Oidium on grapes: signs and methods of treatment

Famous gardeners and gardens The disease called Oidium causes a sample fungus. The disease damages inflorescences, mustaches, leaves and berries of grapes, flourishes in a dry and hot climate, so in Russia its distribution areas are limited.

What does it look like: distinctive signs

Oidium is known in all countries where they are engaged in the cultivation of grapes, it is also called meal dew, linen, ashtray. The causative agent of the infectious damage of grapes is the oidium tuckeri mushroom.

Symptoms of the disease are manifested from the top of the sheet – yellow spots with an ash-gray bloom appear, even with a whitish tint. Under this raid, necrosis of alive fabric occurs. Infected foliage is deformed, but it remains on shoots. Then the infection affects young shoots – point necrosis is formed, inclined to grow.

The defeat in the early stages causes the color of color, the affected shoots do not have enough power for full aging, while they may not transfer the winter period. Infection of the oidium at a later date causes the berries with a gray-white bloom – under it all the same necrotic processes occur. Fruits start cracking, the flesh is exposed to seeds. If the infection occurred already after the formation of fruits, then cracking does not occur. Instead, on the skin of fruits appears a cobweb ray fall. Flip turns into a transit channel for penetrating inside of harmful pathogens – various kinds of rot.

The characteristic feature of Oidium is not a complete damage to the brush, but only some of its sections.

In order for the fungus well to multiply, it requires the relevant conditions:

  • temperatures in the range of 20-25 degrees;
  • increased humidity at 60-80%;
  • Dry weather with a long arid period.

At the same time, the minimum temperature so that the risopuses can grow and develop – minus 5 degrees. But at + 30 ° C and above the fungus dies. The same thing happens if the level of humidity falls below 40%. The winter period of mycelium is safely worn in grape kidneys to start their destructive activities early in the spring. The infection of pulse dew is mainly exposed:

  • landing growing on the shores of water bodies;
  • weakened plants experiencing the shortage of soil moistening;
  • thickened landings experiencing poor ventilation between plants;
  • Vine growing freely, without the formation of bushes on a grinder, which also stimulates increased humidity in foliage and shoots.

Harmful

Martherny Dew (Oidium) brought to Eurasian mainland from North America. For the first time, Oidium was found in England. Was fixed it was in 1845. It was after this date that Oidium was victorious in the country, occupying the entire continent for five years. As a result, the infection turned into an epidemic, to stop which scientists were able to find a means to combat this “victim” – sulfur.

During the search for counteraction, they found out what threat to Oidium grapes:

  • sharp reduction in yield;
  • Unfortunate grapes for consumption.

All affected areas are subject to removal, otherwise pulp, juice, and therefore wine, will have an unpleasant taste and smell of mold. And the fact that the infection of the Oidium provokes the appearance of other pathogens is especially unpleasant. The peak of the damage to mildewares falls on the middle of the summer.

Part of the plant

Symptoms Oidium Tuckeri

Foliage

White and gray raid on the leaf with an ashon, passed with time in a dark gray. The affected leaves begin to yellow, dry, twist, while remaining on the shoots.

Socuagement

Gifs destroy the surface of the sheet. Affected inflorescences dry and fall. Formed affected bunches look swimming ashes, an unpleasant smell appears.

Epishers

The stains of the affected leaf structure are growing under the torment, occupying more and more places on the plate, gradually merging and occupying all the space. Escape itself begins to yellow in those places where fungi settled. In the end, if the plant is not treated, the affected fabrics are black, exposed to uneven wearing a slowing down, thereby the general development of the vine.

Berry

As showing perennial observations, the defeat of the oidium is mainly susceptible to young, developing berries in which some sugar. As soon as the gray raid appeared, the berries stop developing, and then dry. If the generated berry got sick, it starts cracking and modified. The pulp blossoms, the bones are discarded outside, the skin becomes coarse and similar to the plug, it covers the rough mesh.

To confirm the results of a visual inspection, further conduct research under the microscope. Cut damaged leaves are prepared: separated by a special needle of gifs from a sheet plate. A drop of water is applied to the glass slide, gifs are placed in it and examine under the microscope. Gifs with disputes (Condiosena) stand straight, and disputes look like chains.

As practice shows, adult berries affected by fungus can continue to develop, but these are already fruits that can only be disposed of – they are not suitable.

How to cure grapes?

Preventive processing of grape plantings are carried out early in spring, immediately after the growth of the vegetative mass begins. This is all the more necessary if the infection has already been observed. For many years of combating Oidium, many people’s struggle have been developed, not to mention special fungicidal preparations.

Many choose folk ways to combat malievous dew. An active opponents of using chemistry use in their own sections and fans of environmentally friendly products are resorted to this type of countering attacks Oidium Tuckeri.

The effectiveness of such funds is significantly inferior to fungicides, and processing has to be carried out several times, but perseverance and perseverance always lead to a positive result.

