The proper formation of bushes is one of the key agrotechnical techniques in the cultivation of cucumbers. It allows you to set a certain direction of Rosta Lian, which helps the plant to send the maximum forces to the harvest, and not on the development of green mass. That is why it is important to know when and how exactly the cucumbers should be formed. The choice of a specific way to design a cucumber bush depends primarily on the varietal features of the plant.
It is worth noting that there are general principles of such procedures, but at the same time there are certain nuances characteristic of beeland, parthenicarpical and hybrid species.
The need for procedure
If you learn how to fulfill all the procedures correctly and in a timely manner, you can count on a large harvest with each individual vacuum due to the formation of cucumber bushes. But it is important to take into account that the formation of this vegetable culture on the beds, that is, in the open soil, and in greenhouses are different processes that have significant differences. But in any case it is important to remember that Plants that develop by themselves, without human intervention, sooner or later will turn into real bush thickets. In such jungle, formed both in the garden and in a greenhouse, it is very difficult to carry out treatment and garter, as well as collect harvest.
The problem under consideration is the most relevant, When seedlings of branching varieties are selected for breeding cucumbers. Excessively elongated and at the same time, thin leaves of the plants will be worse and ventilated, which in itself is capable of provoking the development of many diseases. If you do not overtake certain first marks and leave on the bushes, all shoots without exception, then yield is usually significantly reduced. In such situations, the fruits will not be able to form both on the main (central) trunk and on the side pins. In parallel, the wounds can begin shirt, actively dry and end up.
Competent formation of cucumber bush contributes:
- concentrations of all cultural forces on fruiting;
- considerable improvement in light access and its uniform distribution;
- the rational use of areas in the cultivation of vegetables in greenhouses;
- a noticeable increase in the period of fruiting;
- multiple facilitating the implementation of all manipulations in the framework of landing and harvesting as it matures.
It is worth noting that Even if one of the formation stages were missed, it is necessary to eliminate the weak shoots that thicken the bushes. Inexperienced gardeners who are afraid to injure plants, it is recommended to quit during the growth of steps with urins. The implementation of the described agrotechnical reception does not provide for accurate measurements of the length of shoots using a ruler and calculating the number of nodes. It is important to remember that the existing cucumber formation schemes that exist today are conditional, since in each particular case it is necessary to take into account the features of beds or greenhouses, as well as varietal properties and shapes of landing.
By the way, the formation of bushes has both supporters and opponents. According to the opinion of the latter, the vegetable culture under consideration is capable of developing and perfectly fruit independently. And it is worth noting that such approval is fair, especially if we are talking about growing beehive varieties in the open soil. But it is important to remember that the seedlings on the garden are placed with quite large intervals, which will provide a sufficient amount of light and nutrients for all plants. Otherwise, the stems will inevitably be intertwined, and the fruits on the ground are toil.
As long-term practice shows, it is much more convenient and more efficiently growing cucumbers using a chopler and the use of the formation of bushes. This is most relevant for greenhouses, in which it most often has to face limited space. At the same time, now you can still meet the varieties of vegetables that do not need the procedures described. This, in particular, is about such hybrids as:
Listed types of cucumbers do not need human intervention. This is due to the presence of a fairly powerful central stem against the background of short and weakly developing lateral shoots.
At the moment, you can easily find a step-by-step instruction, in which the entire process of forming a cucumber bush will be described in detail so that in the end there was little weave. The choice of a specific method depends on the varieties and conditions of plant content. It is clear that when growing vegetables on the windowsill, in greenhouses and in the beds, the approach to the formation will be different. However, there are general rules.
- All necessary operations aimed at forming bushes should be carried out on time.
- In order to ensure full-fledged air access to roots and prevent the competitive struggle of plants for light and nutrition, it is impossible to force the bottom.
- The central stem should be directed strictly up.
- The formation of thick thickets along the grinding construction is unacceptable.
- Works on the formation of bushes is best done in the morning so that the wounders can be filled and heal during the daylight.
- Empties, as well as dry or sick shoots and leaves to cut and suffer daily, not leaving hemp.
- For trimming is used exceptionally acute, correctly sharpened and disinfected tool. Breaking breaks often leads to serious damage, and often the death of the plant.
- During the pinching, the tip of the shoots is removed directly in order not to apply unreparable damage.
- It is strongly recommended as little to turn the vacuum as possible, because the cucumbers may be painful to react to it.
- One of the key points is the right watering. Watering cucumbers in the leaves can not, because in this case only spraying is allowed. The temperature of the water used varies in the range from 22 to 24 degrees. It is extremely undesirable to irrigate the warm soil with cold water.
