- When need to be stolen?
- Table by geographical position
- Preparatory work
- Moisture reader
- Processing against disease
- Effective shelter methods
- Plugging soil
- Half profile
- Full shelter
- Features of the shelter of young grapes
- Shelter in areas with very harsh winter
- Shelter rules
- Whether all varieties need to be stolen?
Knowing how to hide grapes for the winter, you can confidently avoid problems with preserving its qualities. It is only necessary to figure out how to properly cover the culture when do it and how to close young grapes from the cold. Having understood with these themes, with simple and reliable ways to create fast and lightweight shelters, you can explore the additional advice for a deeper understanding of the topic.
When need to be stolen?
Accurate determination of the moment when it is time to make the shelter, it is very important. It is worth missing this period – and with hopes for a good harvest next season will have to say goodbye. First of all, it is necessary to navigate the climatic characteristics of certain regions and locations. It is not worth a hurrying with the isolation of the vine from the external environment – if it has not yet finished the natural vegetative cycle of the warm period, instead of the benefit there will be the only harm. In a very warm autumn, prematurely cradted shoots can hurt and rot.
Professional grapes begin covering work at the first autumn frosts.
Table by geographical position
The sensitivity of the vine to the cold is large enough, because in the shelter it needs throughout our country, not excluding the Black Sea coast. But still there is a gradation of the estimated deadlines. Despite the fact that in a specific season, the need for them may arise before or later, this is exactly the time when everything should be ready for work. The necessary averaged information can be seen in the table below.
It is worth considering also the features of the variety, and the nuances of a specific farm, and many other subtleties.
Shelter time and measures
Siberia and Urals
Temporary shelter at the end of September – early October, final in 30-40 days
Approximately November, three-layer defense
Usually in mid-November, with a weather adjustment, about 30 days after the end of the leaf
With the beginning of frosts on the soil
Without clear indications of dates, when the frost is 1-3 degrees
October-November, approximately 2 weeks after the end of the leaf fall and after the processing of protective compositions
Mid-end of October, sometimes a little later
Kaliningrad and Leningrad region
No later than the beginning of October
Without clear terms, immediately at the beginning of frosts
This procedure must be done after the first frosts. But it is necessary to understand that sometimes because of the weather conditions they do not occur, and the safety of green foliage does not allow to guess what to do. In this case, the “guiding star” will perform an average daily temperature index. As soon as it is no more than +10 degrees for 10 days, you can immediately begin to moisturely watering. Hurry and try to “work on ahead” is not worth.
If moisture reader is held at a temperature index from 10.1 to 14.9 degrees, then it is simply unnecessary water consumption. If the temperature will be even higher – the kidney growth will begin prematurely, which should normally develop the fruits for the next year. Then you will have to part with thoughts about the crop, and sometimes – and with the bush itself. But just define a suitable term – this is not all. Novice gardeners and grapes often can not decide how much water you need to pour.
Allow this problem is very simple: you need to focus on how much you can pour under the bush. Ideally, it is necessary to pour water until it stops into the ground and the formation of a pozhitsa will not begin. However, such an opportunity, provided by the trunk water supply or an individual well, is not everywhere. Therefore, in some cases, a kind of compromise is the use of 100 liters of water for 1 adult plant. With this minimum flow, it is possible to provide a normal wintering.
Young grape pig is charged with water at the rate of 30-50 liters per cot. However, if any opportunity it is necessary to exceed these indicators. Perennial practices of various farms stably demonstrates that the more “charge” grapes moisture, the easier it is winter and more efficiently fertile in the next season. After the solid rain, if the earth is moistened with 0.6-0.8 m (it is necessary to check, and not evaluate on the eye on the surface), special waterproofing irrigation is not needed.
If the moisturization is less, it will not be able to do without it.
This procedure should be started immediately after the harvest is removed. The dedication of foliage should be determined so that each falling leaf makes useful substances to the ground, and not exhausted, as usual is the end of the summer. Usually autumn feeding comes down to spraying with a solution of magnesia. Only potash monophosphate is laid in the ground.
