To get a rich harvest juicy and sweet carrots, you need to know some of the features of her agrotechnology. There is an opinion that growing carrots easily and just. However, this is not the case – for vegetables you need to properly care, it requires preparation of a garden, watering, feeding and pest protection.
Choosing a place
You can plant carrots at the cottage, in a greenhouse and even on the balcony. The success of the cultivation of carrots largely depends on the choice of place to land this culture. For full growth and development of this root, a plot is required, well illuminated by the Sun. If the lights are missing – the tops will become a withered, and the root crops are thin and tasteless. It is advisable to choose such a place where the sun shines on the bed throughout the day.
Optimal for this culture are neutral or weakly acid lands – alkaline and overly acidified for it are unsuitable. The highest harvest can be obtained on high sand loams, as well as on the sandy lands. On dense loygles, fruits grow small, and in the process of transportation and storage, they begin to rot.
The soil must certainly be well drained and moisture.
Under conditions of high humidity, accompanied by an oxygen deficit, the risk of fungal and bacterial infections increase repeatedly. And also not recommended to plant carrots on sites with a large inclination.
To create optimal conditions for the development and growth of root, preparing the garden is better to do in advance. So, if you plan to plant carrots in the spring, then in the autumn it is necessary to clean the garbage, pulling the weed herbs and the soil resistance. It should be deep – at least one and a half bayonets of shovels, this will allow rootpods to actively grow deep. In addition, careful plowing rejectionably simplifies harvest, because having to pull vegetables from the Earth Earth will be easier and faster.
In addition to the ground, peat is made or sand at the rate of 1 kg / kV. m sown square. It is advisable to add a little manure or humus. Organizer will also need low-grade substrates. If it was not done in the autumn period, then you can make a feeder in spring before planting seeds. If the soil is too sour, then it is necessary to add chalk or lime to it from the proportion of 1 cup per square meter.
Let’s stop more on step by step instructions for landing of carrots.
Severe two types of crops – autumn and spring, the latter is preferable. Typically, carrots are most sourced in southern regions, where all the conditions necessary for the growth and development of root conditions are created already at the end of March – early April. In the central part of our country, the first half of May is considered to be optimal for landing, in the north – it is better to produce land in the late spring or early summer. In any case, you need to focus on the weather. It is important that the average temperature in the daytime has been steadily held above +15 degrees, and in the night – did not fall below +5. Of course, the return freezers will not kill young root. Nevertheless, they provoke the enhanced growth of flower shooters, thereby worsening the root of the roots, for long storage, they will already be unsuitable.
Carrot for storage is better to plant in the second half of May, when the air temperature will stably hold on to 18-20 degrees, and the night frosts are completely passed. Experienced gardeners plant such roots in the second half of June. By the way, it is noticed that with late planning, this plant is almost not damaged by carrot flock.
The autumn planting of carrots resort only in those regions where the temperature in winter does not fall below -15 degrees, and snow falls abundantly. Otherwise, even under the thick layer of mulch, the seedlings will die. At the same time, it is important to choose the right weather when the heat is already leaving, and the temperature is closer to the zero mark.
Such a carrot gives a crop for 2 weeks earlier planted in May. In addition, the rootes themselves are much larger and more. Keep in mind that only early grades are sown in autumn time. In a few winter months, seedlings are harvested in Earth and with the arrival of spring can withstand any weather surprises.
Tip: With autumn landing, it is best to plant seeds on a high bed, otherwise in spring, they can wash off with her water.
Carrots refers to tongue vegetable cultures. It happens that seeds are sitting in the ground up to 2-3 weeks before the first shoots appear. This is explained by the fact that their shell contains a large concentration of essential oils, which delay moisture inwards, and germination is repeatedly delayed. To improve the germination of the sowing material before placing the ground, it is necessary to subjected to special preparation, it includes several main stages.
- Check for germination. Seeds are placed in a salt solution by a quarter of an hour. Those that will pop up on the surface, empty, they will not give sprouts. Therefore, you can safely rebel.