It is important to remember that at all stages of growth and the development of vegetable culture, it is necessary to delete dried and affected leaves, antennae and shoots to the formation of bushes in a timely manner;.
Special attention deserves the moment related to the cropping of leaves from cucumbers. It is no secret that it is in them the photosynthesis is carried out, which is necessary for the uncess and ripening of fruits. In the context of the formation, it is necessary to use the rule, according to which each zazach must necessarily be a leaflet responsible for the power.
Based on the above, it is allowed to remove already mentioned defective, as well as leaves that thicken the landing and prevent its normal ventilation. First of all, cut into the foliage at the very bottom, that is, lying on Earth. After moving to the removal of lateral shoots, on which the crop of cucumbers was previously removed. Such an approach allows you to create in landings as comfortable for plants microclimate. It is important to remember that the leaflets are cut off, not leaving the cuffs.
Formation of different varieties
At the moment, the agrarians use different ways of formation, the choice of which is determined by several key factors. It is worth considering the classic version of the described agrotechnical reception aimed at increasing the yield of popular vegetable culture. It is relevant for both modern beehustic species and hybrids belonging to parthenocarpical.
It is important to note that the universal method is suitable for plants, in which women’s flowers are formed both on the central stem and side shoots. If, in the process of growth, it was revealed that at the level of 6 or 7 sheets there are no wounds, and exclusively male flowers are formed, then you can remove the main stem, leaving a couple of the most strong side. They are fixed on the cholera and remove the growth points after the 5th sheet. Another key point is that it is unacceptable to break the male colors that are necessary for pollination and formation of uncess.
The bushes of weak-intensive hybrid varieties with bakery type of flowering form, as a rule, by the so-called umbrella principle. As already noted, the working circuit is chosen according to the place of cultivation of vegetables. So, this method provides for the construction of two choler at the top of the greenhouse. The main thing is that trimming and pinching are performed in the morning with the use of acute and processed tools.
Parthenocarpic and hybrids
Initially, it is worth noting that modern hybrid varieties are distinguished by the fact that there are almost 100% of women’s flowers. It turns out that the ovary of such cucumbers are formed on the main stem. Often, such species can form several embryos in each sinus sheet. But it should be remembered that only about 1/5 of them will eventually become full fruits. The rest in the process of growing bush dried and disappear. That is why it is necessary to form hybrids and parthenokarpic grades of cucumbers.
Hybrid bushes most often form in one stem, taking into account the following important moments.
- Plants are tied up to a horizontally oriented choler in any convenient way. Do it approximately 12-15 days after planting cucumbers in the ground.
- The tops of the weaves should remain free and be able as they grow to turn around around the tied twine.
- As soon as the main escape reaches the top of the supporting structure, it must be tiered, and the topping upset or cut off.
- At the next stage, all the side stems are removed, as well as mustaches and flowers to the third leaf below.
- Shoots that grow after the specified mark, pinch. It is important to note that the harvest in such cases is formed mainly on the main plethor.
- If we are talking about long-lying grades of cucumbers, then after all the listed parts of the bush are removed until the 3rd sheet, the patching of the central stem is performing on line 3-4 sheets. The main thing is that he before it is Doros to the top of the Trelliers.
Formed later in the sinuses of the specified leaves, the shoots will need to be transferred through the holder and send towards the bed. Then they pinch them in the meter from the ground. The cucumbers themselves in such cases will be formed first on the main thing, and then on the rustic stems.
Nowadays, the popularity of cucumbers’ varieties that have a bundled, that is, bouquet fruiting is growing. Such species in each sinus forms 5 full fruits and more. As a rule, such bushes form in one whip. Their excessive thickening of side stems with an abundance of barriers leads to exhaustion, therefore, to the inevitable loss of part and a significant deterioration in the quality of the crop. The algorithm of actions in the formation of a beam cucumber bush looks like this.
- At the initial stage, after removing the fruits in the lower part of the bush, a full-scale stepping.
- As soon as the main stem will reach the trellis, this whip is thrown through it. At the same time, the stem is heading towards the Earth and as it is crushed, it is cut at an altitude of 20-30 cm from its surface.
With this formation of the cucumber bush, it fertures predominantly home whip. It is worth noting that the gardeners use another way to implement the agrotechnical event under consideration.
- Side stems are removed to the level of the chopler.
- The central escape is winding around the supporting design and complains.
