Leafy shrub with berries of thick blue color is increasingly found in garden sites in the middle lane of Russia. From the forest berries of blueberries becomes a delicacy that is grown in areas many gardeners. In recent years, many varieties of cultural selection appeared, which perfectly feel in a moderate and unclear climate of the Moscow region.
Plants are well taken out in the gardens and give abundant crops sweet, but a small-calorie berry with a pleasant, gentle taste.
Wild blueberries grows throughout the huge territory of Eurasia, on the mainland of North America, in Iceland and Japan. Shrub prefers places, quite remote from industrial civilization and megalopolises. Varieties of culture are distinguished by the deadlines of the fruction, the dimensions of the bush, the yield and flavor of fruits. Of great importance for gardeners are unpretentious, resistance to frost and diseases that have different blueberry varieties also differ.
Among the most popular grades of garden blueberries in the Moscow region, you can pay attention to Elliot, Bluets, Bonus, “Elizabeth”, “Aurora”, “Toro”, “Spartan”, “Flamingo” and “Duke”. Lover gardeners when buying and choosing garden varieties should be included in large nurseries specializing in growing rare plants that have proven themselves in the market of seedlings.
The wide spread of blueberries in the gardens of the Moscow region is at the initial stage, so the best varietal seedlings are common.
The demand for a utility and tasty berry is constantly growing, and more and more landlord owners want to see this delicious and very useful product, which is suitable for dietary food. Everyone can choose the variety that is most suitable for maturation and other features.
- “Elizabeth” – self-polling hybrid, which in the presence of other varieties for additional pollination shows great productivity. It is distinguished by stability to many diseases, among which phytoofluorosis and root rot. Well tolerate winter frosts up to -30 degrees, but poorly developing on sandy soils, preferring peatlands. Berries are large, light blue, with a pleasant aroma, but too gentle for long-term storage.
- “Blussher” – Bushes of this reference for the middle strip of varieties grow up to 1.5-2 meters. Mid-line variety is famous for excellent adaptation to any conditions and resistant to strong frosts up to -30-35 degrees. Resistance to drought, on the other hand, turns into the lag in development on wet soils. Young shoots sometimes get sick and require trimming. Yield is very high not only due to the number of berries, but also because of their size – up to 2 cm in diameter. The taste of light blue fruits is remembered by an excellent aroma and easy tartness.
- “DUK” – medium and high-resistant grade, whose bushes grow to 1.5-1.8 meters and form many side shoots. Blossom of shrub begins late, which guarantees the preservation of the groes formed after the threat of spring frosts. The grade is bad to carry wet and cold places in lowlands, but resistant to winter temperatures up to -34 degrees. Berries are suitable for storage and transportation, possess a pleasant sour sweet taste.
- “Aurora” – the variety of late ripening time, regularly brings abundant yields, especially when crosstally pollination on the site. The hybrid is resistant to frosts up to -30 degrees and has a long season of vegetation. Bushes are growing up with reprehensive, medium heights (up to 1.4 meters) and spread. Berries of this variety ripen to autumn and differ in beautiful light blue, bright aroma and dessert sweet taste.
Well tolerate transportation, used in fresh, frozen and processed form.
- “Blue Ray” – Mid-fledged hybrid variety, is well tolerating frost to -25 degrees. Fruit over a stretched period of time and prefers dry, solar places. Fruits spit in compressed short brushes and have up to 2 cm in diameter. Taste sweet, fragrant and memorable. Shrub can be planted as a decorative plant, which at the beginning of autumn changes the color of foliage on red.
When and where to plant?
Blueberry is very demanding on cultivation conditions and can just die if it does not fit the place and landing time, as well as agrotechnical techniques. To create comfortable conditions for growing blueberry bushes bringing large and stable yields, you must first get acquainted with the rules for landing and care, so that from the first days of the life of plants in the garden not to make irreparable mistakes.
You need to start with the choice of high-quality seedlings purchased from reliable manufacturers, in large planting material breeding enterprises. When buying each plant should look healthy and possess a well-developed root system.
At the same time, it should be prepared for planting young plants. Blueberry in natural conditions prefers outdoor sunshines located on elevations. The absence of the required amount of lighting is adversely affected by the health and yield of plants. At the same time, a fairly open place, away from high trees and shadows, should not be bludge through the wind.
Therefore, on the north side, the landing of berries ideally should be closed by a wall of construction or a solid fence.
Another reason for breeding garden blueberries in the distance from fruit trees is competition between them against water intake. The root system of bushes is developing in such a way that the bulk of the roots lies at the surface of the soil. For this reason, the plant is not terrible with excess soil waters, but may miss moisture from the upper layers of the soil.
Special attention should be paid to the timing of landing sorts of garden blueberries. With the autumn landing of the seedlings of the first harvest, you can wait for the next year. Planted in spring, young plants are worse and come into fruiting from the second year of life in a permanent place. Saplings with an open root system planted in autumn, have time to root before the onset of winter cold and the subsequent season of vegetation. It does not matter much the duration of planting plants in open ground, if they are with a closed root system.
Drought-resistant garden blueberry plants should disembark in open soil with good drainage qualities, since the stagnation of water and the overalling of the upper layers of the Earth can lead to the disease and death of the bushes. For this reason, peatlands, which are often found in the suburbs are most suitable for blueberries. If the soil consists of clay layers, the landing site for blueberries must be prepared specifically. For this, there are rules that are performed in a certain sequence.
