One of the agrotechnical rules of growing raspberry is timely feeding. Equally important value for the plant has autumn fertilizer.
For what is needed?
Raspberries belongs to such plants that have a root system located close to the surface of the Earth, and therefore it does not tolerate frosts badly.
Autumn feeding will not only strengthen the shrub weakened after fruiting and helps to survive the winter cold, but will be the key to the future harvest.
To have a good harvest, you need the formation of young shoots and a large number of new fruit kidneys. Autumn fertilizer makes it possible to accumulate in the soil the necessary mineral and organic components for the next vegetative season. Raspberries will have a full nutrition that will ensure good growth and fruiting.
The timing of autumn feeding in different regions of Russia will be somewhat different due to climatic conditions. Usually in winter, raspberries feed a month after the end of fruiting, but a month before the arrival of the rainy season and approximately 2 or 2.5 months before the start of the cold. In addition, since weather conditions may differ in different years, the dates of the feeding will also change.
If the fruction of early grades ended in mid-July, then the shrub should be filtered in August. Late varieties finish fruiting in August, it means that the feeder is carried out in September.
Approximate deadlines for applying fertilizers in autumn in different regions of the country:
- In the middle lane of Russia – in the 2nd half of September;
- in the Far East – from August 20 to the first decade of September;
- in Eastern Siberia – in the 1st half of September;
- in Western Siberia – from September 7 to 20;
- In the Urals – from September 10 to 25.
Repairing raspberries fruits twice: the first harvest is given last year’s branches, and the berry matures in July. The second time the berries ripen on the shoots of this year in September.
The long period of fruiting is reflected in the deadline for making feeding: they are shifted by approximately 2 or 3 weeks. So, in the middle lane, the deadline for the final raspberry is approximately the end of September-beginning of October.
In the fall, until mid-October, raspberry landing. When landing a shrub also need fertilizer.
What fertilizers are suitable?
Malina, including repair, needs nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Nitrogen is entered only in spring. And autumn Malina needs phosphorus and potassium.
Phosphorus is needed by a plant for growth and development of a strong and powerful root system. Such a plant and ground part will also be strong and healthy. Phosphorus is needed, since all nutrients are absorbed by raspberry from the soil with the participation of phosphate compounds.
In plants most of potassium (up to 80%) is in cellular juice. Potassium has great mobility and is able to even lean out of the green mass of the rain. After the flow of potassium into the root system, the excess substance goes into the soil, and then again absorbed by Malina.
Potassium requires a plant for biosynthesis in the leaves of sugars and other carbon, which are then transferred to other parts of the plant, also it contributes to the exchange processes. When combined phosphorus and potassium, frost resistance and immunity of raspberry to diseases increases. These substances contribute to a more rapid formation of fruit kidney and mature bark, which means that successful wintering.
Potash-phosphoric fertilizers accumulated in the soil are absorbed by the raspberry gradually, as necessary, that is, have a long sentence. Therefore, the fertilizers made in the fall will be spent the culture of the entire next season.
For feeding raspberries in autumn use certain types of fertilizers.
The organizing agent not only replenishes the earth with nutrients, but also enriches humus, makes the soil loose. This is an excellent habitat for worms and different soil microorganisms that improve the structure of the soil. Malina fertilize certain types of organic.
- Litter chicken. It contains all the components needed for raspberry: potassium and phosphorus, magnesium and nitrogen, calcium, which contribute to the full and active growth of shrub.
- Cow manure. Manure not only fertilize raspberries, but also use as a mulch to protect the roots of the plant in winter. Relief manure except phosphorus and potassium contains a large number of other microelements that are necessary for plant immunity, for the absorption of nutrients, as well as affecting the process of forming berries.
- Compost. This is a product of rehabilitation of various origin – vegetable and animal (chicken litter, cow, horse manure). To form a vegetable compost use weeds, fallen leaves, vegetable cleaning, corn cobs and cabbage bars. In the vegetable components often add litter or manure. After overheating, a very valuable nutritional fertilizer is formed.
- Bone flour. This type of feeding contains a lot of phosphorus and calcium and may well replace ready-made comprehensive fertilizers. Since the content of nitrogen in the flour is minimal, then for feeding it is suitable in the fall. The process of pumping flour in the soil lasts long, and nutrients for the plant is enough for longer period.
- Warm ass. It also contains phosphorus, potassium and other useful trace elements.
- Siderats. These are plants that are grown for subsequent steps to the Earth for the winter to improve the soil structures and enrich it with nutrients, vitamins and microelements. Plants are used as sites: Oats, mustard, wormwood, clover, lupine, viku.
- Mineral. These fertilizers have such an indisputable advantage as lightness and easy use. They are produced in granules and powder. Complex mineral compositions are convenient because they contain all the necessary nutrient elements in a balanced form. For each state of the plant, you can choose a specific composition and control the dosage. Granules are most convenient to use, because they are used in dry form and they are simply scattered under the bushes or slightly sprinkle between the rows. In wet earth after watering, they dissolve and saturate the soil with nutritional elements. They also have a long validity period, the manifolding ground is about 6-7 months.
Mineral fertilizers are used to feed raspberries in autumn:
- superphosphates (simple and double);
- Sulfates: potassium and zinc, iron and magnesium;
- Calimagnezia and carbofos, Copper Copper.
There are new types of complex fertilizers for raspberries: Calimag, potassium monophosphate, feeding with the names “Autumn”, “Autumn fertilizer”.
How to fertilize correctly?
When carrying out autumn feeding, some rules should follow. First of all, you need to remember that simultaneous use and mineral, and organic fertilizers in one year are not recommended. However, if they are still used in the complex, the dosage and those and others need to be reduced by 2 times.