- Heat treatment. Viable seeds are soaked in warm water heated to 50-65 degrees, and after half an hour, 2-3 minutes are placed in cold. The seedlings are then soaked in warm water, repeat the manipulations three times. Such preparation softens the shell and thereby improves the germination.
- Activation. Ensures the soaking of seed material in Zircon solutions or Epin.
Such processing has repeatedly increases germination and strengthens the immunity of the plant.
- Disinfection. When using seeds from their garden, or purchased from private owners, they need to be disinfected before landing. To do this, use a weakly concentrated solution of potassium permanganate or boric acid. Seedlings are treated for 5-10 minutes, after which they dried and put in open ground. When using shop seeds, there is no need because antiseptic processing was carried out in the framework of preparation for sale.
Prior soaking helps to increase. For this, the seeds are laid out on a moistened canvas, covered on top, spray from the sprayer, and withstand several days at a temperature of 25-26 degrees. At this time, you need to monitor the matter does not dry. Usually within 5-7 days, seedlings swell, and you can move them to the ground. It is important to not allow germination, since carrot sprouts are very fragile and in transplantation may be damaged.
The experienced gardeners often resort to “Dedovsky” ways – for example, peat seeds with sand, or resort to bubbling. Most often use instillation. For this, the seeds are placed in a linen bag and early in spring, when the melting of the snow begin, they jerks to a depth of 15-20 cm. At this time, the Earth is already quite moistened, but not yet heated.
In this form, the seed stored 10-14 days. This time is enough so that the seeds hardened, have been nailed with her waters and swollen.
Before boarding the pouch, get to the ground, are pretty dried naturally and produce landing in open ground.
Several ways of planting carrots.
- Manually on the eye. To do this, the grokes form a groove of 1,5-3 cm deep, water, seedlings are placed in them. Then the earth is sprinkled, and again moisturize. After the appearance of germs, it is necessary to break down a garden, leaving only the strongest and healthy sprouts.
- With the help of Claylyera. From starch or flour makes a plumb and apply it to a toilet paper with drops with a step of 2-3 cm. In each place in a pair of seeds and dried. Prepared ribbons are placed in pre-moisturized grooves, sprinkled with soil and thoroughly pour the drip method.
Alternatively, you can use a plastic bottle with dispenser. In this case, the seedlings fall asleep in the container and as if flowing.
Another method suggests the preparation of jelly at the rate of 2 st. L. Starch on 1 l. water. This composition add seeds, stirred and poured into a bottle. In the tube form a hole and insert a tube into it that performs the role of the dispenser. The seed material is extruded in a prepared bed with a step of 3-5 cm.
Another effective way implies Soaking seeds a week before sowing in Marle for 30-40 minutes. After that, the seedlings are washed and burned to the ground for 2-3 days to weathered all essential oils that impede germination. Prepared seeds dig up, carefully fall asleep with starch, dental powder or flour, so as not to stick to the hands, and evenly planted in the prepared grooves.
We got the spread of the technique of sowing carrots in egg cassettes and granules.
Carrots, like any other root, requires regular irrigation. Irrigation produce at least once every 3-5 days depending on the weather. The volume of moisture should be so to fully moisten the earth to the depth of the growing root root. In the case of young sprouts, it is about 7-10 cm, after growing up – 25-30 cm. On average, in dry weather, a moderate watering is first performed at the rate of 3 liters per square meter, and the next day a more abundant irrigation is allowed at the rate of 5-10 l / kV. m Square.
Important: It should be borne in mind that excess water, like a lack of moisture, can cause a reduction in yield. Under these conditions, fruits become sluggish and acquire a bitter taste, from abundant moisturizing carrots becomes cracked.
If the carrots seeds were settled down without any periodicity, then in this case, special attention should be paid to the thinning of landings. The first time this work is performed at the stage of two permanent leaves – they leave only the strongest shoots in a step of 2-3 cm. Repeated thinning is produced when the third sheet appears, at this point the distance increases to 5-6 cm. Increase the step is not worth it, since in this case the roots become rude.
