread in the air or in the soil.
- Watering is carried out early in the morning or after sunset in the evening. Leaves must remain dry, so it is better to use roar-born watering.
- Under the apple tree, the layer of compost is folded into 3 cm, but about 50 cm are depicted from the barrel, to not provoke the spread of fungus.
- Among the fungicides, copper soap has proven well. Use it two weeks before the vegetation begins, and repeat the processing after 7 days, as a preventive measure.
- If the problem comes out of control, apply a systemic fungicide to the soil. With it, it is possible to suppress the growing fungus.
- Disinfect scissors for trimming that you use, A solution of a 10 percent bleach diluted in water, or water alcohol.
Landing an apple tree resistant to diseases can be the first defense line. Among the attacks-resistant varieties – “Johnafri” and “Liberty”, it is also worth putting on its plot “Golden Fever”, and possibly “enterprises”. Apple “Cortland” and “Redfri” differ in good qualities. At about the end of the spring begins the bugs season. This is the right time when you need to start fighting insects by using insecticides. They, in turn, help stop the process of mating and laying eggs to frustrating fruits or next to them.
Pests that attack the apple tree and damage fruit: moth, larva fruit flies.
If the gardener has no experience or necessary knowledge, spring processing can harm the apple trees, and not help. Of the most commonly repeated mistakes:
- The use of insecticides and fungicides are starting too early, Therefore, they are quickly washed away with precipitation, as a result, insects do not meet due removal, and diseases – obstacles to further distribution;
- Be sure to follow the time and between spraying should be at least two and no more than three weeks to achieve the desired result;
- If it is incorrectly diluted with a disease, then You can easily burn not only foliage, but also fruits;
- When the fruits have already appeared on branches, Treatment of fungicides and insecticides should stop.