- Authors: E.N. Sedov, A.IN. Parshin, N.G. Krasova, M.IN. Mikheev (Selection of VNIISPK)
- Appeared when crossed: Beret Tolstobhetka (Ussuri Pear X Bere Dil) x Forest Beauty
- Timing of ripening: Winter
- Duration of removal of fruits: in mid-September
- Purpose: Fresh form
- Yield: High
- Crown: Wide-grade, compact
- Epishers: curved, rounded in cross section, brown, without omission
- Leaves: medium size, wide, rounded, short-core, dark green, smooth, shiny, with delicate nervation, rarely located on escape
- Form form: Wiggly impassable, one-dimensional, wide
See all the characteristics
At the gardeners living in the regions with a temperate and moderate continental climate, the pear is confidently ranked second in popularity after apple tree. Despite the abundance of domestic and foreign novelties of breeding, pears, “Old-timers” remain widely sought after. For example, Pear January for many years is considered one of the best winter varieties.
History of removal
January was brought to the oldest institution of Russia in the oldest in this industry – the All-Russian Research Institute of Selection (VNIISPK). The basis of the future selection center became a nursery founded in the middle of the XIX century in the Oryol province.
In 1955, at the Oryol fruit-berry pilot station, scientists Sedov. N., Parshino A. IN., Mikheva M. IN. and Krasova N. G. Announced autumn pears of Bere Tolstobheck and Forest Beauty. The resulting variety of pears was called the January, because her crop is perfectly kept until the New Year holidays.
In 1977, the grade was recognized as an elite, and since 1983 there is a process of state variety tests in various areas of cultivation of this agricultural culture.
Description of varieties
Pear January – high-yielding winter grade with excellent footing. The removable maturity of one-dimensional, with a pronounced pear shape of sweet fruits falls in mid-September.
A small compact tree has a wide-frame symmetrical crown of growing almost 90 ° to a trunk of rounded in a section of branches with curved brown shoots and smooth dark green leaves of medium sized. The trunk is covered with rough gray bark.
The fruits of the variety differ in average sizes (up to 200 g), they are a bit squat, classic pear-shaped with a wide bottom and a small ribbon. By the beginning of the fall, these pears were painted in a light green color, which by the time of consumer ripeness becomes yellow-green, brown tint and red-pink “Rushenets” are added to it. Ripe pears Javar look very attractive.
Numerous subcutaneous dark green dots on the skin of the fruit are clearly visible. Skin of these pears dry and rough, rather dense. White flesh, slightly greenish, with pleasant rigidity and pronounced grainy texture. On the context you can see a small “bulbous” heart with small seed cameras.
Fruits declared very high burning. In the refrigerator chamber at + 2 ° C, pears are perfectly stored in the trays for 3 months, in film packaging – up to 5 months. With minimal minus, they do not spoil about 120 days, but to lower the temperature of more -1 ° C is not worth it: the flesh and the skin are stubble, juiciness is lost. To ripen the pear from the refrigerator, remove and send to lie down at a temperature of + 18-20 ° C for another 20-25 days. Pears will become a little softer and more.
The tasting evaluation of the fruit is high, exceeds 4 points. Taste saturated and sweet. Pear January – a useful product rich in pectins (3%) and vitamin C (6 mg / 100 g). The main purpose of the variety is the use of fresh form, although it is possible to process a part of the crop on jam and jam.
Ripening and fruiting
January Saplot starts fruit in 5-6 years, for a break – a year earlier. Fruits are evenly located across the whole crown of wood.
In the central regions of the Russian Federation, the Yankavarian Pear can be collected from September 15. Hurry up with the collection of fruits is not worthwhile – unripe pears in the refrigerator will become hard, can begin to deteriorate.
Gardeners appreciate the variety for high yields: on an industrial scale to be collected up to 130 c / ha, and from a tree up to 100 kg. The fruits are tightly held on the branches, fall only from a strong wind. Tree can sometimes be “resting”, but there is no clear periodicity in fruzing. Pears assembly one-dimensional, good commodity type.
The grade is good and fruits in many territories of the Russian Federation, but is more common in the region of removal: the tests conducted in the nurseries of the central black earth showed that the January is unpretentious to the composition of the soil and tolerate adverse weather periods. But its winter hardiness is declared as medium – frosty, minor winters can cause frozen roots and bark, lesion of fruit and growth kidney.
Self-duration and the need for pollinators
This variety is a self-free, but the neighborhood of both blooming trees at the same time improves the process of formation of uncess.
For planting the village of early spring, you need to choose a sunny, protected from the north wind place. Under the rays of the Sun, future fruits will light up a bright “Rumyant. There should be no climbing water on the site, better if it is located on a small hill.
From the tree to the “neighbors” should withstand the distance of at least 4 meters. Near the pear, you can land raspberries, jasmine bushes, lilacs, but should not be placed bone fruit: cherry and plum.
When choosing a seedliness, you need to pay special attention to the health of its root system.
Growing and care
For this variety, no special care is required, all agrotechnical measures are standard:
improving the soil nutrition is achieved by the introduction of organic feeding;
Growth, fruiting and immunity plants stimulate mineral fertilizers;
The jar of January is needed regular, but moderate watering;
In front of the winter it is necessary to insulate the priority zone, building an earthen embankment.
Resistance to diseases and pests
To many diseases of the fruit, this variety has a persistent immunity, but a fungus of a pear brush can represent a serious danger to him. Preventive measures: cleaning of fallen fruits and branches, removing weak shoots – help prevent disease. And if the tree is nevertheless ill, then applying fungicides with copper content.
The pests will protect agrotechnical methods and spraying with natural and chemicals.