- At the top of 1-2 stepsing are left, and then throw out, after the second leaflet with the bandage, pinch and go down.
Regardless of the method of forming beam cucumbers, it is pre-performing the so-called blinding of the lower sections of the stems. It is understood to remove everyone without the exception of side shoots, colors and mustaches to the level of the 3rd sheet.
In this case, we are talking about long-known traditional, as well as highly branched more modern varieties of the culture described. It is no secret that they are actively fruiting on side stems. Based on this, such bushes are formed in a few twisted.
- The central escape is repelled after 4-5 sheets.
- Pull the two stepsing at the top and send them to the opposite sides.
- The shoots are fixed (tied) and perform steaming.
- The left stems after the renunciation cut around about 1-1.5 meters from the ground.
As a result of such actions, the plant will begin evenly to close in two directions. This, in turn, will contribute to the emergence and full-fledged development of a large number of high-quality cucumbers.
There is also an alternative action. Paging the top of the main stem, that is, that of its part, where most empty-flowers are formed, it allows for the formation of the maximum number of lateral shoots. This is exactly what will be with competent leaving the key to the future abundant harvest. It is important here all new stems after 2-4 leaflets to shorten taking into account the landing thicance, as well as the degree of illumination.
Nuances of conducting the place of cultivation
As already noted, the choice of one or another method of formation is influenced by locations and conditions in which cucumbers are grown. So, if we are talking about greenhouses, then the main task will not allow the breakdown. Thick jungle with their leaves will obscure the fruits from sunlight, as well as hide them from bees and take it parallel to nutrients. At the same time, when cultivating culture on the beds, they try to make a bush to protect the harvest from temperature fluctuations.
Taking into account such features in the open ground, abundant branching varieties are more often planted. The formation of bushes in such situations has a number of important features. When building supporting structures, including the area used under the cucumbers, as well as the convenience of planting plants and harvesting.
In open soil
If you compare the varieties that are most suitable for greenhouse conditions and open beds, in the second case, preference is preferred by cucumbers for which abundant future formation is characterized. Here than the thick of the cucumber jungle, the richer and better fruiting. It is unlikely that such beds can be seen in proud loneliness. When forming such bushes, it is recommended to take into account the following most important points.
- Pinching, as a rule, do not apply.
- Flowers of both sexes appear simultaneously and in a commensurate amount on all stems.
- Fruits are formed and develop uniformly throughout the bush.
- The number of shoots is directly and directly proportional to the creation of a microclimate.
- In dense cucumber thickets, carbon dioxide is released, which is so necessary for the full growth and development of this vegetable culture.
- Long and branchy shoots are able to effectively protect the fruits from difficult weather conditions, as well as direct sunlights that can apply irreparable damage.
However, when cultivating cucumbers in the open soil should be followed by certain rules, given the supply area of plants. Speech, in particular, is about grades, for whom unnecessary long main shoots are peculiar to the detriment of the formation of uncess. These instances are usually shortened after 6-8 leaves. This leads to germination of side shoots with full and strong barriers. In other cases Additional agrotechnical operations aimed at forming bushes will not be required.
In this case, the formation of bushes is of particular importance, since it allows you to create the most favorable plant for the growth and development of the plant, as well as increase in the yield. The key to success will be compliance with certain ordinary rules. It is important to take into account the key features of cultural breeding in greenhouses.
- Nuances for implementing agrotechnical techniques will depend on whether varietal vegetables or hybrid are grown.
- In a situation with varietal samples, women’s flowers appear mainly on side stems. The main whip here performs the functions of the platform for male individuals (empty beds).
- Premature pages of the main trunk provokes the active development of lateral processes. The result of this will inevitably be the rise in landing with the subsequent development of diseases and the deterioration of yield.
In the conditions described, the bushes are formed in one whip, on which the future harvest will be concentrated. Embed to the appropriate procedures 10-15 days after the transfer of seedlings into the ground. It will be important to remember the following rules.
- All units need to be tied up at a height of 100-150 mm.
- The sleeper makes at least 1.5 m.
- Typing plants neatly, preventing tension.
- Loops around the stems of young can not be overly tightening not to damage them.
- Wrapping shoots around twine can be in any direction. It is important that the top remains free.
The next stage is the removal of all leaves without exception, as well as barriers and blossoms up to the 4th of the present. Not taken into account in this case seedlines. This procedure is referred to as blind.
It is worth noting that such measures are beneficial to the development of plants and their yields. The fact is that in the leaves of the lower row, it is most often formed by a minimum of barriers, but at the same time they take part of the nutrients.