Besides, It is impossible to feed raspberry with potash fertilizers, such as potassium chloride, potash salt, as they cause chlorosis disease in the plant.
Before you feed raspberries, you first need to remove all weeds and break the earth. Fertilizers can be made only in wet soil, so the dry ground is preliminarily poured.
It is important to know which nutrient elements is missing raspberries. Their disadvantage is reflected in its appearance:
- With nitrogen deficiency in raspberry yellow leaves;
- If there is not enough phosphorus and its connections, young shoots weaken and are made thin, and the foliage appears a shade of purple color;
- The insufficient number of potassium leads to the fact that the leaves dry the edges;
- Magnesium shortage is manifested in the fact that the yellowness spreads from the middle of the sheet to the edge;
- With the lack of iron, the leaves become yellow, although the bodies do not change their green.
Comprehensive fertilizer is selected with a specific composition in accordance with what substances are not enough plants.
An important condition for feeding – compliance with its dosage. On the packaging of finished complex mineral fertilizers, the rate of their consumption is indicated.
Organic apply in such ways.
Chicken litter can be used in dry and in the form of aqueous solution. It is prepared from 1 permuting and 20 or 30 parts of water and apply after he moves well. The finished solution is filled and fertility at the calculation of the floor-liter on the bush.
Chicken litter has a large concentration, so it is laid under plants with a thin layer (no more than 1 cm), and then fall asleep. For an adult bush there will be enough 5 or 6 handful of dry litter, but not more than 1 kg / 1kv. M. The norm of the finished granular shopping litter is 50g / 1kV. M.
Imagine and solution, and dry litter can be in shallow groove near shrub, which then fall asleep the earth.
Manure makes under raspberries in 2-3 years in 3 buckets at 1kV. M. Impact a fresh not overloaded korovyan is not recommended because it may be parasites (helminthiasis), and it is the place of settlement of Medvedok, Khriving and other harmful insects.
Humus and compost should be laid under raspberry layers with a thickness of 3 to 5 cm. The norm of the null feeding is 0.5-1 Bucket for 1kV. M.
Ash additive (several grievances) to manure contributes to rapid soil reduction with increased acidity.
Ash can be used as a water mixture or dry. The simplest method of making ash – just sprinkle the earth as a row of raspberries, and then slightly explode the soil and pour water. Per 1 sq. It requires about 300 g. The aqueous mixture is prepared from 2 glasses of ash and 10 liters of water. The finished solution is made like this: near each coastal raspberry makes shallow grooves, where the feeder is poured, it is pre-good having stirred it, and soils fall asleep.
The compost flour is entered into the soil in an amount of from 150 to 200 g per 1kV. m, but even in overdose it does not harm the plant.
Mineral fertilizers are used for raspberry feeding in different ways.
In the form of solutions
Of the complex compositions containing phosphorus, ammonium sulfate and potassium, make aqueous solutions in the proportion of 250 g of fertilizer on 5 liters of water. Zinc sulfates (30 g) and magnesium (5 g) are also dissolved in 5 l, and wood ashes (50 g) and superphosphate (50 g) are dissolved in 1 liter of water. The solution of iron vapor is prepared in the proportion of 100g / 10l water.
This amount of solutions is calculated for 1 kV. m shrub.
Chlorine and carbofos are used for spraying raspberry. 30 g of chlorocycy copper or 20 g of carbofos are bred in 10 liters of water.
Dissolve dry fertilizers should be in warm water, and superphosphates in boiling water, because in cold water they do not dissolve. First, they are dissolved in a small amount of water, and then fasten the sparkling water to the desired volume.
The consumption of aqueous solutions of mineral fertilizers depends on the type of landing of the raspberry: when landing in a row – consumption 10l / 1kV. m, when disembarking with separate bushes – 10l on the bush.
In a dry video
The rate of making a simple superphosphate per 1 kV. M is about 40-60 g, and double – from 15 to 25 g. The granules will be required to 60 g on the bush, and they are sprinkled by land no less than 7 cm.
With the joint use of phosphoric and potash feeding the number of potassium sulfate is 40 g, Kalimagnezia – no more than 30g under the bush. Such a norm corresponds to an adult bush, and for young raspberries this rate is reduced by 2 times.
The method of introducing into the soil should be such that the feeding reached the roots. Since the raspberry root system is not deeper than 30 cm from the surface, then fertilizer is better in this way:
- First, it is necessary to proceed the grooves in a depth of 20-30 cm along each row of raspberry at a distance of 30 to 40 cm from the shrub strab;
- scatter granules and fall asleep grooves.
After making any fertilizer, the soil should be pouring out of water from the watering can.
The fertilizer of the removable raspberry also spend the same fertilizer species, but there are some features. At the end of the fruiting, this raspberry can be cut off under the root or leave a shrub to wintering in uncircumcised.
Autumn feeding make only under the uncircumcised bushes. For example, as fertilizers, you can use superphosphate and potassium 1 teaspoon, scattering for each bush. The Malinnik then covers the layer of mulch from a cowboat or compost.
Cropped bushes for winter are mounted with manure or compost. In the spring it will be the source of nutrients for raspberry.
In addition to the generally accepted ways of feeding raspberries, experienced gardeners are used by other options. Herbal infusions are most often used.
The nettle and the tie, taken in the same quantity, poured 10 liters of water and insist in the sun 2 weeks. Ready infusion before use is diluted with water in a proportion of 1/10. The rate of consumption under the bush is 2 liters.
To prepare herbal infusions, you can also use any grass, even weeds.
Manure (3kg), ash (1 cup) and nettle (1kg) are placed in water (2 buckets) and set for a week in the sun. Before use, infusion is also diluted with water (1/10). On 1 bush requires 1 l composition.
About how to feed raspberry in the fall, look in the following video.