Increase dose not worth. Inexperienced gardeners are often trying to introduce various fertilizers in possible larger quantities. Nothing but harm to the plant can not give. Because of the excessive amount of phosphorus, for example, vegetation is braked. The optimal amounts of any drugs are indicated on the package, they are worked out on experience and analyzed dozens of trained professionals.
Grapes often give preference to compost and manure. This is also quite good practice, besides, ideally inscribed in the latest trends in organic farming. Dry Methods of Making Houring assumes that it will simply go to the root ring. The “sealing of the pit” method implies the maximum approach to the root.
In front of the winter itself, you can make a certain amount of ash under the grape vine.
Processing against disease
It is conducted in two stages. First, as soon as the harvest is assembled, insecticide. You can adhere to the maximum allowed dosage and concentration – anyway there is no longer no risk, and the less harmful insects perims, the better. You can choose the drug to your taste. A very good option is the “Aktara”, which is also used for many other plants. If the vineyard has fun in the warm months, the insecticides are combined with fungicides, but with forced treatment in relatively warm still, the weather should be given preference to the bordeaux mixture and other substances with a gentle effect.
From progressive means to combat threats, grapework can use:
- Degtyar soap;
- ash solution;
- Table vinegar;
- potassium permanganate;
- ordinary economic soap;
- Hydrogen peroxide (but all these options other than the last, very weak).
Approach the vine with a secateur in hands only after the last leaflet falls on the ground. Even deformed and partially dried leaves continue to perform their function to some extent – and we must give them the main thing to the end. Pruning in crude weather is categorically undesirable. The only excuse for her will be the situation when there is no other time when they charged the chain rains, for example.
The accurate moment of trimming in the fall is determined taking into account the geographical location of the vineyard:
- In the North Caucasus region – the last third of the fall;
- in the vicinity of Moscow – October;
- For Siberian, Ural, Far Eastern Gardeners, it turns out to be optimal.
No matter how sorry there was a time, it is very important to wipe and disinfect the secateurs when switching to each new bush. Vine infection can occur very easy. The treatment of the transferred infection will be extremely difficult, sometimes it is impossible at all. So as not to wipe, you can simply keep ready when working with alcohol jar. There is enough to plunge the tool to eliminate all infectious factors.
The earliest bushes in the early years of development should be trimmed very carefully. Only 2 or 3 kidneys leave. The barrel in length must match the dimensions of the Toplar. External kidneys with good development vine do not need to cut. In adult grape bushes, all the awesome thin branches cut out, the hemp should not remain.
Sometimes you have to work with a seriously launched grape bush. It is necessary to navigate to the thickness of the biggest branch with many years of wood. It is necessary to understand that even a well-developed root system is not capable of supplying nutrients of 5 or more grape vines. You need to delete the oldest and youngest branches.
The formation of the vine in the arch does not require shorting, it should only be sent.
Effective shelter methods
The cover of the grapes is easier than other options. This method is suitable for the plants of the first year of development. The magnitude of the earthen embankment should be 200-250 mm. In the formation of a reliable snow cover, this defense is quite sufficient.
When working with more developed bushes, it is necessary to preserve straw, rag, plastic bottles.
This method is quite good if the average temperature for the winter is not lower than -15 degrees. The half-section is constructed from rags, straws and similar items. It turns out in the end simply and reliably. It is only necessary to make a cocoon layer 30-50 mm.
Recommended drapery with twine; The problem is that such solutions will not cope if frosts will be too strong.
This is the most serious solution that requires the maximum consumption of materials and their careful selection. You need to use complete shelter even in places with relatively weak cold, if the thickness of the snow is relatively small. The usual approach implies the placement of 1 cm of the passing material for 1 degree below zero degrees. That is, in Siberia, in the Urals and in the Far East, the shelter should be at least 50 cm. Create it only in dry days.
It is necessary to understand with some intricacies of the application of specific underfloor materials. Often to protect grapes in winter use foliage. This method is particularly well manifested in the northern regions, where the earthen protection is ineffective.
Recommendations are as follows:
- to harvest the leaves in advance (the best topicoline);
- keep them in the boots with a height of 40-45 cm under a polyethylene cover;
- Pulse after the start of frosting vine directly to the ground, without any grooves;
- Upon the occurrence of serious frosts to cover the bush of 30-35 cm of leaves, then polyethylene, then the top of the tomatoes and other materials that improve the retention of snow.