- Thinks in the ground of a round or square shape, a value of 0.8-0.9 meters, at least 0.5 meters should be digging, at a depth of.
- To get the necessary drainage layer, it is necessary to make a fertile soil to mix with sawdust and bark of coniferous trees, adding crushed twigs and moss.
- Mineral fertilizers need to be added to the pit, and the special emphasis on the content of sulfur and nitrogen.
- To create the desired soil acidity, the optimal value of which for blueberries is 4.5 pH indicator, you can add to the soil for backfilling a table vinegar or citric acid solution. For these purposes also use special ready-made mixtures. Because of the increased acidity, the leaves of seedlings can become red before the autumn.
After preparing the pits, it remains to put plants correctly, placing them with rows. The distance between the bushes for tall varieties is 1.5 meters, and for low – 1 meter. Between the rows it is necessary to leave the passages width to 2 meters, regardless of the type of varietal blueberries. A plant is installed in the hole, straightening the root system, fall asleep with the prepared soil and mulch the rolling colors, abundantly watering seedlings.
Garden Blueberry is considered an unpretentious plant. If the main landing conditions are met and simple agrotechnical rules are made, the plant will rely for many years to please the owners of the site with delicious and healthy fruits.
Among the peculiarities of growing hybrid blueberry varieties is of great importance. After planting under the seedlings, it is necessary to make water every 2-3 days, and under adult plants – on average 2 times a week. In the height of the summer heat you need to often water the plants, and at regular time it regularly moisten the soil in the root zone. In especially dry periods of the summer season, it is useful to spray blueberries with clean water before sunset.
Mulching, weeding and loosening
Immediately after planting seedlings in spring, you should mulch the soil around the trunk. For this take coniferous sawdust, crushed boring or fallen needles. This mulch material must be reworked. Such protection is necessary for the roots that are located close to the surface of the Earth, as it helps to keep moisture in the soil.
If weeds are still sprouting through a layer of mulch, then they must be pulled out regularly, periodically producing careful and shallow loosening, so as not to damage the root system of blueberries.
Falker and acidification of the soil
The uniqueness of agrotechnology when careing for blueberries is the need to regularly acidify the soil around the bushes, in cases where the land on the site has neutral pH indicators.
Experienced gardeners know that when combating the tillage of the soil, it is not necessary to acquire chemicals, and you can use the folk secrets of preparation of sour solution from natural raw materials.
For this, they take acid, rhubarb and sornery, crush a large bundle of these plants and prepare a peculiar compote that insists in 10 liters of water, for 3 hours. So in the same way can water blueberries, not diluting it with water. You can also use citric acid or insist water bucket on one crushed lemon.
The first fertilizer application is usually produced 2 weeks after planting seedlings or cuttings. To do this, one teaspoon of ammonium sulfate, superphosphate and potassium sulfate is put on one water bucket of water. Under each bush poured 1 liter of the solution, and in another 2 weeks you can pour a bushes with a diluted organic. Autumn blueberries fertilize phosphorus potassium composition.
Feed blueberries 3 times throughout the vegetative season. Special types of mineral fertilizers are sold in gardeners, where everything is balanced for blueberries, including acidic effect. Minerals for this culture can be found in packages under the names of Biopon, Planton, Florovit, Target and others. If the area of accommodation fails to find feeding specifically for blueberries, then close in composition is a compost fertilizer for azalea plant.
The first time the blueberry bushes are cut immediately after landing, shortening side shoots. Adult plants subjected to trimming 2 times a year. The main procedure for the formation of the crown is carried out in the middle of spring, when the frozen, patients and spent last year’s shoots are removed. In the fall, after completion of fruiting, make preliminary cleaning of the plant from patients, broken and undeveloped twigs.
Annual shoots, settled in strong growth, it is recommended to quit, which contributes to their faster aging. At the age of 5-6 years, garden blueberries is undergoing general trimming in order to form a crown, which will later become the main shape of the bush.
Preparation for winter
Most blueberry varieties transfers the harsh winters of the Moscow region with a decrease in temperature to -30 degrees. However, it is necessary to care for garden varieties, prepare them for winter, to cover the case of windy and no bad weather.
To protect the bushes put metal arcs along rows of landing, throwing non-woven materials on them or ordinary burlap. Such barriers perform the task of additional shelter and insulation.
We must not forget that the lack or excess acidity sharply reduces the resistance to the blueberries to freezes, since the roots are in the oppressed state.
Diseases and pests
All hybrid sorts of garden blueberries may be ill characteristic of cultural types of bacterial, viral or fungal diseases. Gray rotes infects plants if they are weakened with excessive humidity. In such cases, the treatment of the drainage system and the treatment of the stem with the Euraphen preparation will be.
Young seedlings are sometimes covered with swollen stains of red, which indicates about infection by fizzlospose. The only way to combat the disease is the pruning of patients with stalks. Signs of moniliosis are expressed in the downtry foliage of the plant, and this disease is treated with the help of a universal drug “Topaz”.
The emerging diseases of the garden blueberries are treated with timely spraying of the bushes insecticidal and fungicidal drugs that are actively struggling with tool, colorful and kidney tick. Preventive treatment with burgue fluid.