It is very important to perform a precade of the beds, as weeds can most negatively affect the germination, growth and development of the root. At the first appearance of weeding herbs, they should be removed along with roots. For carrot shoots are detrimental to solid land and crust formed after irrigated.
That is why throughout the growing season it is necessary to loosen the beds – only in the fluffy and light substrate can grow beautiful and smooth carrots.
A couple of times per season, carrots must be filled with useful micro- and macroelements. The first time they do 3 weeks after the first germination. Second time – more month later. During this period, the following compositions give a good effect:
Nitroammofoska – at the rate of 1 st. L. on the water bucket;
Wood ash – 2 glasses on the water bucket;
Complex from urea, Superphosphate and potash sulfur, taken 2 st. L. and dissolved in water bucket.
Processing from pests and diseases
The main pests of carrots are TLL and carrot fly. This pest makes the masonry in the ground next to the growing vegetable. As soon as the larvae appear, they begin to unzip small moves in the root. During the defeat, the tops begin to curly, and the root crops are cracking, become tasteless and unsuitable for use. Besides, they are kept very long.
To prevent the appearance of flies It is very important to pay attention to the observance of sowing technology, maintain the optimal humidity of the soil – Excess moisture dramatically increases the risk of pest. You can scare the insect with the help of sharply smelling compositions, for example, scatter pepper pepper in aisle, or plant velvets.
If you avoid the appearance of pests failed, you need to use special preparations “Spark”, “Alatar” or “Inta-Vir”.
Carrot often becomes a victim of rotting of all types – white, black, gray and dry. The first feature is the yellowing of the tops, if you dig such roots, you can see dark spots on them. When stored, such a carrot boils quickly.
The cause of illness becomes the wrong care. To prevent infection, it is necessary to pay attention to the pre-sowing disinfection of seeds, improve the structure and composition of the soil by making fertilizers, and also timely remove weeds. Damaged rooted roots should be removed and disposed of, healthy – for prevention to treat fungicides.
It is believed that carrots are unpretentious culture. Nevertheless, many novice gardeners often make mistakes. Their result becomes the deterioration of the taste characteristics of fruits, the focality and total yield. The violation of agricultural equipment leads to the fact that rootfields become worm, core, horny, small, curves, cracks appear on the surface, and the core whites.
List the most common mistakes.
- Use old seeds. The viability of the seed material of carrots is preserved not more than 4 years. After that, it is impossible to achieve the germination, even if you resort to the processing of growth stimulants and other ways to activate.
- Lack of loosening. The next day after irrigating the land, it certainly needs to loosen, otherwise growing root roots, simply suffocate.
- Wrong predecessors. Best of all the carrots grows and develops after gravestone crops, onions and garlic, cucumbers, as well as tomatoes and potatoes. But to plant it after umbrella, such as parsley, dill and fennel, not recommended.
- Neighborhood. Special attention should be paid to neighbors. It is noticed that if radishes, tomatoes or peas are grown near the carrot bed, the yield of root crops increases many times.
It is not recommended to plant carrots on the same plot for several years in a row. Returning it to the former place need not earlier than 3-4 seasons after 3-4.
Repeated cultivation on one bed leads to a decrease in yield, deterioration of commodity and taste characteristics of fruits. In addition, under these conditions, the culture is often amazed by carrot flock, nematode and other pests.
And in conclusion we will give several recommendations for harvesting. Most often, carrots are collected in autumn time. If the weather stands rainy, then it is necessary to dig it immediately so that the roots do not rot. But if it is dry on the street, then vegetables can be kept in the ground to the most frosts.
It is best to dig root in a clear day. Do this forks, when using shovels, high risk of damage to the vegetable. Then remove all the puffed ground, cut off the tops and dried naturally.
Store the harvest in the cellar or another dark room with a temperature not higher than +4 degrees. It is desirable that the humidity is high. To improve the bleeding, carrots in containers need to be suspended with sawdust or river sand.