Part of people use husk. Such material is easily accessible in any wooded area. The layer of the laps should be 30-40 cm. In such a shelter, harmful rodents. It provides excellent ventilation, however, it is not possible to find the appropriate material everywhere.
But in any place it is not difficult to buy spunbond. Agrofibra works well in itself works in relatively warm places. In the colder regions it can be used in a mulch and other auxiliary materials. Spanband shelter is compatible with the placement of grapes directly on the trellis.
But in any case, it should be fixed very reliable – otherwise even the weakest wind will be an unpleasant surprise.
Features of the shelter of young grapes
You can perform this job quickly and easily, if you consider basic recommendations. The plants of the first year, as well as annual cultures, should be protected as soon as the average daily temperature drops below +5 degrees. These are especially gentle plants, and extra precautions will not interfere. Undercalinking young pins is held in a maximum of 3 weeks before the arrival of frosts. You can even do it before – all will benefit plants.
But some recommend not to feed young bushes at all with the approach of winter. Pruning them is also contraindicated. The best way of isolation is high glue. In areas with a cold climate, it is necessary to use foliage or husknik.
Voh itself under such protection to additionally wrap is not required.
Shelter in areas with very harsh winter
Such conditions forced to use three-layer heat shield. Start with sprinkles soil to height 50-150 mm. Next is 50-100 mm organic. And last of all form an earth in a layer of 150-250 mm. With a steady lack of snow in winter, it is advisable to pour wide rollers from the soil. To protect the roots from frosts, a mulch is laid – reed, peat, straw or dry garden grass; Oslennaya paper does not fit at all.
Do not think that if grapes are grown in a greenhouse, it automatically solves the whole problem. Cooking for wintering about the same as in open areas. Previously, you need to shoot with a sleeper all bushes. They are treated with iron vigor. The shelter form strictly from natural tissues – in the greenhouse any synthetic is unacceptable.
With full shelter after the end of the shower of foliage, the bush is cut to the desired size. After the fabric put the film. Then the plant to the soil is pressed by special brackets. So that it does not straighten, soil poured. Its layer, depending on the power of frosts, can reach 300 mm.
If a strong cold does not occur, the shelter must be ventilated. Emergency protection in case of unexpectedly coming harsh frosts – grape pressing to soil and ground belling. Excessively severe thermal insulation is inexpedient, otherwise the plants will hide. It is not suitable for her, which was originally close to the bushes.
Of course, it is necessary to think carefully everything, follow the weather.
Whether all varieties need to be stolen?
Technical and individual universal grape varieties are theoretically can overreim if the temperature is not lower than -20 degrees. Good frost resistance differ:
However, we must take into account the real rigidity of the weather, and not just temperature indexes. In the southern regions of the country many varieties can actually winter without shelter. But it is better to be reinforced and take care of plants. Sometimes even the preserved purely physiologically culture after moving will not please the harvest. Such an outcome is hardly pleased with the gardeners.
It is impossible to allow the bush to touch the earth. With any observing work, you need to protect the root system. Harding and ready for undergraduate procedures, a bustice has a light brown bark. When using the film, it must be fixed:
- natural stone;
If the grape landings are oriented to the north, fall under the dominant direction of winds, or if the site is very moistened – the heat protection must be more powerful than by the usual version. Tight enveloping the vine with films, other waterproof materials unacceptably. They definitely do a vent hole or even two such channels. With the insulation of grape bushes in the open area (not in the greenhouse), the snow layer should be at least 50 cm.
If the vine does not rummage, did not conquer to the required moment, it is digging and transplanted into a pot. The pot holders all winter in moderate warmth (from 10 to 15 degrees). In some cases, slate uses slate. Reduce the likelihood of debate helps. You can remove the heat insulation not before April – but it is permissible only when there is no danger of fast frosts.
Grapes growing on a gazebo – a separate important topic. The shelter even the young large vine is very difficult. A few years after landing, it is already almost unattainable. Will have to choose the most frost-resistant varieties.
But even this does not allow growing culture on arbors somewhere except the most southern regions.
About how to cover the young bust of grapes for the winter in the year of planting, you can learn from the video below.