  • Infusion of humus. A week before processing, a sophisticated humus is necessary to pour with warm water, tightly clog and put in a dark place for 6 days. Then, after the expiration, the resulting concentrate is filled and used to handle bushes into cloudy silent weather, it is preferable to do it in the evening. Such a spraying is carried out more than once – re-spend a week and last time – before the start of flowering. Especially affected areas are treated weekly.
  • Infusion of ash. Half of the bucket of wood ash bred 7 liters of water. Next solution must be boiled for 20 minutes. After the composition is ready, it is diluted with 7 liters of water and liquid soap is added – 100 g. Processing this infusion is recommended to carry out from the second half of the summer season once in a decade.
  • Soda mortar. This composition consists of several components, it is absolutely safe and can be used at any time of the vegetative season (flowering, maturation). To prepare 5 tablespoons of food soda are dissolved in hot water, 15-20 yoda drops add. The resulting composition is topped with water, increasing it to 10 liters. After that, a solution of manganese, bringing fluid to light pink color. At the end, 40 ml of dissolved business soap is added. Plantings are processed by soda solution 5 times per season, if necessary, the frequency increases. The first processing is carried out 7 days before the start of flowering, then weekly.
  • Infusion of wild chemistry. The field hat is collected directly before preparation, crushed and poured with water, based on the calculation of 100 g per 1 liter. The resulting mixture is insteaded, then one and a half or two hours boiled, flickering, cool, diluted with water 1: 5 and treated grapes. The procedures are carried out weekly the entire vegetative season. The composition retains its properties for a week if storing it in a dark cool place.
  • Milk serum solution. Serum mixed with water 1:10 and spend it weekly spraying.

With the help of proper agrotechnics, you can reduce the risk of grapes by Oidium.

Measures taken:

  • The selection of planting material is the first thing to pay attention to the organization of new plantations, preference is worth led by a disease resistant to varieties;
  • Compliance with the minimum distance between bushes and rows: thickening is one of the main provocateurs for the appearance of malical dew;
  • We need compulsory timely pruning and pinching, as well as the thinning of foliage in the area of ​​finding Clabondi;
  • Garter, proper formation of the bush, the organization of the choler and the most optimal location on it.

The correct watering and weeding are no less important in the general complex of agrotechnical measures – the grapes do not like the convergence, but needs additional irrigation in the dry period. Web and mulching will help save for vine nutrients in the soil and will remove ground from drying out and cracking.

Review of effective drugs

Initial processing is carried out during the swelling. It is during this period that the iron vigor is most perceived by the plant in a permissible concentration. Like all other extractive processing, the procedure should be conducted early in the morning or in the evening in windless weather.

Re-spraying is carried out with 4-6 leaves on escape. This time is to use sulfur, sulfur-containing compositions. If it is used directly sulfur, it must be ground and sifted, turning the substance into powder. 30-40 grams use water bucket. Sulfur spraying is not conducted in cold weather – the minimum temperature should be +20 degrees.

If a cold period has been established, and it is necessary to get rid of the disease, you can replace sulfur to other drugs specified in the table.

A drug

Periodicity of application

Recommendations

“Tiovit Jet”

From 4 to 6 spraying per season.

The drug is used throughout the vegetative season.

Colloid sulfur

Maximum use -5 times.

-//-

“Fundazol”

No more than two times per season.

-//-

“Topaz”

Once for 14-18 days.

-//-

“Sight”

Once every 7-10 days.

-//

“Abiga Peak”

6 spraying per season.

-//-

“DISOR”

4 applications for the growing season.

-//-

“Quadris”

4 applications for the growing season.

Before and after flowering.

“Denali”

1 time in decade or half a month.

Since the beginning of the bootonization before the formation of a dense cluster.

“Oksikha”

Three times for the growing season.

Similarly to Denali.

“Staters”

From 2 to 3 applications for the growing season.

Similarly to Denali.

The main danger during sprayings is the receipt of burns by the plant from direct rays of the sun, which is why there are recommendations to spray in the morning or evening when the rays of the sun lose their strength.

Can be used microbiological preparation “Phytosporin”. Its main advantage – the ability to process the plant in any time (spring, summer, autumn), during flowering and ripening, fruiting.

What varieties are stable?

The list of varieties successfully opposing oidium is very large, therefore, several: several:

  • “Aligote”;
  • “Kara Ganjal”;
  • “Semilong”;
  • “Merlo”;
  • “Malbek”;
  • “Kishmish Vatican”;
  • All hybrids of the “delight” grade;
  • “Kishmish Zaporizhia”;
  • “White Miracle”;
  • “Muscat velvet”;
  • Golden Don.

Since the fungi from the Rizopus family is one of the main enemies of grapes, attention is paid not only to the production of collaboration, but also breeding work. The removal of stable varieties is included in the list of desired results in breeders.

Tips and prevention

For high-quality counteraction attacks of fungal organisms, not only plant processing is needed. Prevention – a mandatory event, an effective and effective method of preventing diseases on the site.

The list of prevention measures includes:

  • mandatory collection and burning of foliage and patients of Crydey;
  • Sanitary and formation trimming, use of copper or iron mood for processing pasta varieties, as well as adjacent soil.

Spring is required by the processing of fungicides or the use of folk methods, in the summer – the thinning of the vegetative mass to ensure the ventilation.

The following video will tell about the causes of infection and ways to combat oidium on grapes.

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